ISSUE-94 Change Proposal


    Split the material related to the browsing context into a separate
specification, reducing the existing HTML5 specification to covering
HTML, XHTML, and the DOM, only.


The following is my initial request that led to this issue[1]

    Currently the HTML5 specification contains a section, Section 6, devoted
    specifically to browsers. The section also notes that though it is
focused on
    browsers, requirements in the section apply to all user agents, not just
    browsers, unless otherwise noted.

    Though browsers are a major user agent for HTML/XHTML, they are not the only
    user agents. In particular, ebook technology is dependent on
XHTML, and forms a
    completely different class of user agents than browsers. In
addition, there are
    email applications that exist outside of browsers that also make use of
    HTML/XHTML, in addition to some word processing software.

    Though the section does provide a good reverse engineering of browser
    technology, the section has little or nothing to do with HTML, in
general. In
    addition, it also has little to do with the Document Object Model, which is
    based on the HTML syntax, not objects implemented by various browsers.

    Including this section greatly extends the HTML5 specification beyond the
    charter, and beyond boundaries one can reasonably expect from an
effort focused
    on HTML, both the XML serialization and non-XML serialization, and
the DOM. In
    addition, by focusing the specification primarily towards browsers, we are
    limiting the usefulness of the HTML specification for other uses,
both now, and
    in the future for ebooks, as well as other new technologies.

    This is counter to good, technology practices. Consider how a programmer
    creates an application. They look for opportunities to create
reusable objects,
    which they then use to create any number of applications, not just one. We
    should follow the same philosophy when creating a new version of
HTML: restrict
    our effort to a new version of HTML, its serialization in XML, and the DOM.
    This will include new elements, such as video, which may not be
useful for all
    variations of user agents, but the concept behind the new elements
still fits
    within our perceptions of what we would reasonably expect from an HTML

    Simplifying the HTML5 specification in this way will greatly increase its
    usability by many user agents, not just browsers. A standardized
BOM (Browser
    Object Model) can reference the HTML, true, but so can other specifications,
    such as ePub (for eBooks) and so on.

    In addition, browser technology expands at a faster pace than that for the
    underlying HTML specification. By separating Section 6 out, it can then be
    incorporated into a new effort that can be focused specifically on
the class of
    user agents, browsers. This new effort won't then be dependent on the same
    release cycle as HTML.

    I can see no negative ramifications from this change. Not only
would it reduce
    the boundaries of the HTML5 specification to those that that one would
    reasonably expect, the separated section could then be used to
seed a new, more
    targeted effort. As there is work on an ePub specification, there
could also be
    work for the equivalent browser specification.

The end result of this request was a odd sequence of events where the
HTML5 Editor split apart the W3C version of the HTML5 specification,
but not specifically along browsing context line. This is also when
the WhatWG version of the HTML5 specification began to strongly
diverge from the W3C version.

The split apart parts were put back together again, but then the
original Section 6 was split into two sections, Section 5 and 6. No
rationale was given for not meeting my request, so I can't reproduce

The concept of a Browser Object Model is not new. If you search on the
term, you'll find hundreds of references, including discussion about
how it, unlike the DOM, is not defined within any formal
specification. A formal specification is needed, though, and I agree
with the work begun in this group. I just don't believe that the HTML5
specification is the place for this work, because the BOM, which
includes objects like Window, History, Navigator, Timers, and so on,
is not specific to HTML, XHTML, or the DOM. SVG is also dependent on
the BOM, as is any script enabled document that could potentially be
opened in a browser-like object.

Splitting out the non-HTML/XHTML/DOM bits isn't going to be easy,
because there's a great deal of interwoven coverage of these items all
throughout the specification. We could make the split based on
script-enabled agent versus not, but this doesn't make a lot of sense
if the DOM is a valid component of the HTML5 specification. A split
along the lines of requirements for scripting-enabled user agents, as
compared to all user agents, is also not a matter of moving a couple
of sections. For instance, in Section 3, titled Semantics, Structure,
and APIs of all HTML documents, subsection 3.1.2 states:

"User agents must raise a SECURITY_ERR  exception whenever any of the
members of an HTMLDocument  object are accessed by scripts whose
effective script origin is not the same as the Document's effective
script origin."

