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RE: ACTION-255 - o&m alignment

From: <Simon.Cox@csiro.au>
Date: Tue, 7 Feb 2017 22:26:55 +0000
To: <public-sdw-wg@w3.org>
Message-ID: <7c959448a81a42c1aad076f91fe2380c@exch1-mel.nexus.csiro.au>
I've dropped it into a Wiki page here (formatting not yet complete).

https://www.w3.org/2015/spatial/wiki/Alignment_to_O%26M

This should help with your namespace and prefix questions Laurent.

From: Simon.Cox@csiro.au [mailto:Simon.Cox@csiro.au]
Sent: Wednesday, 8 February, 2017 08:35
To: public-sdw-wg@w3.org
Subject: [ExternalEmail] RE: ACTION-255 - o&m alignment

If you are unable to see the section in the HTML in the branch, here is the proposed text:

-----------------------

8. Alignment to Observations and Measurements

This section introduces the alignment of SOSA/SSN to OGC Observations and Measurements [OandM] (also known as ISO 19156:2011).

O&M is specified as a UML model, following the patterns specified in ISO 19109 Geographic Information - Rules for Application Schema [ISO-19109]. This means that the classes represent concepts from the application domain, so can be approximately equated with classes in an ontology.

Two OWL implementations of O&M have been described:

an explicit translation of the UML following the rules specified in [ISO-19150-2] - see [OM-Heavy]; and
a handcrafted version in more idiomatic OWL [OM-Lite].
The following sections provide two mappings or alignments between SOSA/SSN and O&M: the first with the official ISO/OGC UML conceptual model, and the second with the lightweight OWL implementation.

8.1 Alignment to Observations and Measurements UML model

This section is non-normative.

The explicit translation generates an RDF entity for every class, class attribute, and association-role from the original O&M UML model. It comes at a cost of a large set of dependencies on similar OWL translations of other UML models from the ISO 19100 series. Nevertheless, the URI for each RDF entity is a convenient identifier to elements of the UML model. These can be used to identify the elements of O&M in a formal RDF/OWL alignment.

Rules for generating the URIs are provided in [ISO-19150-2], and appear in the official OWL implementation of ISO 19156 (O&M) maintained by the ISO/TC 211 Group on Ontology Management.

The following namespace prefixes are used in the alignment to SOSA.

Prefix   Namespace
sosa:    http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa/
sosa-om:          http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa-om#
iso19156-gfi:   http://def.isotc211.org/iso19156/2011/GeneralFeatureInstance#
iso19156-om:  http://def.isotc211.org/iso19156/2011/Observation#
iso19156-sf:     http://def.isotc211.org/iso19156/2011/SamplingFeature#
iso19156-sfs:   http://def.isotc211.org/iso19156/2011/SpatialSamplingFeature#
iso19156-sp:    http://def.isotc211.org/iso19156/2011/Specimen#
Utility classes

Five utiity classes are defined locally to support the formalization of the alignment.

1. Three disjoint subclasses of sosa:Procedure:

sosa-om:ActuationProcedure Actuation procedures or recipes
sosa-om:ObservationProcedure         Observation procedures or recipes
sosa-om:SamplingProcedure  Sampling, sample preparation or processing procedures or recipes
2. Two classes related to sampling, which complement SOSA classes related to actuation and observation:

sosa-om:SamplingDevice        Sampling, sample preparation or processing devices, comparable to sosa:Actuator and sosa:Sensor
sosa-om:SamplingEvent          Sampling, sample preparation or processing event or act, comparable to sosa:Actuation and sosa:Observation
Class alignments

The primary classes from [OandM] have direct equivalents in SOSA classes supplemented by the utility classes described above, as follows:

iso19156-om:OM_Observation          equivalent class          sosa:Observation
iso19156-om:OM_Process      equivalent class          sosa:Sensor or sosa-om:ObservationProcedure
iso19156_sf:SF_SamplingFeature       equivalent class          sosa:Sample
iso19156-sf:SF_Process           equivalent class          sosa-om:SamplingDevice or sosa-om:SamplingProcedure
Additional alignments from SOSA/SSN classes to O&M classes are as follows.

