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Topic 2: Supporting the Personalization of Web Applications - Requirements - lit review

From: Scott Hollier <scott@hollier.info>
Date: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 10:17:24 +0000
To: "public-rqtf@w3.org" <public-rqtf@w3.org>
Message-ID: <MWHPR01MB2766D29F7BD7DD2DD44F01A7DC7C0@MWHPR01MB2766.prod.exchangelabs.com>
To the RQTF

Following up on my action item from last week, I've completed a preliminary literature review for Topic 2: Supporting the Personalization of Web Applications - Requirements

Few notes:


·         All the references are accessibility-focused

·         All references include discussion on web applications, disability, accessibility, personalisation and individualised approaches to technology-based solutions and have been published in the last few years. Many also specifically discuss GPII.

·         The main issue relates to the technical level - it varies quite a bit so this may affect how relevant the references are to the work plan, but I'm hopeful it's a useful start

As with my CAPTCHA reference list, could I please trouble Dave or someone to kindly put the references into the wiki?  I've provided them below.

Thanks everyone,

Scott.



Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Buttony, Paolo, Borgia, Maurizio, Zuccarello, Daniel, Capuano, Daniele, De Marsico, Maria and Labella, Anna
Year: 2013
Title: Stories and signs in an e-learning environment for deaf people
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 12
Issue: 4
Pages: 369-386
Short Title: Stories and signs in an e-learning environment for deaf people
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-012-0283-y
Keywords: Deaf-centered e-learning environment
Storytelling
MOF
UIDL
UsiXML
Sign languages
SignWriting
Abstract: An important field for model-driven development of interfaces is the consideration of users with disabilities. Interface design for deaf people presents specific problems, since it needs to be based on visual communication, incorporating unusual forms of interaction, in particular gesture-based ones. Standard solutions for model-driven development of visual interfaces lack specific constructs for structuring these more sophisticated forms of interaction. This paper discusses such issues in the context of the development of a deaf-centered e-learning environment. Sign Languages enter this context as a suitable alternative communication code, both in video form and through one of their most successful written forms, namely SignWriting.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Chen, Hui-Fen
Year: 2013
Title: A case study of information searching experiences of high school students with visual impairments in Taiwan
Secondary Author: Rude, Harvey, Conroy, Paula, Bowen, Sandy and Ku, Heng-Yu
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: A case study of information searching experiences of high school students with visual impairments in Taiwan
Keywords: Special Education
Education
High School Students
Screen Readers
Visual Impairments
Web
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to provide comprehensive insight into high school students' experiences by examining their information search behaviors on the Web through G-mouse screen readers to answer academic fact-based questions. Six participants were high school students from grades 10 through 12 at a school for the visually impaired in Taiwan. They were selected by using purposeful sampling based on their use of G-mouse screen reader and experience in searching information on the Web. Qualitative research methods and case study design were used to provide detailed descriptions of participants' information searching behaviors and to learn about their understanding of accessibility and usability issues. Four sources of data collected from pre-task interviews, observations, online information search task sessions, and post-task interviews were transcribed and analyzed. This study identified information search behaviors of the participants on the Web using G-mouse screen reader and challenges they encountered during the information searching process as well as the strategies they used to overcome these challenges. Regarding the participants' action, the participants skimmed through a web page by jumping from link to link and scanning the first few words of a link. By using limited of use of G-mouse keyboard commands, the participants only looked at the first page of search results but visited more than one website per task. In relation to the participants' cognition, they chose a search engine/port or a specific website to search for information. After the participants got oriented to the search edit box automatically or by tabbing to it, they formulated the first search query from the task description and then modified the search queries with new terms found from result pages or web pages. The participants examined the search result lists based on the page title and browsed the textual content of a website by jumping through links and reading through the entire page. The participants faced six accessibility and usability problems, including graphics, Flash and tables without text alternative, navigation menu at the top, inappropriate labeling of links, the structure of specific websites, and excessive information. Searching information on the Web became a challenge for the participants when G-mouse screen reader failed to pronounce English words in an understandable way, to give indication when a web page had finished loading, and to provide sufficient feedback to verify the participants' actions. The obstacles encountered by the participants could be caused by individual's insufficient search competence, including not having the conceptual model of a web page's layout and strategies to deal with information overload. When the participants experienced problems on the Web, they employed six strategies, including note-taking, trial and error, backtracking, looking for assistance, skipping, and giving up. The recommendations for screen reader developers are to support automatic term suggestions, to provide the overview of content arrangement, and to provide a non-speech notification for a content change. The recommendations for web designers are to include auditory previews and overviews for search engines, and to provide support in keeping track of information. The recommendations for educators are to provide training in formulating effective search queries, overcoming information overload, and building mental models, and to provide students with opportunities to share experience. Future research is also discussed.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Chourasia, Amrish, Nordstrom, Dan and Vanderheiden, Gregg
Year: 2014
Title: State of the science on the Cloud, accessibility, and the future
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Pages: 483-495
Short Title: State of the science on the Cloud, accessibility, and the future
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-013-0345-9
Keywords: Universal design
