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News Release: World Wide Web Consortium Issues XHTML 1.1 and Ruby Annotation as W3C Recommendations

From: Janet Daly <janet@w3.org>
Date: Thu, 31 May 2001 10:38:13 -0400
Message-ID: <3B165736.6C097E19@w3.org>
To: w3c-news@w3.org
World Wide Web Consortium Issues XHTML 1.1 and Ruby Annotation as W3C

Two New Specifications Deliver Enhanced Modularity and
Internationalization Support

Contact America --
Janet Daly, <janet@w3.org>, +1.617.253.5884 or +1.617.253.2613
Contact Europe --
Marie-Claire Forgue, <mcf@w3.org>, +33.492.38.75.94
Contact Asia --
Saeko Takeuchi <saeko@w3.org>, +81.466.49.1170

Web Resources for XHTML 1.1 and Ruby Annotation:

Press Release:

Testimonials from ACCESS Co. Ltd., ApTest, Keio University, Netscape,
the Progress Company, Reuters Group and in Japanese: ACCESS Co. Ltd.,
Keio University http://www.w3.org/2001/05/xhtml-ruby-testimonial

XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML:

Ruby Annotation:

All About XHTML

W3C's Internationalization Activity


http://www.w3.org/ -- 31 May 2001 -- The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
today announced the publication of two W3C Recommendations: XHTML 1.1
and Ruby Annotation. XHTML 1.1 defines a new XHTML document type that is
based upon the modularization framework and modules defined in
Modularization of XHTML, and serves as the basis for future extended
XHTML 'family' document types. Ruby Annotation provides an XHTML module
for expressing short runs of text alongside base text, typically used in
East Asian documents to indicate pronunciation or to provide a short

A W3C Recommendation indicates that a specification is stable,
contributes to Web interoperability, and has been reviewed by the W3C
Membership, who are in favor of supporting its adoption by academic,
industry, and research communities.

XHTML 1.1 Provides Clean Web Foundation through Modularity

XHTML 1.1 is the latest development in a series of W3C work to ensure
the universality of content formats for the Web.

The first step was to reformulate HTML 4 in Extensible Markup Language
(XML), resulting in XHTML 1.0. Like HTML 4, the reformulation carried
three variants: Strict; Frameset; and Transitional. These gave content
developers, often not accustomed to producing valid markup, choices in
markup, though not choices that could be supported by all devices. The
next step was to modularize the elements and attributes into convenient
collections for use in documents that combine XHTML with other tagsets.
The modules are defined in Modularization of XHTML. XHTML Basic is an
example of fairly minimal build of these modules and is targeted at
mobile applications. XHTML 1.1 is an example of a larger build of the
modules, avoiding many of the presentation features.

XHTML 1.1 defines a new XHTML document type that is based upon the
framework and modules defined in Modularization of XHTML. This document
type is designed to be portable to a broad collection of client devices,
and applicable to the majority of Internet content. Content developers
who base their content upon XHTML 1.1 can trust that it will be
consistently portable across user agents which support XHTML.

Ruby Annotation Delivers Critical Internationalization Features as an
XHTML Module

Providing the underlying technologies that support the Web as a
universal information space starts with XML, but goes beyond using
markup in a valid way. For example, in Japanese and Chinese, it is
common practice to put annotations in a very small font next to printed
text to aid readers in pronunciation of rarer ideographic characters.
These annotations are called "ruby," from the name British printers used
to describe a 5.5 point type face. Ruby annotations regularly appear in
Japanese magazines, as well as Chinese and Japanese textbooks.

While many international typography needs can be fulfilled through the
use of style sheet languages such as CSS or XSL, additional markup is
needed to define the relationship between the base text and its
annotation. Ruby Annotation delivers this functionality to the Web in
the form of an XHTML module, thus allowing ruby to be correctly rendered
along with the basic text without using special workarounds or graphics.
XHTML 1.1 includes the Ruby Annotation module, enhancing XHTML 1.1's
power and extensibility.

International Efforts Produce Interoperable, Extensible Web Technologies

The W3C HTML Working Group and the W3C Internationalization Working
Group produced these W3C Recommendations and provided the early
implementations and coordination needed to ensure the stability and
utility of both specifications. The W3C HTML Working Group consists of
key industry leaders and experts, including Applied Testing and
Technology, CWI, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Matsushita Electric Industrial
Co., Ltd. (Panasonic), Microsoft, Mozquito Technologies, Netscape/AOL,
Openwave Systems, Opera Software, Philips Electronics, Quark Inc., Sun
Microsystems, and WebGeek, Inc. The W3C Internationalization Working
Group includes representatives from Alis Technologies, IBM, Microsoft,
Progress Software, Reuters, Sun Microsystems, the Unicode Consortium and

Support for both specifications is international in scope, as evidenced
by the testimonials received for these specifications.