sosa:FeatureOfInterest           subclass of       iso19156_gfi:GFI_DomainFeature
where iso19156_gfi:GFI_DomainFeature has the definition:

The class GFI_DomainFeature represents 'real-world' features which are the ultimate subject of an observation campaign, i.e. the features from an application domain that are not artefacts of the observation process (sampling features).
sosa:Actuator  subclass of       iso19156_gfi:GFI_Feature
sosa:Platform  subclass of       iso19156_gfi:GFI_Feature
where iso19156_gfi:GFI_Feature has the definition

The class GFI_Feature represents the set of all classes which are feature types. In an implementation this abstract class shall be substituted by a concrete class representing a feature type from an application schema associated with a domain of discourse (ISO 19109, ISO 19101).
Property alignments

The following properties from [OandM] have direct equivalents in SOSA properties:

iso19156-om:OM_Observation.featureOfInterest     equivalent property    sosa:hasFeatureOfInterest
iso19156-om:OM_Observation.observedProperty    equivalent property    sosa:observedProperty
iso19156-om:OM_Observation.phenomenonTime    equivalent property    sosa:phenomenonTime
iso19156-sf:SF_SamplingFeature.sampledFeature    equivalent property    sosa:isSampleOf
Additional alignments from O&M properties to SOSA are as follows.

iso19156-om:OM_Observation.procedure    sub-property of           sosa:usedProcedure
iso19156-sp:SF_Specimen.samplingMethod  sub-property of           sosa:usedProcedure
These alignments are modeled as sub-properties because sosa:usedProcedure applies to actuation, observation or sampling activities.

iso19156-om:OM_Observation.result            sub-property of           sosa:hasResult
iso19156-om:OM_Observation.resultTime    sub-property of           sosa:resultTime
iso19156-sp:SF_Specimen.samplingTime       sub-property of           sosa:resultTime
iso19156-sp:PreparationStep.time     sub-property of           sosa:resultTime
These alignments are modeled as sub-properties because sosa:hasResult and sosa:resultTime applies to actuation, observation or sampling activities.

iso19156-sfs:SF_SpatialSamplingFeature.hostedProcedure   sub-property of           sosa:hosts
These alignments are modeled as a sub-property because the domain of iso19156-sfs:SF_SpatialSamplingFeature.hostedProcedure is a spatial sampling feature, such as a station, rather than a more general platform.

An RDF file containing a graph corresponding to this alignment is available.

8.2 Alignment to om-lite implementation of Observations and Measurements

This section is non-normative.

An idiomatic OWL implementation of O&M (including Sampling Features) is described in [OM-Lite].

The following namespace prefixes are used in the alignment to SOSA.

Prefix   Namespace
sosa:    http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa/
sosa-oml:         http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa-oml#
oml:     http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#
samfl:  http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/sam-lite#
Utility classes

Five utiity classes are defined locally to support the formalization of the alignment.

1. Three disjoint subclasses of sosa:Procedure:

sosa-oml:ActuationProcedure Actuation procedures or recipes
sosa-oml:ObservationProcedure        Observation procedures or recipes
sosa-oml:SamplingProcedure Sampling, sample preparation or processing procedures or recipes
2. Two classes related to sampling, which complement SOSA classes related to actuation and observation:

sosa-oml:SamplingDevice       Sampling, sample preparation or processing devices, comparable to sosa:Actuator and sosa:Sensor
sosa-oml:SamplingEvent         Sampling, sample preparation or processing event or act, comparable to sosa:Actuation and sosa:Observation
Class alignments

The primary classes from [OM-Lite] have direct equivalents in SOSA classes supplemented by the utility classes described above, as follows:

oml:Observation         equivalent class          sosa:Observation
oml:Process     equivalent class          sosa:Sensor or sosa-om:ObservationProcedure
samfl:SamplingFeature           equivalent class          sosa:Sample
samfl:Process  equivalent class          sosa-om:SamplingDevice or sosa-om:SamplingProcedure
Property alignments

