W3C home > Mailing lists > Public > www-style@w3.org > November 2014

[css-gcpm] String-set issues

From: Brad Kemper <brad.kemper@gmail.com>
Date: Sat, 22 Nov 2014 10:18:43 -0800
Message-Id: <F515958A-DE4C-4F05-9419-584F4A434EDF@gmail.com>
Cc: Dave Cramer <Dave.Cramer@hbgusa.com>
To: www-style list <www-style@w3.org>
I've been giving some attention named strings in the latest GCPM draft [1]. I have some issues and comments. I'll start with the things I think are problems, and then I'll propose how I'd like to see it improve.


 1.  'string-set' is a weird and confusing property name. It sounds like it is for a set of something, but I think really 'set' is meant to mean that you are assigning a (string) value to a name. We don't do that in other places where we have named things. For instance, we have '@counter-style', not  '@counter-style-set'; '--foo', not 'foo-set', the 'font-family' descriptor of @font-face, not 'font-family-set', etc.

 2.  Pseudo-elements are excluded from being able to use 'string-set', so the 'content()' function has its own way of accessing them. That seems unnecessary. Just let pseudo-elements assign their contents to a named string, if you need that. It is simpler to learn, and less complicated, because you just use selectors like you normally do with pseudos. And really, most of the time, you won't even need that, because the actual element has access to the counter too, and that can be assigned to a name there. This would also eliminate the need for parentheses after the keyword 'content'.

 3.  'string-set' only gets the text of the element. I would think there are times when it would be useful to get all the content nodes, including links, bolds, small pictures, spans with class names, etc.

 4.  When 'string()' is used to access a named string, it ignores what was set on assigned to that name for elements not on the page. But in CSS3-content [2], the examples include 'META[author] { string-set: author attr(author); }', which selects something completely outside the page and uses it. Is this because the two drafts are out-of0synch, or are all these examples supposed to work somehow?

 5.  Normally when we assign a value to some sort of name in CSS, it is one value that is globally available. But with named stings in this draft, every name has multiple values (one for each selector-matched element within each page, multiplied by the number of pages, since the name only has page-wide scope in all the examples of this draft), so that the string() function can access right element, based on its position on the page. For instance, with 'string(theName, first)', the "value of the first assignment on the page is used". Meaning, I think, that if the element is the first occurrence of those on the page that match the selector, then it uses that element for the value assigned to that name. I think it would be better to just use selectors and pseudo-classes to select the right element, rather than to have that take place within the function inside the property value.

 6.  In the 'string()' function, the 'start' keyword is not well defined. It says "If the element is the first element on the page". Is that by document order? What if it has a parent? Technically, doesn't the parent come first? Also, I didn't really get what 'first-except' was for.

 7.  In the 'string-set', <content-list> can be used to construct a string from the text contents of the element (using 'content()'), as well as from literal text, counters, and attributes, and assign it to a name. But then, when you want to use a string like that, there is the 'string()' function. With that, you get that named string and construct a string from it and from literal text, counters, and attributes, and assign it to the 'content' attribute. This seems unnecessarily redundant, which can make it confusing. Since 'content' can already string together text from multiple sources, we don't really need to do it before assigning it to a name too, do we? If we need multiple things from the original element (its text and one of its attributes and its counter, for instance), they can just be each assigned to individual names, which can then be pulled into 'content' to be strung together. I think it is more author-friendly to just give us one place to concatenate strings together for the content, and let other properties and functions do their own things. Separation of concerns.

Regarding the first point above, I think in some ways, 'string-set' is similar to 'flow-into', especially if we axe the concatenation stuff of #7 above. They both use the similar 'content' or 'contents' keywords to create a variable-like name to hold the original contents of the element. I think we can play off that, using that as mental equity for changing the name and syntax of 'string-set'. So, instead of 'string-set', I propose the following:

Name:   copy-into
Value:  none |  [ [ <custom-ident>  <content-level>] [,  <custom-ident>  <content-level>]*  ]?
Initial:        none
Applies to:     All elements, but not ::first-line or ::first-letter.
Inherited:      no

The 'copy-into' property contains one or more pairs, each consisting of an custom identifier (the name of the named string) followed by a content-level keyword describing how to construct the value of the named string.

<ident> = The element or its contents, or its text, or the value of a specified attribute or counter is copied and placed into an non-rendered content fragment with the name '<ident>'. The values none, inherit, default, auto and initial are invalid content fragment names.

<content-level> expands to one of the following values: 

the entire element is copied into the named content fragment (i'm using 'named content fragment' to mean the same thing as a named flow, but not intended to be flowed through multiple elements). 

only the element¡¯s contents are copied into the named content fragment. This is the default if <content-level> is not specified.

only the element¡¯s text (including normally collapsed white space) is copied into the named content fragment.

the string value of the attribute <identifier> is copied into the named content fragment

the value of a counter() function, as described in [CSS21] is copied into the named content fragment.

So basically, it is the same as "flow-into", except that it does not remove anything, just a copy, and it has some other choices besides just "content" and "element" (I would also change "content" to "contents" in Regions). Plus, it can list several different names to copy stuff into, e.g. like this: 'copy-into: myContents contents, chapNum counter(chapter)'. And it has 'contents' as the default if one of the other levels is not specified instead.

By default, the content fragment name would be global, as the named flow is with 'flow-into'. But if one of the following pseudo-classes are used on the subject of the selector, then the name is locally scoped to just the page the element is on.

:nth-of-page(n)    The element is the nth matched element on the page.
:first-of-page       Same as :nth-of-page(n), but where n = 1 (it is the first matched element on the page).
:last-of-page       The element is the last matched element on the page.
:start-of-page      The element is the first matched element on the page, and neither it nor its ancestors have any previous siblings that appear on the page.

The content property would be able to accept the named content fragment as one of its value parts, just by using the identifier. It would not be part of a region chain, unless the whole element containing the named content fragment had "flow-into" something else.

So, for instance, here are Examples 1-3 of GCPM, re-written with this syntax:
<h1>Loomings on the <b>Horizon</b></h1>

h1::before { content: 'Chapter ' counter(chapterNumber); }
h1:first-of-page { copy-into: headerP1 counter(chapter),
                                              headerP2; }
h1::after { content: '.' copy-into: headerP3; }
@top-center {
  content: headerP1 ": " headerP2 headerP3;

The value of the named string ¡°headerP1¡± will be ¡°Chapter 1", and the value of the named string ¡°headerP2¡± will be "Loomings¡±. headerP2 will include the bold tags around "Horizon", because the <content-type> defaults to 'contents', not 'text'. The value of the named string ¡°headerP3¡± will be ".¡±. The top-center content will be "Chapter 1: Loomings on the <b>Horizon</b>."

<section title="Loomings">

section:first-of-page { copy-into: header attr(title) }

The value of the ¡°header¡± string will be ¡°Loomings¡±, assuming that section intersected with the page.


@page {
  size: 15cm 10cm;
  margin: 1.5cm;

  @top-left {
     content: "first: " heading1;
  @top-center {
     content: "start: " heading2;
  @top-right {
     content: "last: " heading3;

  @bottom-center {
     content: "start: " author;

h2:first-of-page { copy-into: heading1 }
h2:start-of-page { copy-into: heading2 }
h2:last-of-page { copy-into: heading3 }
META[author] { copy-into: author attr(author); }

The rendered examples would be the same as in the spec, except that the author's name would appear at the bottom center of each page too.

Brad Kemper

1) http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-gcpm/
2) http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-content/#strings

Received on Saturday, 22 November 2014 18:19:15 UTC

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.4.0 : Friday, 17 January 2020 22:51:49 UTC