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Re: [External] RE: UCUM licensing [was Re: Blank nodes must DIE! ]

From: Antoine Zimmermann <antoine.zimmermann@emse.fr>
Date: Wed, 9 Sep 2020 01:54:39 +0200
To: "Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton)" <Simon.Cox@csiro.au>, "Abhyankar, Swapna" <sabhyank@regenstrief.org>, David Booth <david@dbooth.org>, "semantic-web@w3.org" <semantic-web@w3.org>
Cc: "ClemMcDonald@mail.nih.gov" <ClemMcDonald@mail.nih.gov>, "gunther@pragmaticdata.com" <gunther@pragmaticdata.com>
Message-ID: <a820914a-17ae-4cb6-fda4-c3bf235a5963@emse.fr>
Simon,


Le 08/09/2020 à 08:52, Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton) a écrit :
> Thanks Swapna -
> 
> I believe that there are problems with Clause 1. and Clause 2.
> 
> I'm not sure how familiar you are with RDF model and syntax so I will try to spell it out reasonably fully.
> 
> 1. with respect to links - one of the patterns that is being considered for RDF quantities would see them encoded something like
> 
> ex:Simon rdf:type foaf:Person ;
> 	ex:height "175.5"^^ucum:cm ;
> .

This is probably not a good example since it is not using UCUM codes at 
all (except perhaps the fact that "cm" is present in a URI, but so is 
"m" in ex:Simon, "a" in foaf:Person, "t" in rdf:type, "u" in ucum:cm, 
"P" in foaf:Person, but no copyright laws can prevent anyone to use one 
or two letters in URIs).

> This is the compact 'Turtle' syntax. It is nice because it leaves the numeric part alone as a decimal, so the standard RDF parsers would work. But also shows the unit of measure right next to it in a form which fits with the RDF model. If we assume that the prefixes are defined as follows -
> 
> @prefix 	ex: 	<https://example.org/test/> .
> @prefix 	foaf:	<http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
> @prefix		rdf:	<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
> @prefix		ucum:	<https://example.com/ucum/> .
> 
> Then expanding that data into triples and URIs it looks like this:
> 
> <https://example.org/test/Simon>	<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type>	<http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person> .
> <https://example.org/test/Simon>	<https://example.org/test/height>	"175.5"^^<https://example.com/ucum/cm>  .
> 
> In the RDF and Linked Data world the expectation is that every http URI should de-reference, with the result being a representation or description of the thing denoted, preferably in a variety of formats.  So the question is: what should <https://example.com/ucum/cm> de-reference to? The user would expect just a description of 'centimetre', preferably with an RDF representation available.

This is not a problem for "cm" because "cm" is an SI unit. Everyone can 
use "cm" in any way without copyright reference.

> The UCUM site and the UCUM table do not meet this expectation.

What expectation? There is no need or obligation for any specification 
to say that anyone must follow linked data principles.

> The definition for 'cm' does not appear explicitly in the UCUM table, because it is implied by the UCUM production rules. But clause 1. Of the UCUM Terms of Use https://ucum.org/trac/wiki/TermsOfUse appears to prohibit pointing to anything except the UCUM specification and table:
> 
> 	"users shall not use any of the Licensed Materials for the purpose of developing or promulgating a different standard for identifying units of measure, regardless of whether the intended use is in the field of medicine, or any other field of science or trade."

Using "cm" (or any of the UCUM codes) does not constitute a breach of 
this rule. It only breaks the rule if there is a specification that 
contradicts the specification in UCUM. Which is not the case in your 
example.