Auto-personalization
Cloud computing
Accessibility architecture
Abstract: A state of the science conference on the Cloud, accessibility and the future was held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison on September 21 and 22, 2013. The desired outcomes of the conference were a better understanding of current and emerging issues around digital inclusion, a better understanding of where things are going, and what strategies for effectively addressing inclusion in the rapidly changing world we live in might be. Speaker presentations were pre-recorded and posted on YouTube ® . During the conference, participants discussed the issues raised in these presentations and other topics. Topics discussed included the threefold emerging threat to ICT inclusion
the approaching ICT/web/Cloud inflection point-and how it changes existing rules
Cloud-based auto-personalization as an approach to inclusion (concept, status of implementation and plans)
security and privacy, risks and options, related to personalization and Cloud-based solutions
non-technical issues and realities in national and global deployment and use of technical solutions
providing the tools necessary for industry to build accessibility into next and next-next generation everyday products
globally realistic/affordable approaches to scaling, sustainability and propagation
impact of digital inclusion on national prosperity, education and literacy
need for Cloud-based solutions in government services, health, voting, education, etc., and the demands these areas may impose on solutions. The summaries for the speaker presentations and recommendations regarding research, policy and education generated during the conference are presented in this paper.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Duggan, Erin
Year: 2015
Title: ux-rule: A JavaScript framework for dynamic and static accessibility testing of webpages
Secondary Author: Yeh, Tom, Kane, Shaun and Chang, Evan
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: ux-rule: A JavaScript framework for dynamic and static accessibility testing of webpages
Keywords: Web Studies
Computer Science
Communication and the Arts
Applied Sciences
Accessibility
Automated Testing
Javascript
Abstract: The Internet is designed to disseminate information to the widest group of people possible. In recent years, this group has been expanded to include people with disabilities through the use of a number of tools. In order to support this, websites need to be designed as accessible and require testing to ensure that they are accessible. The ux-rule framework is an automated accessibility testing framework designed for use by website programmers to do both static and dynamic analysis. It establishes a rule syntax for specifying tests that is based on imperative programming language syntax so that rules can be added or modified easily to meet any other requirements in addition to accessibility guidelines. The resulting package is open source and free to reach the largest number of potential users outside of commercial environments. By meeting these goals it fills in some of the limitations of other existing tools, primarily cost, custom rule specification, and dynamic testing.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Ellcessor, Elizabeth
Year: 2014
Title: <ALT="Textbooks">: Web Accessibility Myths as Negotiated Industrial Lore
Journal: Critical Studies in Media Communication
Pages: 1-16
Short Title: <ALT="Textbooks">: Web Accessibility Myths as Negotiated Industrial Lore
ISSN: 1529-5036
DOI: 10.1080/15295036.2014.919660
Keywords: Disability Studies
Accessibility
Critical Media Industry Studies
Internet History
Abstract: Web content accessibility, the practices by which web content is made usable by people with a variety of disabilities, is growing in importance and visibility. Currently, however, there are few formalized paths for accessibility training, leading many professionals to self-educate using textbooks, websites, and social media, which exert significant power over the meanings and practices of accessibility. In this paper, I analyze over 40 web references published between 1997 and 2012, and focus particularly on the genre of the "web accessibility myth list," in which authors list misconceptions about accessibility and debunk them. These myth lists exert productive power within the industry and serve as a space of contestation. Myth lists encourage the production of professionalized, neoliberal worker identities, create community by reinforcing accessibility's historically oppositional relationship to web design, and promote conflicting ideologies of disability. Ultimately, study of this professional community indicates that industry studies can reveal the contexts not only of media texts, but of the conditions of media access itself.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Fodness, Kevin
Year: 2016
Title: Disability and Cyberspace: The Politics of Inclusion & Exclusion in Web Development Groups
Secondary Author: Eglash, Ron, Nieusma, Dean, Kinchy, Abby, Ladner, Richard and Winner, Langdon
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Disability and Cyberspace: The Politics of Inclusion & Exclusion in Web Development Groups
Keywords: Information Technology
Web Studies
Organizational Behavior
Social Sciences
Communication and the Arts
Applied Sciences
Ableism
Accessibility
Disability
Synergistic Enablement
Web Design
Web Development
Abstract: This dissertation attempts to answer the question "how can the online experiences of disabled people in the United States be improved?" To that end, it explores why the web is such an inaccessible place, including the extent to which accessibility is taught in higher education, the extent to which accessibility is valued as a part of good development practice, and what-if any-overlaps exist between making websites accessible and other desirable outcomes. I draw on my own 20-year history as a professional and hobbyist full-stack web developer, as well as a survey of 330 web developers, and 20 semi-structured interviews of web developers, designers, strategists, project managers, entrepreneurs, and user experience researchers that are part of my professional network in order to examine this question from multiple angles and in depth. I examine my informants' responses through the lens of ableism and the social model of disability, but posit that the complexities of modern web development are not so easily captured in either of those theories, and require a more nuanced view. I extend and challenge Helen Kennedy's (2012) Net Work: Ethics and Values in Web Design by more deeply addressing the responsive design trends of recent years and demonstrating the differences between web development in the U.K. and web development in the U.S. Finally, I posit that synergistic enablement is an example of a utilitarian approach to making the web more accessible-rhetorically and technologically tying accessibility to outcomes that may be more financially or politically desirable within capitalist organizations, such as optimizing websites for search visibility.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Fogli, Daniela, Parasiliti Provenza, Loredana and Bernareggi, Cristian