It is obvious that such a stricture is targeted solely to those user
agents that support scripting, and is completely and totally
irrelevant for those that don't. This makes this stricture a good
candidate for removal to the separate scripting User Agent document,
yet isn't in the target sections first referenced in the bug and

In addition, it references HTMLDocument, which is part of the DOM,
though the behavior is more specific to browsing context. This
demonstrates how carefully a split will need to be made, with some
sections needing more in-depth discussions than others, about whether
to split out, or not.

Why does it matter to do this kind of split? Because the more
unrelated material non-scripted user agents have to wade through to
find their relevant bits, the more likely they'll miss something
important because it's entangled with all sorts of browser or other
user agent specific instructions. Conversely, burying browser context
material in with HTML makes the material harder for user agents to
update, and may hide this crucial information from web page
developers, who aren't expecting this type of information to be
included in an HTML specification.

An additional, and significant concern is that many of the
specifications related to the browsing context aren't specific to just
HTML/XHTML. They can also apply to other document types, such as SVG,
MathML, and whatever the future brings. It's not appropriate to tie
what amounts to browser behavior to one document type.

I don't think this type of split would be contentious, but I do think
it will be a lot of work. It is definitely a group effort.


OK, I've listed out the problem. Now what is a solution?

Rather than split the document based on whether the user agent is
script-enabled or not, look for material relevant to the browsing
context, whether stated or not, and mark it as a potential candidate
for movement to a separate document. Once all are marked, then it's a
matter of determining whether the section should be split or not.
That's where the group effort comes in, because frankly, the more the
relevant audience is involved, the better job it will be.

This work does amount to a major refacturing of the HTML5
specification. However, after so many changes in the last year, so
many components split out, and the ongoing discussions about whether
author guidelines should be included or not, the specification is
overdue for this type of operation.  You don't have to spend too many
hours going through the document to see the fragmented nature of the
material, and that a good, solid edit is needed. Sometimes it is
better for progress to stop, look, and think, rather than continually
move ahead.

I didn't have the time to go through the  many pages of the HTML5
specification, but did go through Sections 5 and 6, in the March 4th
published HTML5 spec. The following list of candidate items is not by
any measure complete or comprehensive, but it is a start.

    * Section 5.1 on browsing contexts. Much of this material is
Window related, and I feel comfortable that this section can be split,
in its entirety. Reworded, this could become an intro for a new
document. It does need some clean up, as it jumps about, and the text
is a little hard to follow. Some collapsing of multiple sentences into
paragraphs, rather than one sentence-one paragraph could help the

    * Section 5.2 on the Window object. This one is an excellent
candidate, and is relatively easy to follow, so shouldn't need much in
the way of editing.

    * Section 5.3 on Origin. There's nothing about the origin that's
pertinent to HTML, XHTML, or even the DOM. It's really specific to the
location, and security based on the location, which is outside the
scope of markup or a Document Object Model. It is important material,
but would be best served in the separate document. For instance, I
would say there's much in this section that would be relevant to an
SVG document.

    * Section 5.4 on Session history and navigation. Again, another
excellent candidate for removal to the new document.

    * Section 5.5 on Browsing the Web. Even without the title, you can
tell that this section is a particularly strong candidate for removal
to the new document. I have to question, though, the number of
algorithms given in the text in this and other sections: are these
really so necessary? Or are we really overspecifying, which can be
just as harmful as underspecifying? This might be a question to ask
when doing this split. There are also discussions of events, that
could be considered borderline for movement, but the events really are
related to the browsing context, not necessarily the HTML/XHTML/DOM.
It might be best to define the actions and events in the separate
document, and then ensure the section is referenced in the HTML5

    * Section 5.6 on Offline Web Applications. This is another that's
a given. There's nothing about HTML, XHTML, or the DOM that is
application specific. Something like offline web application cache is
specific to the browsing context, not the markup or the object model.
This is also the last subsection in Section 5, so all of Section 5
could be moved, with appropriate back and forth links, and editing of
the moved material.

