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Re: Binary vs Text

From: David Neto <dneto@google.com>
Date: Tue, 13 Nov 2018 13:56:11 -0500
Message-ID: <CAPmVsJUwmSm0fOt+QYQqF+1rva4zYm6QVac28u3kpQ3Dmk_A9g@mail.gmail.com>
To: Maciej Stachowiak <mjs@apple.com>
Cc: James Darpinian <jdarpinian@google.com>, Filip Pizlo <fpizlo@apple.com>, Kai Ninomiya <kainino@google.com>, "Myles C. Maxfield" <mmaxfield@apple.com>, Jeff Gilbert <jgilbert@mozilla.com>, Kenneth Russell <kbr@google.com>, public-gpu <public-gpu@w3.org>
Thanks for the ack.

I look forward to substantive replies on the issues themselves.

Correct, I'm talking about GPUs in the target market for WebGPU, but which
aren't Apple's GPUs.  Even then, I haven't seen enough in the MSL 2.1 spec
to judge whether the semantics of image writes are spec'd clearly.   Hmm. I
just found something else, and I'll file an issue for that: WHLSL specifies
sequential_consistency ordering but only "relaxed" is defined for MSL 2.1.
 So I think you've misunderstood or mis-specified some concrete things even
for Apple platforms.


On Mon, Nov 12, 2018 at 7:41 PM Maciej Stachowiak <mjs@apple.com> wrote:

> Thanks for the issues! I took a glance and it seems like useful feedback.
> For what it’s worth - we have an actual implementation of WHLSL on top of
> Metal, so it seems implementable on at least all the GPUs supported by
> Metal.
> It’s possible that either we’ve missed some important subtleties, or the
> set of GPUs you know is disjoint from the set of GPUs supported by Metal
> Regards,
> Maciej
> On Nov 12, 2018, at 4:18 PM, David Neto <dneto@google.com> wrote:
> Hi.  I'm very late to this thread (sorry).  I have not caught up on it
> (double-sorry).
> At the moment WHLSL is unimplementable on the GPUs I know, due to
> oversimplification in WHLSL's memory model.  I have filed 7 issues against
> the WHLSL spec. (#247 through #253).  Some are more fundamental than others.
> thanks
> david
> On Mon, Nov 12, 2018 at 6:54 PM Maciej Stachowiak <mjs@apple.com> wrote:
>> On Nov 12, 2018, at 2:41 PM, James Darpinian <jdarpinian@google.com>
>> wrote:
>> > Too much complexity is bad for both humans writing the language and
>> software consuming it.
>> You are conflating two different kinds of complexity. Features that make
>> reading or writing the language less complex for humans may make the
>> implementation more complex and vice versa.
>> Sure, this may sometimes be true. Other times these two notions of
>> complexity are aligned.
>> Unfortunately the evidence that you request can only really be gathered
>> by implementation experience. If we continue down the path of implementing
>> both SPIR-V and WHLSL ingestion, I doubt that will help us come to
>> agreement. The evidence we gather is still subject to interpretation which
>> we will likely still disagree on, and the more we build the more we will
>> have to throw away, which we will naturally be reluctant to do.
>> I share your concern. I’m not sure how we get out of this impasse. One
>> thing we could  try is to lay out up front what sort of evidence, if
>> presented, would lead each side to change their position.
>> However, we have a lot of evidence already available to us from previous
>> implementers of modern graphics APIs, who have universally chosen to
>> provide ingestion formats that are different from their shading languages.
>> To the extent that this is true, I don’t place a lot of weight on it. The
>> web is a different environment, and often the right choice for the web is
>> different. If you choose web formats as the reference class rather than
>> shader formats for modern graphics APIs, the evidence is strongly in favor
>> of text based formats. I think “web-based languages" is a better choice of
>> reference, because almost every modern technology has required significant
>> rethinking and adaptation for the web, and many of the lessons learned are
>> universal.
>> It’s also worth noting that DX12 and Metal both have not chosen to make
>> an exclusive ingestion format that’s different from the shading language.