Year: 2014
Title: A universal design resource for rich Internet applications based on design patterns
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 13
Issue: 2
Pages: 205-226
Short Title: A universal design resource for rich Internet applications based on design patterns
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-013-0291-6
Keywords: Accessibility
Universal design
Design pattern
Rich Internet application
Abstract: Rich Internet applications have removed most of the constraints of Web 1.0 while giving users more responsiveness and advanced browsing and interaction experiences. These new horizons, however, raise many challenges for people with disabilities or using limited hardware and software technologies, whose risk to be excluded from the benefits deriving from advanced web applications. To address this problem, WCAG 2.0 guidelines have been released as the newest World Wide Web Consortium recommendation for accessible web content, and WAI-ARIA is a candidate recommendation which provides reference specifications for accessible rich Internet applications. However, both specifications contain a huge amount of information that often discourages most web designers from dealing with accessibility issues. Moreover, guidelines are suitable and usually adopted to judge a design solution a posteriori, but they do not suggest how to face a design problem constructively. This paper proposes a design pattern language for accessibility. The language can be regarded as a universal design resource for helping web designers create accessible rich Internet applications compliant with the most recent standards. Knowledge representation through design patterns reflects the problem-solving approach usually followed by software and web designers, while pattern organization in a structured language aims to guide web designers throughout the design process. The language has been implemented as an accessible rich Internet application itself, thus allowing designers with disabilities to participate in web design. In order to evaluate the design pattern language, a three-step process was carried out including: (1) a heuristic analysis with a group of human-computer interaction experts, (2) a survey study with a group of web designers, and (3) a validation on the field with two designers who have been requested to apply the language in real design cases.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Forczek, Erzsébet, Makra, Péter, Lanyi, Cecilia and Bari, Ferenc
Year: 2015
Title: The Internet as a New Tool in the Rehabilitation Process of Patients-Education in Focus
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 12
Issue: 3
Pages: 2373-2391
Short Title: The Internet as a New Tool in the Rehabilitation Process of Patients-Education in Focus
ISSN: 1661-7827
Keywords: Information Management
Medical Databases
Health Informatics
Internet
Abstract:  In the article we deal with the rehabilitation of patients using information technology, especially Internet support. We concentrate on two main areas in the IT support of rehabilitation: one of them is the support for individual therapy, the other one is providing patients with information, which is the basic step in emphasising individual responsibility. In the development of rehabilitation programmes, the knowledge of the IT professional and the therapist, in the IT support of web guidance, medical expertise plays the primary role. The degree of assistance involved in the rehabilitation process depends on the IT knowledge of medical (general practitioner, nursing staff) professionals as well. The necessary knowledge required in healing and development processes is imparted to professionals by a special (full-time) university training. It was a huge challenge for us to teach web-based information organisation skills to doctors and nurses, and it is also a complex task to put forward such an IT viewpoint to information specialists in order to create the foundations of the cooperation between IT and healthcare professionals.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Garcia, Boni, Gomez, Ana, Conde, Rafael and Hernandez, Yolanda
Year: 2015
Title: Breaking the Web Barriers of the e-Administration Using an Accessible Digital Certificate Based on a Cryptographic Token
Journal: Advances in Software Engineering
Short Title: Breaking the Web Barriers of the e-Administration Using an Accessible Digital Certificate Based on a Cryptographic Token
ISSN: 16878655
DOI: 10.1155/2015/568087
Abstract:  The purpose of developing e-Government is to make public administrations more efficient and transparent and to allow citizens to more comfortably and effectively access information. Such benefits are even more important to people with a physical disability, allowing them to reduce waiting times in procedures and travel. However, it is not in widespread use among this group, as they not only harbor the same fears as other citizens, but also must cope with the barriers inherent to their disability. This research proposes a solution to help persons with disabilities access e-Government services. This work, in cooperation with the Spanish Federation of Spinal-Cord Injury Victims and the Severely Disabled, includes the development of a portal specially oriented towards people with disabilities to help them locate and access services offered by Spanish administrations. Use of the portal relies on digital authentication of users based on X.509, which are found in identity cards of Spanish citizens. However, an analysis of their use reveals that this feature constitutes a significant barrier to accessibility. This paper proposes a more accessible solution using a USB cryptographic token that can conceal from users all complexity entailed in access to certificate-based applications, while assuring the required security.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Garrido, Alejandra, Rossi, Gustavo, Medina, Nuria, Grigera, Julián and Firmenich, Sergio
Year: 2014
Title: Improving accessibility of Web interfaces: refactoring to the rescue
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Pages: 387-399
Short Title: Improving accessibility of Web interfaces: refactoring to the rescue
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-013-0323-2
Keywords: Accessibility
Web applications
Refactoring
Reengineering
Abstract: Universal access should be a target for all public Web sites. However, it is very hard to achieve, and even Web applications that comply with accessibility standards may still lack usability for disabled users. This paper proposes refactoring as an essencial technique to incrementally improve the accessibility and usability of a Web interface. Some accessibility refactorings are described and classified by the problems that each refactoring addresses. The way mainstream Web sites struggle with accessibility is illustrated, and two evaluations of email clients are presented as empirical evidence of the significance of accessibility refactorings at a low implementation cost.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Garrido, Alejandra, Rossi, Gustavo, Medina, Nuria, Grigera, Julián and Firmenich, Sergio