The following properties from [OM-Lite] have direct equivalents in SOSA properties:

oml:featureOfInterest equivalent property    sosa:hasFeatureOfInterest
oml:observedProperty            equivalent property    sosa:observedProperty
oml:phenomenonTime           equivalent property    sosa:phenomenonTime
samfl:sampledFeature            equivalent property    sosa:isSampleOf
Additional alignments from [OM-Lite] properties to SOSA are as follows.

oml:procedure            sub-property of           sosa:usedProcedure
samfl:samplingMethod           sub-property of           sosa:usedProcedure
These alignments are modeled as sub-properties because sosa:usedProcedure applies to actuation, observation or sampling activities.

oml:result        sub-property of           sosa:hasResult
oml:resultTime           sub-property of           sosa:resultTime
samfl:samplingTime   sub-property of           sosa:resultTime
These alignments are modeled as sub-properties because sosa:hasResult and sosa:resultTime applies to actuation, observation or sampling activities.

samfl:hostedProcedure           sub-property of           sosa:hosts
These alignments are modeled as a sub-property because the domain of iso19156-sfs:SF_SpatialSamplingFeature.hostedProcedure is a spatial sampling feature, such as a station, rather than a more general platform.

An RDF file containing a graph corresponding to this alignment is available.


From: Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton)
Sent: Tuesday, 7 February, 2017 15:58
To: 'Simon.Cox@csiro.au' <Simon.Cox@csiro.au<mailto:Simon.Cox@csiro.au>>; public-sdw-wg@w3.org<mailto:public-sdw-wg@w3.org>
Subject: RE: ACTION-255 - o&m alignment

Note that this mapping is only from SOSA to O&M (and om-lite).

I also intend to look at the mapping from 'SSN' (i.e. the vertical axiomatization/extension) of SOSA for observations and sensing through to O&M. Much of the intended alignment was captured in annotations in the original ontology, but the discussions in the last week suggest that some local-names might change else SOSA classes and properties used in place of old SSN equivalents. When this has settled down a comprehensive mapping should be formulated.

Probably the key question arising from the work mentioned below is whether the proposal to use the URIs that are specified in the translation of the UML model to OWL, following the ISO 19150-2 rules, is acceptable.

Pro:

-          It allows us to express the alignment formally within the idiom we are working in (OWL)
Cons:

-          The OWL version of O&M is not in itself published as a 'standard' and the URIs are not directly resolvable (yet, anyway)

o   However, as pointed out in the document, the URIs are persistent identifiers in the view of ISO, and the fact that ISO's process does not require a separate document for the OWL implementation should be OK for us

-          UML and OWL are so different in their assumptions that it is a fallacy to use the OWL implementation as representing the UML model

I'm sure there are other arguments. My feeling is that the proposed approach balances formality and pragmatism OK.

Simon

From: Simon.Cox@csiro.au<mailto:Simon.Cox@csiro.au> [mailto:Simon.Cox@csiro.au]
Sent: Saturday, 28 January, 2017 21:33
To: public-sdw-wg@w3.org<mailto:public-sdw-wg@w3.org>
Subject: [ExternalEmail] ACTION-255 - o&m alignment

In response to my ACTION-255 from last week's meeting, I have generated two RDF files containing formal alignments between SOSA and O&M.

-          sosa-om-mapping.ttl relates to the O&M UML model, and uses the Official ISO URIs from the OWL implementation prepared by the ISO/TC 211 Group on Ontology Management following the rules from ISO 19150-2

-          sosa-oml-mapping.ttl relates to the om-lite and sam-lite OWL implementation recently published in Semantic Web Journal

I have also prepared text for the SSN document describing these mappings - for chapter 8 in the spec.
So far the mappings only concern SOSA.

I've pushed all this into a branch in GitHub https://github.com/w3c/sdw/tree/simon-ssn-O%26M-alignments/ssn
and issued a pull-request https://github.com/w3c/sdw/pull/516

Simon

Simon J D Cox
Research Scientist
Environmental Informatics
CSIRO Land and Water<http://www.csiro.au/Research/LWF>

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Received on Tuesday, 7 February 2017 22:27:40 UTC

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