>> It’s possible to use the actual shading language at runtime. In the case of
>> Metal, the binary format is not even a compile target for third parties;
>> the only official input point is Metal.   It’s just that apps are allowed
>> to bundle a precompiled binary shader. Failing to directly handle a
>> human-authorable format at all would be the more unusual choice.
>> Regards,
>> Maciej
>> On Thu, Nov 8, 2018 at 11:59 PM Maciej Stachowiak <mjs@apple.com> wrote:
>>> On Nov 8, 2018, at 2:51 PM, James Darpinian <jdarpinian@google.com>
>>> wrote:
>>> > Specifically, I don’t agree that the ingestion format can or should be
>>> “non-evolving”
>>> Let's put that question aside for now. I'd like to find some things we
>>> can all agree on.
>>> It’s good to find things we can agree on. It’s also important to be
>>> clear about what we don’t yet agree on. I’ll try   to do both.
>>> Can we agree that the ingestion format and the shading language have
>>> different requirements that sometimes conflict,
>>> Depends on what you mean by “sometimes". I think I was pretty explicit
>>> about my position, but to state it again:
>>> - I agree that it’s possible in theory that we could find a such a
>>> conflict.
>>> - I don’t agree that we have already found one.
>>> - I agree that if we find a conflict, this may push us to use different
>>> languages for these things, if the best available compromise between the
>>> requirements is more harmful on net than the harm of having two separate
>>> languages.
>>> - I note that even for a single purpose of a language, there may be
>>> conflicting requirements that call for tradeoffs to be made.
>>> and in particular HLSL compatibility vs. simplicity is one of those
>>> conflicts?
>>> I don’t fully agree with this. To elaborate:
>>> * A good level of simplicity is a goal for both a human-writable shader
>>> language and an ingestion format. There’s a minimum level of complexity is
>>> set by the requirements of the domain (i.e. a shader language/format has to
>>> have the expressiveness and capabilities needed for shaders). Too much
>>> complexity is bad for both humans writing the language and software
>>> consuming it.
>>> * Perfect HLSL compatibility is likely not achievable for a
>>> human-writable shader language for the web, because regular HLSL doesn’t
>>> have the right safety properties. The question is how far to go in that
>>> direction. Being at least superficially similar is helpful for shader
>>> authors. Being real-world compatible with at least some HLSL shaders is
>>> even nicer, if it’s practical.
>>> * There is indeed some tradeoff between more HLSL compatibility and more
>>> complexity. But more complexity is a downside for humans too. So this
>>> tradeoff exists before you even consider the needs of software consuming
>>> the language. I suspect the best range in this tradeoff space is also a
>>> good spot for software ingestion needs. But I could be convinced otherwise
>>> by evidence.
>>> I guess there are some factual questions that could shed light on the
>>> matter:
>>> - Does WHLSL have good enough HLSL compatibility to allow any useful
>>> shaders at all to be brought over, or only  enough for vague familiarity?
>>> - Can more compatibility be added without:
>>> - Violating web safety requirements?
>>> - Adding a level of complexity that’s bad for authors?
>>> - Making the language too hard to process safely and robustly?
>>> - If more compatibility is added, will that actually allow more real
>>> existing shaders to run, or would it just add a bit more familiarity?
>>> I don’t know enough about HLSL or the world of HLSL shaders out there to
>>> answer these questions myself.
>>> Regards,
>>> Maciej
>>> On Thu, Nov 8, 2018 at 1:52 PM Maciej Stachowiak <mjs@apple.com> wrote:
>>>> On Nov 8, 2018, at 1:09 PM, James Darpinian <jdarpinian@google.com>
>>>> wrote:
>>>> > > Would you be interested in a non-evolving AST-level ingestion
>>>> format?
>>>> > Yes, if that format is text on the wire, since that is the most
>>>> efficient and simple way to express an AST format.