Year: 2014
Title: Improving accessibility of Web interfaces: refactoring to the rescue
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Pages: 387-399
Short Title: Improving accessibility of Web interfaces: refactoring to the rescue
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-013-0323-2
Keywords: Accessibility
Web applications
Refactoring
Reengineering
Abstract: Universal access should be a target for all public Web sites. However, it is very hard to achieve, and even Web applications that comply with accessibility standards may still lack usability for disabled users. This paper proposes refactoring as an essencial technique to incrementally improve the accessibility and usability of a Web interface. Some accessibility refactorings are described and classified by the problems that each refactoring addresses. The way mainstream Web sites struggle with accessibility is illustrated, and two evaluations of email clients are presented as empirical evidence of the significance of accessibility refactorings at a low implementation cost.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Genc, Yegin
Year: 2014
Title: Exploring content with semantic transformations using collaborative knowledge bases
Secondary Author: Nickerson, Jeffrey V., Hua, Gang, Lappas, Theodoros and Mason, Winter
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Exploring content with semantic transformations using collaborative knowledge bases
Keywords: Statistics
Web Studies
Information Science
Pure Sciences
Communication and the Arts
Collaborative Knowledge Bases
Exploratory Searches
Search Queries
Wikipedia
Abstract: We sometimes search content for simple facts. Other times we search for relationships between concepts. While existing information retrieval systems work well for simple searches, they are less satisfying for complex inquiries because of the ill-structured nature of many searches and the cognitive load involved in the search process. This research proposes a model to improve content exploration by leveraging the network of concepts that are maintained by collaborative knowledge bases such as Wikipedia. The model considers exploratory search inquires as networks of concepts, and concepts as collections of words that sum up to explicit definitions. By mapping documents to concepts extracted from search inquires, we can discover and leverage relations that are implicit and at times hidden in context. This research has examined the performance of this approach in three exploratory search tasks. The first study aimed to discover context in social media content by classifying short messages into their topics. The second study focused on finding similar but diverse document collections among scholarly article abstracts. The model provides significant improvements over the previous state of the art in both tasks. The final study aimed to contrast a ranking algorithm using this method with a state of the art keyword based search algorithm. In this experimental study, human actors were asked to take the role of a researcher conducting literature review. The findings revealed conditions in which such a ranking algorithm can outperform keyword based searches in the context of exploratory search.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Gonçalves, Ramiro, Martins, José, Pereira, Jorge, Oliveira, Manuel and Ferreira, João
Year: 2013
Title: Enterprise Web Accessibility Levels Amongst the Forbes 250: Where Art Thou O Virtuous Leader?
Journal: Journal of Business Ethics
Volume: 113
Issue: 2
Pages: 363-375
Short Title: Enterprise Web Accessibility Levels Amongst the Forbes 250: Where Art Thou O Virtuous Leader?
ISSN: 01674544
DOI: 10.1007/s10551-012-1309-3
Keywords: World Wide Web
Web Sites
Internet Access
Studies
Telecommunications Systems & Internet Communications
Experimental/Theoretical
Abstract:  The research team measured the enterprise web accessibility levels of the Forbes 250 largest enterprises using the fully automatic accessibility evaluation tool Sortsite, and presented the compliance of the evaluated websites to WCAG 1.0, WCAG 2.0 and Section 508 accessibility levels. Given the recent attention to organizational leaders having ethical duties towards their dedicated employees, we propose that â[euro] societal citizenship behaviourâ[euro](TM) concerns ethical duties of organizational leaders towards society in general and in particular to those who have less means to assert their needs. In effect, we found enterprise website accessibility levels to be in need of significant improvement. An interpretation of a positive path forward to better enterprise website accessibility levels is put forth based on a focus-group interaction and using BNMLâ[euro]"a novel Business Narrative Modelling Language.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Hoehl, Jeffery
Year: 2016
Title: Exploring Web Simplification for People with Cognitive Disabilities
Secondary Author: Lewis, Clayton, Basman, Antranig, Braddock, David, Palen, Leysia, Tanis, Shea and Yeh, Tom
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Exploring Web Simplification for People with Cognitive Disabilities
Keywords: Cognitive Psychology
Computer Science
Applied Sciences
Psychology
Accessibility
Cognitive Disabilities
Human Computer Computing
Human Computer Interaction
Web Accessibility
Web Simplification
Abstract: The web has become more than a supplementary information resource but a valuable and pervasive tool for nearly all aspects of daily life including social and community participation, health promotion, creative pursuits, education, and employment opportunity. However, the web is not yet easily accessible to all people, particularly those with cognitive disabilities who encounter many challenges with access and use of the web including limited accessibility of online content and difficulty with content comprehension. Furthermore, little is documented about how individuals with cognitive disabilities who currently use the web are overcoming or being inhibited by these challenges. Much of what is documented is anecdotal or generalized as broad technical guidance rather than providing methods to empower individual end users. This research explores which websites people with cognitive disabilities use and do not use and what challenges and successes they encounter with those websites. We developed the SimpleWebAnywhere tool to address the above research needs and serve as a technology probe to determine how content simplification affects web use by people with cognitive disabilities. We explored personalizable content transformation techniques, including advertisement removal, content extraction, and text to speech, to make webpages easier to use and comprehend. We found that many people with cognitive disabilities frequently access the web for long periods of time despite popular opinion to the contrary. Web access is preferred via mobile platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Users had a strong preference for entertainment content largely comprised of images, videos, and games but did not necessarily have difficulty using or understanding long, complex textual content. An intercommunity approach of combining existing open source software to provide personalized content manipulations was found to be an effective method to improve web accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Iglesias, Ana, Jiménez, Javier, Revuelta, Pablo and Moreno, Lourdes