    * Section 6.1 on Scripting should be a candidate, though this move
might require minor tweaking. There are references to DOM methods that
probably should be pulled out of the moved material and incorporated
into the HTML5 spec. Either that, or removed as unnecessary, since
these methods are defined in another W3C document. There is a section
on event handlers, but most of the section is focused on how the user
agent should process the event, not on how the event handler is
defined within HTML. The event handler section could potentially be
split, part to the browsing context document, part to remain in the
HTML5 spec. Also again, there does seem to be a great deal of
overspecification in this section, but perhaps it is necessary.

    * Section 6.2 on Timers. Oh, most definitely split to the browsing
context document. We know this is just as pertinent to SVG as HTML.

    * Section 6.3 on User Prompts. Again, a good candidate, as
relevant for SVG as HTML.

    * Section 6.4 on System state and capabilities is really about the
Navigator object, and is definitely part of the browsing context. And
this is the last subsection in Section 6, so this section could be
moved. Again, there is some editing that needs to be done, and
cross-reference links.

My first inclination was also to include Section 7.10 on the Undo
History, but this section is related to the DOM. However, Section 7.8
on Spelling and Grammar checking should also be moved. The object
referenced is the document object but the usage is pure browsing
context. I also think Section 7.9 on Drag and Drop could be a
potential candidate for movement. I don't want to lose the section,
but I think it fits within the domain of "browsing context" more aptly
than in the domain labeled "HTML/XHTML/DOM". Hard to say.

Section 7.11, the Editing APIs is a tough one. It is definitely
specific to browsing context, especially in the examples, but the
document object is the focus. I think the better way of looking at
this is, if the section is more pertinent to interacting with agents
outside the page, then it probably better fits within the browsing
context. If this is for toolbars and extensions, then it definitely
does work better in browsing context.

There are other sections, but this is a start, and I've run out of
time to go more in-depth into the document.

Though I'm a big believer in doing business on the email list, I
strongly believe this activity would be better done at a face to face
meeting, including all of the browser companies, at a minimum. This
is, in a way, the browsing company's business model.



As painful as the amount of work seems, we would have a superior set
of documents as a result. If we move the browsing context to a
separate document, it would decrease the size of the HTML5
specification, but also focus the audience within the newly separated
document. If we were to further split out authoring guidelines, and
refocus the HTML5 specification purely on HTML, XHTML, and the DOM,
we'd also be ahead, but that's outside the scope of this effort.

This type of major movement is also an excellent time to do a general
readability editó to ensure a consistent audience focus in each
section, and to work on the flow. We can get so caught up on stating
rules that we end up overwhelming the reader, even a highly technical
reader. When we do, they will unconsciously tune out the flood of
rules, and could miss very important data. We need to pad the shotgun
effect that some of the sections have, where all the rules are
given--bang, bang, bang!--one after another in a continue stream of
one sentence paragraphs, one rule per sentence. We need to flesh this
material out. so that the reader can comfortably read through the
section without becoming overwhelmed.


Time. This is a major work, though it doesn't have to be an
overwhelming work. If the group participates in the exercise, the work
can be split among many. In addition, a face-to-face could easily work
through some of the more problematical areas.

I have a feeling that in the end, the specification will progress more
swiftly making this move, than not.


This is a major work, and we're already a relatively burned out group.
I think, though, a smaller task group, consisting primarily of reps
from the browsing companies, and _some_ members from the other
communities, could progress quickly with this task. I do not think it
needs day to day oversight by the larger group.




Shelley Powers

Received on Wednesday, 31 March 2010 13:25:13 UTC