>>>> Perhaps there's something we can agree on here then. Can we agree that
>>>> the ingestion format and the shading language have different requirements
>>>> that sometimes conflict, e.g.  compatibility with existing HLSL vs.
>>>> simplicity,
>>>> I agree that it *may* be true, but not that it has been shown to be
>>>> true on this thread so far. Specifically, I don’t agree that the ingestion
>>>> format can or should be “non-evolving”. It should probably evolve more
>>>> slowly than other web languages, and likely will regardless, due to the
>>>> nature of the domain. But that’s about it.
>>>> and we should, as a group, investigate making the ingestion format
>>>> different from the shading language to better satisfy both sets of
>>>> requirements?
>>>> I think we are already investigating it in that we’re considering a web
>>>> dialect of SPIR-V as one of the ingestion formats, and no one thinks it’s a
>>>> human-writable shader language.
>>>> Whether we ultimately decide that the ingestion format is different
>>>> from the human-writable format remains to be seen. In my mind, it depends
>>>> on if we find that they actually have conflicting requirements, and that
>>>> the compromises necessary to satisfy both are a higher cost than having two
>>>> formats.
>>>> I tend to think a single text-based language can both be an adequate
>>>> compiler target for other languages, still nice to write directly, and
>>>> secure and robust enough to use as a wire format on the web, so I’m not yet
>>>> convinced we need two formats.
>>>> Regards,
>>>> Maciej
>>>> On Thu, Nov 8, 2018 at 8:45 AM Filip Pizlo <fpizlo@apple.com> wrote:
>>>>> On Nov 7, 2018, at 10:57 PM, Kai Ninomiya <kainino@google.com> wrote:
>>>>> Maciej: You're right that comparing WHLSL with JavaScript is not a
>>>>> fair analogy. I mistook your statement "The evidence from WebAssembly
>>>>> vs JavaScript suggests this probably won’t be true"  to be trying to
>>>>> make that analogy, but I see now that it was about a more specific point. I
>>>>> apologize for digging at this rathole.
>>>>> Filip: WebAssembly is a little hard to compare with SPIR-V since it's
>>>>> not SSA as you pointed out. WHLSL may be comparable to WebAssembly in that
>>>>> it is, in essence, an AST-level language. However, WHLSL is most definitely
>>>>> not at the level of WebAssembly when it comes to actual language
>>>>> complexity, if we are going to support existing HLSL code,
>>>>> I’m not sure that is true. Like WebAssembly, WHLSL just contains the
>>>>> low level features you need to build other things out of.
>>>>> The only manner in which WHLSL feels more complex to me is the
>>>>> addition of:
>>>>> - GPU style concurrency, which has more quirks than CPU style.
>>>>> - API for doing graphics things. WebAssembly is only concerned with
>>>>> the language and it has basically no api exposed to the wasm program. WHLSL
>>>>> has lots of spec-mandated functions exposed to the WHLSL program.
>>>>> So, I don’t think that WHLSL is more complex except where it
>>>>> absolutely has to be to do graphics. SPIR-V also has these additional
>>>>> complexities.
>>>>> and especially if we are going to add additional features (e.g.
>>>>> templates/generics or operator overloading) to the language.
>>>>> We aren’t proposing to add templates to WHLSL at this time. I think
>>>>> that when debating about WHLSL versus other languages, we should focus on
>>>>> what is being proposed rather than what might be proposed. I’m not a fan of
>>>>> critiquing something that might be proposed but hasn’t been proposed, since
>>>>> such a critique has no limiting principle - you could make up whatever you
>>>>> think WHLSL might have and point out that you don’t like it.
>>>>> WebAssembly does not need updates when C++ gains new language
>>>>> features,
>>>>> That’s not really true!  WebAssembly has to evolve to support some new
>>>>> features like threads and maybe simd.
>>>>> and I think this is a strength of both WebAssembly and SPIR-V.
>>>>> Both of them have been revved with new stuff in the past. Both of them
>>>>> will probably be revved with new stuff in the future.
>>>>> Would you be interested in a non-evolving AST-level ingestion format?