Year: 2014
Title: Avoiding communication barriers in the classroom: the APEINTA project
Journal: Interactive Learning Environments
Pages: 1-15
Short Title: Avoiding communication barriers in the classroom: the APEINTA project
ISSN: 1049-4820
DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2014.924533
Keywords: Inclusive Education
Education For All
Real-Time Captioning
Text-To-Speech Services
Students With Special Needs
Abstract: Education is a fundamental human right, however unfortunately not everybody has the same learning opportunities. For instance, if a student has hearing impairments, s/he could face communications barriers in the classroom, which could affect his/her learning process. APEINTA is a Spanish educational project that aims for inclusive education for all. This project proposes two main accessible initiatives: (1) real-time captioning and text-to-speech (TTS) services in the classroom and (2) accessible Web-learning platform out of the classroom with accessible digital resources. This paper presents the inclusive initiatives of APEINTA. Also an evaluation of the into-the-classroom initiative (real-time captioning and TTS services) is presented. This evaluation has been conducted during a regular undergraduate course at a university and during a seminar at an integration school for deaf children. Forty-five hearing students, 1 foreign student, 3 experts in captioning, usability and accessibility, and 20 students with hearing impairments evaluated these services in the classroom. Evaluation results show that these initiatives are adequate to be used in the classroom and that students are satisfied with them.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Kelle, Sebastian, Henka, Alexander and Zimmermann, Gottfried
Year: 2015
Title: A Persona-based Extension for Massive Open Online Courses in Accessible Design
Journal: Procedia Manufacturing
Volume: 3
Pages: 3663-3668
Short Title: A Persona-based Extension for Massive Open Online Courses in Accessible Design
ISSN: 2351-9789
DOI: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.772
Keywords: Moocs
E-Learning
Accessibility
Peer-Based Learning
Abstract: In this paper, we present a new participatory design for learning, developed in the context of a transnational initiative for creating Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) on Accessible Design for ICT. The core idea is creating an additional learning benefit by means of immersive learning experience. This is achieved by simulating scenarios, in which the participants in the MOOC course are prompted to take on the role of accessible media author, and user, vice versa. The approach is based on the concept of "personas", a user centered design methodology that illustrates practical needs by portraying realistic personal profiles of hypothetical characters.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Kim, Jong-Hyoun, Cho, Teresa and Cho, Yong-Sang
Year: 2015
Title: A Design of Content Accessibility Platform accepting User Preferences under Cloud Environment
Journal: International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Pages: 14-22
Short Title: A Design of Content Accessibility Platform accepting User Preferences under Cloud Environment
ISSN: 19759339
Abstract:  The meaning and coverage of content accessibility is expanding. The term disability has been redefined as a mismatch between the needs of the user and the service offered. It migrates to and focuses on personalization for the disability. It enlarges the territories from stand-alone service to cloud-based one. The most important thing to deliver personalized contents is how to define, store, retrieve and match user preferences. To realize this personalization needs, we propose the descriptive model and conceptual platform of content accessibility. We newly define accessibility as function of three entities (Resource, User, and Processor) and its relationships specified in our descriptive model. Based on this model we design the four layered platform
Authoring, Adjusting, Processing and Browsing Layer. The setting and matching of user preference metadata are explained more clearly thru our designed UI Options Framework and Preferences Framework. We are sure that our proposal will render great services to digital textbook delivery based on EPUB3 and to cyber homeschooling, where learner may access digital materials as personalized or tailored form.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Lorca, Pedro, Andrés, Javier and Martínez, Ana
Year: 2016
Title: Does Web accessibility differ among banks?
Journal: Internet and Web Information Systems
Volume: 19
Issue: 3
Pages: 351-373
Short Title: Does Web accessibility differ among banks?
ISSN: 1386-145X
DOI: 10.1007/s11280-014-0314-0
Keywords: Web accessibility
Firm size
Firm performance
Ownerships structure
Banks
Corporate social responsibility
Abstract: Web Accessibility (WA) is an attribute that must be taken increasingly into account in the design of websites. In this paper we assess on whether the drivers of more accessible online information differ among banks using a structural equation modelling approach. It is concluded that Web Accessibility (WA) implementation is an important and affordable way that could be used to increase the possibilities to explore online information and to meet the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) demands of stakeholders. Our results show that smaller banks are more prone to WA implementation, which may help them to differentiate from its competitors and create strategic advantages.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Lourdes, Moreno and Paloma, Martinez
Year: 2013
Title: Overlapping factors in search engine optimization and web accessibility
Journal: Online Information Review
Volume: 37
Issue: 4
Pages: 564-580
Short Title: Overlapping factors in search engine optimization and web accessibility
ISSN: 1468-4527
DOI: 10.1108/OIR-04-2012-0063
Keywords: Search engines
Internet
Web accessibility
Corporate social responsibility
World Wide Web