About the World Wide Web Consortium [W3C]

The W3C was created to lead the Web to its full potential by developing
common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its
interoperability. It is an international industry consortium jointly run
by the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT LCS) in the USA, the
National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA)
in France and Keio University in Japan. Services provided by the
Consortium include: a repository of information about the World Wide Web
for developers and users, and various prototype and sample applications
to demonstrate use of new technology. To date, over 500 organizations
are Members of the Consortium. For more information see


Testimonials from ACCESS Co. Ltd., ApTest, Keio University, Netscape,
the Progress Company, Reuters Group and in Japanese: ACCESS Co. Ltd.,
Keio University :

ACCESS is very pleased by the release of XHTML 1.1 because it is the
important base markup language for all kinds of information appliances
such as TVs, PDAs, game consoles, car navigations, web phones, and
mobile phones. ACCESS has already released more than 35 million copies
of embedded browser for non-PC devices, especially for NTT DoCoMo's
i-mode phones and SONY's PlayStation. We plan to support XHTML 1.1 and
Ruby Annotation in our full functional browser "NetFront3" and micro
browser "Compact NetFront".

-- Tomihisa Kamada, Executive Vice President and CTO, ACCESS Co. Ltd.

Applied Testing and Technology, Inc. is an industry leader in the
development and testing of portable content. XHTML 1.1 represents a
significant advance in this field. It provides a substantial base on
which to develop content that is well-formed, valid, and both
forward-looking and backward-compatible. ApTest is thrilled to see that
this important markup language is now a W3C Recommendation. We expect to
use it as the basis for our own markup language development, as well as
the basis for all of our web-based test technology. In addition, we will
encourage our clients to develop markup languages and content that are
based upon XHTML Modularization, and that use XHTML 1.1 or XHTML Basic
for their minimum portability model, as appropriate.

-- Shane P. McCarron, Managing Director, ApTest

The publication of XHTML 1.1 and Ruby Annotation as W3C Recommendations
is a small but important step in the ongoing evolution of the Web. Ruby
markup is an important addition to XHTML, in particular for Japan and
East Asia. It can also easily be included into other XML-based document
types. The application area that will benefit most directly is
education. Ruby markup has been carefully designed by the W3C
Internationalization Working Group in coordination with Japanese
typesetting experts.

-- Nobuo Saito, Dean, Faculty of Environmental Information, Keio
University; W3C Associate Chairman; Chair, Electronic Document
Processing System Standardization Investigation and Research Committee,

Netscape strongly endorses the W3C Recommendation covering Ruby
Annotations. Ruby is an important text layout feature for both East
Asian language display and annotations in traditional documents.
Netscape applauds the efforts of the W3C Internationalization Working
Group and will help promote the use of Ruby in XHTML documents. Netscape
will support Ruby in adherence to the W3C XHTML recommendation, as well
as forthcoming related CSS recommendations, through the open-source
Mozilla project and in future versions of its award-winning Netscape web

-- Jim Hamerly, Vice President of Netscape Client Product Development,
America OnLine, Inc.

The ability to annotate in the Ruby style gives the web a more natural
and traditional feel for Asian users. Annotation provides comfort to
novice users and makes them more likely to keep using the application.
For more technical users, such as customers of our e-business
development tools, annotation increases the comprehension of technical
specifications and leads to more rapid development and successful
projects. Improving the usability and efficiency of the Web is important
to Progress and its OpenEdge(TM) e-business platform, and so Progress
gladly contributed resources to create and advance this recommendation
and actively supports W3C standards development.

-- Dennis NG, Managing Director, North Asia, the Progress Company

XHTML(tm) 1.1, coupled with NewsML(tm), provides us with a modular
framework for the delivery of multimedia News to the broadest range of
customers, end-users and devices. The XHTML Ruby module will enable us
to provide our Japanese customers and end-users with a richer News
experience, previously available only in printed media. We look forward
to the development of additional XHTML modules, both by the W3C, and by
other industry consortia.

-- Mike Sayers, Chief Technology Officer, Reuters Group
Received on Thursday, 31 May 2001 10:43:09 UTC

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