> 2. QUDT does not 'incorporate the UCUM specification'. QUDT defines a model (ontology) for describing units-of-measure. The QUDT definitions are functionally the same as the UCUM definitions, but the representation is different. Each gives the conversion factors to the SI unit for the same dimension quantity definition, and is also annotated with a variety of symbols used conventionally in different contexts, including the UCUM code. The master dataset is here: https://github.com/qudt/qudt-public-repo/blob/master/vocab/unit/VOCAB_QUDT-UNITS-ALL-v2.1.ttl For example https://github.com/qudt/qudt-public-repo/blob/master/vocab/unit/VOCAB_QUDT-UNITS-ALL-v2.1.ttl#L2769  shows the definition of 'Centimeter'
> 
> unit:CentiM
>    a qudt:DerivedUnit ;
>    a qudt:Unit ;
>    dcterms:description "A centimetre is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length. Centi is the SI prefix for a factor of 10.  The centimetre is the base unit of length in the now deprecated centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system of units."^^rdf:HTML ;
>    qudt:conversionMultiplier "0.01"^^xsd:double ;
>    qudt:conversionOffset "0.0"^^xsd:double ;
>    qudt:dbpediaMatch "http://dbpedia.org/resource/Centimetre"^^xsd:anyURI ;
>    qudt:hasQuantityKind quantitykind:Length ;
>    qudt:iec61360Code "0112/2///62720#UAA375" ;
>    qudt:informativeReference "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centimetre?oldid=494931891"^^xsd:anyURI ;
>    qudt:isScalingOf unit:M ;
>    qudt:prefix <http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/prefix/Centi> ;
>    qudt:symbol "cm" ;
>    qudt:ucumCode "cm" ;
>    qudt:uneceCommonCode "CMT" ;
>    qudt:unitOfSystem <http://qudt.org/vocab/sou/SOU_CGS> ;
>    qudt:unitOfSystem <http://qudt.org/vocab/sou/SOU_SI> ;
>    rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit> ;
>    rdfs:label "Centimeter" ;
> .

Centimeter is an SI unit, so you can use it, define it, do whatever you 
like, however you like with it. There is no reason to even consider UCUM 
copyright notice.

> One of the annotations is the UCUM Code - cm. However, showing the UCUM code in the context of a representation of this unit-of-measure that is different to the UCM specification appears to violate Clause 1. of the UCUM Terms of Use, quoted above, even though it is functionally equivalent, and probably also Clause 2:
> 
> 	"Users shall not modify the Licensed Materials and may not distribute modified versions of the UCUM table (regardless of format) or UCUM Specification. Users shall not modify any existing contents, fields, description, or comments of the Licensed Materials, and may not add any new contents to it."
> .
> 
> since the QUDT representation includes additional information that is not from the UCUM specification.

UCUM and its copyright notice is not preventing anyone from using other 
ways of representing, exchanging, defining units of measures.

> The UCUM Terms of Use appear to reflect some assumptions from an earlier time, when most software was self-contained and designed to run locally. The web and cloud give us the opportunity to compose software systems in a more distributed manner, with small elements disaggregated and transferred as-needed, often with a variety of representations available. UCUM is an excellent resource, but the license inhibits its impact in the more modern environment.

I don't agree. The UCUM terms should be updated because they are not 
sufficiently clear about how UCUM can be used, but they are not 
preventing any of the things you are pretending.

The following may be a better example:

  @prefix cdt: <http://w3id.org/lindt/custom_datatypes#>
  ex:glass ex:contains "1 [pt_us]"^^cdt:ucum .

In this case, the data is using the code [pt_us], which is clearly a 
UCUM code, and the datatype IRI is dereferencing to a specification of 
the datatype that mentions UCUM. This specification should mention the 
copyright notice, but it does not. As far as I understand Swapna's 
email, the use of [pt_us] in the data is not a problem, but the failure 
to reproduce the copyright notice in the specification of cdt:ucum 
(http://w3id.org/lindt/custom_datatypes#ucum) is.