Abstract: <B>Purpose</B> - The purpose of this paper is to show that the pursuit of a high search engine relevance ranking for a webpage is not necessarily incompatible with the pursuit of web accessibility. <B>Design/methodology/approach</B> - The research described arose from an investigation into the observed phenomenon that pages from accessible websites regularly appear near the top of search engine (such as Google) results, without any deliberate effort having been made through the application of search engine optimization (SEO) techniques to achieve this. The reasons for this phenomenon appear to be found in the numerous similarities and overlapping characteristics between SEO factors and web accessibility guidelines. Context is provided through a review of sources including accessibility standards and relevant SEO studies and the relationship between SEO and web accessibility is described. The particular overlapping factors between the two are identified and the precise nature of the overlaps is explained in greater detail. <B>Findings</B> - The available literature provides firm evidence that the overlapping factors not only serve to ensure the accessibility of a website for all users, but are also useful for the optimization of the website's search engine ranking. The research demonstrates that any SEO project undertaken should include, as a prerequisite, the proper design of accessible web content, inasmuch as search engines will interpret the web accessibility achieved as an indicator of quality and will be able to better access and index the resulting web content. <B>Originality/value</B> - The present study indicates how developing websites with high visibility in search engine results also makes their content more accessible.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Marcelino, Isabel, Laza, Rosalía, Fdez-Riverola, Florentino and Pereira, António
Year: 2015
Title: Removing Barriers to Promote Social Computing among Senior Population
Journal: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
Volume: 11
Issue: 10
Short Title: Removing Barriers to Promote Social Computing among Senior Population
ISSN: 1550-1477
DOI: 10.1155/2015/820349
Abstract: Smartphones and tablets proliferation enabled by accessible prices and also by the inclusion of sensing abilities promotes their use in several areas, such as healthcare. It opens new horizons in the field of continuous and noninvasive monitoring and support to population, namely, to seniors. Despite the great benefits that mobile sensing and social computing could provide to increase elderly's quality of life, many studies have shown that elderlies deal with difficulty with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this paper we present a solution to overcome barriers between elderlies and their ICT usage in order to potentiate all the benefits provided from mobile sensing and social computing. A survey on guidelines, standards, and advice regarding usability and accessibility issues when developing solutions for elderly people was carried out. This survey was made having in mind that senior population have singular requirements due to age related changes and also frequently technological illiteracy. We have identified and applied the most important guidelines to our solution. A prototype was made using responsive design in order to be adaptable to any type of devices. Regarding evaluation, usability tests and semistructured interviews were conducted in real scenario.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Miñón, Raúl, Moreno, Lourdes, Martínez, Paloma and Abascal, Julio
Year: 2014
Title: An approach to the integration of accessibility requirements into a user interface development method
Journal: Science of Computer Programming
Volume: 86
Pages: 58-73
Short Title: An approach to the integration of accessibility requirements into a user interface development method
ISSN: 0167-6423
DOI: 10.1016/j.scico.2013.04.005
Keywords: AODA
ARIA
AUI
AWA
BITV 2
ISO
MDE
RGAA
SPA4USXML
UIDL
UsiXML
W3C
WAI
WCAG
WAfA
Accessibility
User interface development method
Model driven development
User Interface Description Language
Abstract: It is a legal requirement in many countries to ensure accessibility for Web applications. Although there are numerous regulations and standards regarding accessibility in the development of user interfaces, accessibility is nevertheless quite difficult to achieve, let alone to maintain at a high level of quality throughout the development process. This difficulty is due to diverse factors including, but not limited to, the lack of proper development methods, authoring tools and accessibility training for user interface development professionals. In an attempt to offer a solution to these difficulties, this paper proposes a methodological approach for the integration of accessibility requirements into a user interface development method based on User Interface Description Language (UIDL) or, more specifically, on the USer Interface eXtensible Markup Language (UsiXML) framework. The proposed strategy involves the integration of accessibility requirements into design primitives of the user interface development method. This paper focuses on accessibility requirements related to navigation in the Task Model, Abstract User Interface Model and Transformation Model. The application of the approach shown for the SPA4USXML tool also includes a proof of concept and validation of the proposal. The study shows that accessibility requirements included at the design stage in the modelling of user interfaces can be systematized through mechanisms such as new transformation rules and the use of support tools such as SPA4USXML. As a result, the quality of accessibility can be guaranteed by taking advantage of developments in technologies based on User Interface Markup Languages such as UsiXML. *The approach systematizes the inclusion of accessibility requirements in UIDLs.*A strategy is proposed to include accessibility in the UI development methods.*Accessibility navigation requirements are included in the UsiXML models.*A tool is enhanced to validate the approach implementing transformation rules.*There is illustrated the inclusion of the accessibility requirements through the tool.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Russell, Kyle
Year: 2014
Title: Examining how web designers' activity systems address accessibility: Activity theory as a guide
Secondary Author: Kerr, Stephen, Burgstahler, Sheryl, Peck, Charles and Johnson, Kurt
Publisher: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Examining how web designers' activity systems address accessibility: Activity theory as a guide
Keywords: Information Technology
Educational Technology
Higher Education
Applied Sciences
Education
Accessibility Guidelines
Activity Theory
Cultural Historical Activity Theory
Design Research
It Accessibility
Web Accessibility
Abstract:  While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained. Concepts from Activity Theory, particularly as they apply to design, were used to frame the results and discussion of this study. The collective activities of respondents resulted in accessibility issues in their respective sites that were typical of the issues found more generally, such as missing or unhelpful alternative text, missing or misused headings and untagged PDF files. The Human-Artifact Model was used both to explain how and why accessibility barriers are routinely built into information technologies and how altering the design of authoring tools could break this cycle. Implications for accessibility guidelines and future research approaches are discussed.