--AZ

> 
> Simon
> 
>> -----Original Message-----
>> From: Abhyankar, Swapna <sabhyank@regenstrief.org>
>> Sent: Tuesday, 8 September, 2020 12:09
>> To: Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton) <Simon.Cox@csiro.au>; David Booth
>> <david@dbooth.org>; semantic-web@w3.org
>> Cc: ClemMcDonald@mail.nih.gov; gunther@pragmaticdata.com
>> Subject: Re: [External] RE: UCUM licensing [was Re: Blank nodes must DIE! ]
>>
>> Hi everyone,
>>
>> (I don't know what the protocol is on these messages - should I remove
>> individual recipients who are also on the list)?
>>
>> What we intend is that if UCUM units are used in conjunction with data, no
>> copyright notice is needed. It’s only if the specification itself is incorporated
>> into a product or service for distribution, then the notice will be needed. This
>> is the same for LOINC – if LOINC codes are used in conjunction with patient
>> data, no notices are required.
>>
>> I'm not sure I entirely understand your statement - "1. the proposals for use
>> of UCUM for qualifying quantity values in RDF are fine as long as it is just the
>> UCUM code that is used, but as soon as there is an expectation of a link to a
>> definition for the code, then we may fall foul of the original Terms of Use if
>> we link to anything other than the UCUM spec itself."
>> Would it be possible for you to send some examples? If the UCUM codes are
>> simply being used in conjunction with quantitative data, then I don't think
>> there's a problem, but I'm not sure where linking to a definition for the code
>> comes in to play.
>>
>> Also, I am not familiar with QUDT, but if QUDT incorporates the UCUM
>> specification, we would simply require inclusion of the copyright notice in the
>> QUDT license or terms of use or webpage(s) that include UCUM content to
>> acknowledge Regenstrief as the copyright holder of UCUM.
>>
>> I would be happy to have a call to discuss these issues so that I may
>> understand them better and determine how to proceed as we discuss
>> updating the UCUM terms of use with Regenstrief  legal counsel.
>>
>> Thanks,
>> Swapna
>>
>> ----------------------------------------------------
>> Swapna Abhyankar, MD
>> Interim Director
>> LOINC and Health Data Standards
>> 1101 West Tenth Street
>> Indianapolis, IN  46202
>>
>>
>> On 9/3/20, 7:33 PM, "Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton)" <Simon.Cox@csiro.au>
>> wrote:
>>
>>      This message was sent from a non-IU address. Please exercise caution
>> when clicking links or opening attachments from external sources.
>>      -------
>>
>>      Excellent - I had just been fossicking around the LHNCBC site trying to track
>> down someone who might be able to help, since they host some nice UCUM
>> tools. I found than Clem McDonald, who was one of the originators of UCUM
>> (along with Gunther Schadow) is now based there. I've cc'ed them both
>> here, though I haven't had any recent response from attempts to contact
>> Gunther.
>>
>>      AFAICT there are two primary concerns:
>>
>>      1. the proposals for use of UCUM for qualifying quantity values in RDF are
>> fine as long as it is just the UCUM code that is used, but as soon as there is an
>> expectation of a link to a definition for the code, then we may fall foul of the
>> original Terms of Use if we link to anything other than the UCUM spec itself.
>>
>>      2. closely related (though not previously on this list), QUDT does provide
>> individual definitions of units of measure, following their own ontology.
>> These are functionally equivalent to the definitions implied in the UCUM
>> spec (of course) but UCUM does not provide a way to transport individual
>> definitions, so the QUDT representations are "different". Furthermore, many
>> of the individual units in the QUDT library are annotated with UCUM codes
>> (alongside other symbols and codes). Does this violate the UCUM license?
>> Probably yes.
>>
>>      Everyone's intentions are honourable, and in particular the interest from
>> RDF and QUDT recognizes the excellent job that UCUM does in providing
>> readable, unique codes, which nicely solves an important problem - all credit
>> to UCUM. ... except for the issue around the license. It would be to
>> everyone's benefit to get this resolved.
>>
>>      Simon Cox
>>
>>      > -----Original Message-----
>>      > From: David Booth <david@dbooth.org>
>>      > Sent: Friday, 4 September, 2020 00:13
>>      > To: semantic-web@w3.org
>>      > Cc: Abhyankar, Swapna <sabhyank@regenstrief.org>
>>      > Subject: UCUM licensing [was Re: Blank nodes must DIE! ]
>>      >
>>      > FYI, Swapna Abhyankar from Regenstrief (copied) is working on updating
>> the
>>      > UCUM license, and reached out to me to understand the concerns that
>> have
>>      > been raised on this list.  I suggested that he join this discussion, to directly
>>      > understand all concerns.
>>      >
>>      > David Booth
>>      >
>>      > On 9/3/20 5:43 AM, Antoine Zimmermann wrote:
>>      > > Indeed, Dave. The datatype discussed in this thread is the one
>>      > > colloquially identified as cdt:ucum, which stands for:
>>      > >
>>      > > http://w3id.org/lindt/custom_datatypes#ucum
>>      > >
>>      > > This URI dereferences to a documentation which is currently in
>>      > > disagreement with the Copyright Notice and License of UCUM since it
>>      > > does not include the said notice.
>>      > >