Reference Type:  Journal Article
Author: Schiavone, Antonio and Paternò, Fabio
Year: 2015
Title: An extensible environment for guideline-based accessibility evaluation of dynamic Web applications
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 14
Issue: 1
Pages: 111-132
Short Title: An extensible environment for guideline-based accessibility evaluation of dynamic Web applications
ISSN: 1615-5289
DOI: 10.1007/s10209-014-0399-3
Keywords: Guidelines
Guideline specification language
Accessibility
Validator
Dynamic Web page
Abstract: During the last decade, Web site accessibility and usability have become increasingly important. Consequently, many tools have been developed for automatic or semi-automatic evaluation of Web site accessibility. Unfortunately, most of them have not been updated over time to keep up with the evolution of accessibility standards and guidelines, thus soon becoming obsolete. Furthermore, the increasing importance of CSS in the definition of modern Web page layout, and the increasing use of scripting technologies in dynamic and interactive Web sites, has led to new challenges in automatic accessibility evaluation that few of the existing tools are able to face. This paper describes MAUVE, a software environment for Web site accessibility and usability evaluation. The tool is characterized by the possibility to specify and update the guidelines that should be validated without requiring changes in the tool implementation. It is based on an XML-based language for Web Guidelines Definition. It allows checking both HTML and CSS to detect accessibility issues and is able to validate dynamic sites as well, based on the use of a set of plugins for the most popular browsers.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Subramanian, Siva
Year: 2012
Title: Creating Knowledge-Based Clinical Decision Support System Using Cloud Computing Architecture
Secondary Author: Sandefer, Ryan, Eichenwald-Maki, Shirley, LaTour, Kathleen, Oachs, Pamela and Watters, Amy
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Creating Knowledge-Based Clinical Decision Support System Using Cloud Computing Architecture
Keywords: Health Care Management
Health and Environmental Sciences
Abstract: Healthcare is an immensely knowledge-based community where real-time collection, analysis, and sharing of data are essential part of the clinical workflow. The information and knowledge generated from this data are crucial for patient treatment and become an asset to the facility when stored and enriched. The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) is a critical component in the healthcare delivery system that holds the potential to improve the quality of the service at the point of care. This indicates the need for managing the knowledge base to support and improve the quality of care provided. Up-to-date medical guidelines and decision rules guided by the latest evidence-based medical outcomes are required for effective use of such CDS. The current methods and processes used for assimilating the clinicians' expertise or extracting the knowledge from research and medical outcomes are not efficient enough to keep up with the pace of change and emerging trends in the healthcare industry. In addition, the medical outcomes are fragmented and they are not available as a collective resource to create an efficient CDS system. The information technology (IT) that revolutionized the process of healthcare delivery has provided the some best solutions to the information demands of healthcare. A knowledge-based CDS needs latest technologies to process the enormous amount of data and timely suggestions required for decision-making. This research analyzes the current issues in knowledge-based CDS and envisions the possibility of such a system that could be managed through a centralized infrastructure benefiting the entire medical fraternity. The objective is to present framework using an emerging computing architecture-cloud computing, which could be a viable solution for developing and using the knowledge-based CDS system in the future.