>>      > > The documentation is a draft, subject to evolve, and is not currently
>>      > > officially endorsed by any organisation, although we know people other
>>      > > than us who are using it in their projects.
>>      > >
>>      > > The URI contains the term "custom_datatype" because it is one of
>>      > > several custom datatypes that we are defining for various purposes. It
>>      > > was not initially planned to separate cdt:ucum from our other custom
>>      > > datatypes, but if their is a community willing to push this work
>>      > > towards standardisation, we should give a second thought to the
>>      > > namespace of the URI.
>>      > >
>>      > > We should also, obviously, update the documentation to make the
>>      > > Copyright Notice appear explicitly.
>>      > >
>>      > > However, I doubt that the copyright notice can legally enforce anyone
>>      > > to include the notice if they are merely using the codes in data about
>>      > > measurements or physical quantities. So, as far as I'm concerned, I
>>      > > will continue to use these codes and the cdt:ucum datatype whenever
>>      > > relevant in my projects or publications, as well as encourage others to
>> do
>>      > so.
>>      > >
>>      > >
>>      > > --AZ
>>      > >
>>      > >
>>      > >
>>      > > Le 03/09/2020 à 10:14, Dave Reynolds a écrit :
>>      > >> On 03/09/2020 09:04, Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton) wrote:
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>   * That just allows exchange of any /measurements/
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> This is the RDF application that we were discussing in this thread,
>>      > >>> I think - where the UCUM code only appears in the context of a
>>      > >>> measurement instance (i.e. a quantity) either embedded in the
>>      > >>> literal else appearing in a data-type.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>
>>      > >> If appearing as a data-type that would be a URI surely? And, if a
>>      > >> URI, given this is on the semantic-web list, wouldn't that URI
>>      > >> resolve to something? That something would be explicitly or
>>      > >> implicitly communicating partial information from UCUM. It's whoever
>>      > >> puts up those data type URIs that needs to find a way through the
>>      > "prickly"
>>      > >> license.
>>      > >>
>>      > >> Dave
>>      > >>
>>      > >>> I can see your point that QUDT may be violating the strict
>>      > >>> interpretation, so will attempt to clear that up separately. But I
>>      > >>> still content that the use-case canvassed in this thread is OK.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> *From:*Dave Reynolds <dave.reynolds@epimorphics.com>
>>      > >>> *Sent:* Thursday, 3 September, 2020 17:49
>>      > >>> *To:* semantic-web@w3.org
>>      > >>> *Subject:* Re: Blank nodes must DIE! [ was Re: Blank nodes
>> semantics
>>      > >>> - existential variables?]
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> On 03/09/2020 03:43, Cox, Simon (L&W, Clayton) wrote:
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Dan Brickley wrote (a while back):
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     ØOn Thu, 23 Jul 2020 at 19:50, Patrick J Hayes <phayes@ihmc.us
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>
>>      >
>> <mailto:phayes@ihmc.us?Subject=Re%3A%20Blank%20nodes%20must%20D
>>      > IE!%2
>>      > >>> 0%5B%20was%20Re%3A%20Blank%20nodes%20semantics%20-
>>      > %20%20existential%
>>      > >>> 20variables%3F%5D&In-Reply-
>>      > To=%3CCAFfrAFqgq7JxxwzEhYoMV70haRznXkjLBi
>>      > >>>
>>      >
>> OwhQUjwGJ0S0vsug%40mail.gmail.com%3E&References=%3CCAFfrAFqgq7J
>>      > xxwzE
>>      > >>> hYoMV70haRznXkjLBiOwhQUjwGJ0S0vsug%40mail.gmail.com%3E>>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     wrote:
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø> Excellent. I have thought for some time that this way of
>>      > >>> using
>>      > >>>     datatyping
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø> would be the right way to go. Congratulations on having
>>      > >>>     actually done it :-)
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     ØThis is really interesting. Every couple of years I stumble
>>      > >>>     across UCUM (
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Øhttp://unitsofmeasure.org/trac ->
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Øhttp://unitsofmeasure.org/trac/wiki/TermsOfUse) before being
>>      > >>>     scared away by
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Øthe prickly terms of use document. It is not a document that
>>      > >>> seems to
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Øwelcome re-use.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Ø
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     ØDan
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     I've attempted to clarify this with Gunther Schadow, but can't
>>      > >>> get
>>      > >>>     a response.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Meanwhile, I was pointed to this service which does quantity
>>      > >>>     conversions based on UCUM codes:
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>       * Form UI - https://ucum.nlm.nih.gov/ucum-lhc/demo.html
>>      > >>>       * API - https://ucum.nlm.nih.gov/ucum-service.html
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     FWIW QUDT now has basic UCUM support as well -