Reference Type:  Generic
Author: Sutcliffe, Tami
Year: 2014
Title: Exploring naming behavior in personal digital image collections: The iconology and language games of Pinterest
Secondary Author: O'Connor, Brian C.
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Short Title: Exploring naming behavior in personal digital image collections: The iconology and language games of Pinterest
Keywords: Linguistics
Web Studies
Information Science
Language, Literature and Linguistics
Communication and the Arts
Curating Vocabulary
Naming Behavior
Pinterest
Social Media
User-Curators
Abstract: As non-institutional digital image collections expand into social media, independent non-professional image curators are emerging, actively constructing alternative naming conventions to suit their needs in a social collecting environment. This project considers how independent user-curators are developing particular sense-making behaviors as they actively contribute names to large, unstructured social image collections. In order to capture and explore this evolving language adaptation, Pinterest names are analyzed using a matrix composed of Panofsky's three strata of subject matter, Rosch's levels of categorical abstraction, Shatford Layne's image attributes and Wittgenstein's language game constructions. Analyzing Pinterest image names illuminates previously unnoticed behaviors by independent user-curators as they create shared collections. Exploring the various language choices which user-curators select as they apply this new curating vocabulary helps identify underlying user needs not apparent in traditionally curated collections restricted to traditional naming conventions.



Dr Scott Hollier
Digital Access Specialist
E-mail: scott@hollier.info<mailto:scott@hollier.info> Mobile: +61 (0)430 351 909

Learn more about Scott through his recently published memoir:
Outrunning the Night: a life journey of disability, determination and joy.
Visit outrunningthenight.com<http://www.outrunningthenight.com/> for more information and sample chapter.
Received on Tuesday, 17 January 2017 10:18:06 UTC

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