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> https://github.com/qudt/qudt-public-
>>      > repo/blob/master/schema/SCHEMA_Q
>>      > >>> UDT-v2.1.ttl#L2924
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     I peered into the UCUM Terms of Use document and I believe this
>>      > >>> is
>>      > >>>     the relevant clause:
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>       * 5) UCUM codes and other information from the UCUM table
>> may
>>      > >>> be
>>      > >>>         used in electronic messages communicating measurements
>>      > >>> without
>>      > >>>         the need to include this Copyright Notice and License or a
>>      > >>>         reference thereto in the message (and without the need to
>>      > >>>         include all fields required by Section 7 hereof).
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     So I think we are in the clear to use UCUM codes in the manner
>>      > >>>     that has been discussed in this conversation.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> I disagree.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> That just allows exchange of any /measurements/, it doesn't allow
>>      > >>> use of UCUM codes within metadata. Any service which, for
>> example,
>>      > >>> provided metadata on units of measures and included UCUM codes
>> as
>>      > >>> part of that metadata would be in violation. Assuming it including
>>      > >>> non UCUM metadata then it would violate the "not add any new
>>      > >>> contents" element of clause 2. If you kept the UCUM codes separate
>>      > >>> and included /all/ the fields required then you might be able to
>>      > >>> claim that as the "master term dictionary" use allowed under clause
>>      > >>> 7 but then would have to show how you were satisfying the notice
>>      > >>> requirement which has no such corresponding allowance for
>>      > >>> "electronic messages".
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> I am not a lawyer and so what I say here carries no value. Perhaps
>>      > >>> the QUDT folks, if they are now using UCUM, have a documented
>> legal
>>      > >>> opinion that suggests more flexible reuse is possible.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>> Dave
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     *Simon J D Cox *
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Research Scientist - Environmental Informatics
>>      > >>>     <https://research.csiro.au/ei>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Team Leader - Environmental Information Infrastructure
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     CSIRO Land and Water <http://www.csiro.au/Research/LWF>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     **
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     *E*simon.cox@csiro.au <mailto:simon.cox@csiro.au> *T*+61 3
>> 9545
>>      > >>>     2365 *M*+61 403 302 672
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     /Mail:/ Private Bag 10, Clayton South, Vic 3169
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     /Visit: /Central Reception,//Research Way, Clayton, Vic 3168
>>      > >>>     ///honey.zebra.chip <https://w3w.co/honey.zebra.chip>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     /Workstation:/ Building 209 ///couple.page.roses
>>      > >>>     <https://w3w.co/couple.page.roses>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     /Deliver: /Gate 3, Normanby Road, Clayton, Vic 3168
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     people.csiro.au/Simon-Cox <http://people.csiro.au/Simon-Cox>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     orcid.org/0000-0002-3884-3420
>>      > >>> <http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3884-3420>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     github.com/dr-shorthair <https://github.com/dr-shorthair>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     Twitter @dr_shorthair <https://twitter.com/dr_shorthair>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     https://xkcd.com/1810/
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     CSIRO acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the land, sea and
>>      > >>>     waters, of the area that we live and work on across Australia.
>>      > >>> We
>>      > >>>     acknowledge their continuing connection to their culture and we
>>      > >>>     pay our respects to their Elders past and present.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     The information contained in this email may be confidential or
>>      > >>>     privileged. Any unauthorised use or disclosure is prohibited. If
>>      > >>>     you have received this email in error, please delete it
>>      > >>>     immediately and notify the sender by return email. Thank you. To
>>      > >>>     the extent permitted by law, CSIRO does not represent, warrant
>>      > >>>     and/or guarantee that the integrity of this communication has
>>      > >>> been
>>      > >>>     maintained or that the communication is free of errors, virus,
>>      > >>>     interception or interference.
>>      > >>>
>>      > >>>     CSIRO Australia'sNational Science Agency  | csiro.au
>>      > >>>     <https://www.csiro.au/>
>>      > >>>
>>      > >
>>
>>
> 
Received on Tuesday, 8 September 2020 23:54:57 UTC

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