>>>>> Yes, if that format is text on the wire, since that is the most
>>>>> efficient and simple way to express an AST format. One of the lessons I
>>>>> learned from wasm is that binary serialization of ASTs is really hard, and
>>>>> considering the time it took to reach consensus on the technique wasm ended
>>>>> up using, I think that it’s just simpler to use a text format.
>>>>> Specifically:
>>>>> - text formats basically mean using delimiters (like { and }) around
>>>>> blocks of code. If you go binary you either have to invent some other
>>>>> delimiter or use block headers that tell the length. From a parsing
>>>>> standpoint, binary is just not any better than text.
>>>>> - text formats are trivial to introspect. There is no need for a
>>>>> separate text encoding used for View Source.
>>>>> I think that any argument in favor of binary has to be strong enough
>>>>> to counterbalance text’s benefits for view source.
>>>>> Maybe we should discuss it. (Although, IMO, existing HLSL is already
>>>>> too complex to use as a WASM-level AST-style format; Inventing a new format
>>>>> or repurposing WASM would be painful because it gets us neither an existing
>>>>> tool ecosystem nor an existing application ecosystem.)
>>>>> WHLSL (i.e. WSL at the time) started out as more of the thing you
>>>>> want, since it didn’t initially have all the stuff necessary to support all
>>>>> of HLSL. We removed generics to make the language even simpler.
>>>>> In the last call, we talked about going for full HLSL compatibility.
>>>>> That’s making WHLSL less like the thing that you want. For example, WHLSL
>>>>> currently avoids some complexity by having less of the lvalue magic that C
>>>>> has and by having a more restrictive parser. WHLSL also uses operator
>>>>> overloading to make many primitive operations (like +) exist outside the
>>>>> language itself - the language just views + as a function call.
>>>>> Personally, I’d be happy with a text shader format that goes for
>>>>> extreme simplicity. You could imagine making some additional
>>>>> simplifications, like requiring that all variables are declared at the top
>>>>> of function. Maybe there is even more that can be done to reduce
>>>>> complexity. My position is that these are the good things we want in a web
>>>>> shader format:
>>>>> 1) text
>>>>> 2) security
>>>>> 3) simplicity
>>>>> 4) compiler target
>>>>> 5) similar level of abstraction to SPIR-V
>>>>> WHLSL currently satisfies 1, 2, 4, and 5 but may be diverging from 3
>>>>> because of the desire for full HLSL compat.
>>>>> You could even imagine this:
>>>>> - WHLSL is like a kernel language (not in the sense of numerical
>>>>> kernel but in the sense of just having the core functionality) and doesn’t
>>>>> evolve much.
>>>>> - some other HLSL flavor has All The Features.
>>>>> - programmers can use WHLSL directly or they can use it as a compiler
>>>>> target.
>>>>> > Before SSA, folks used IRs with numbered temporaries like 3AC.
>>>>> IMO, 3AC is more like SSA than like AST when it comes to most issues,
>>>>> such as applying code transformations.
>>>>> I agree.
>>>>> Regardless, I agree that coming up with new variable names is not
>>>>> particularly problematic.
>>>>> On Wed, Nov 7, 2018 at 2:42 PM Filip Pizlo <fpizlo@apple.com> wrote:
>>>>>> On Nov 7, 2018, at 5:15 PM, Kai Ninomiya <kainino@google.com> wrote:
>>>>>> > OpLifetimeStart and OpLifetimeEnd are instructions in the SPIR-V
>>>>>> language, which presumably means that lifetimes are not clearly expressed
>>>>>> with those instructions. Even with the addition of those instructions, they
>>>>>> can’t be trusted because they have to be validated, which means they could
>>>>>> lie.
>>>>>> According to your links, OpLifetimeStart/OpLifetimeEnd are only valid
>>>>>> with Kernel capability (i.e. OpenCL). I would guess this is related to
>>>>>> physical pointers.
>>>>>> > Things like plumbing bounds around with other objects would
>>>>>> require rewriting functions and variables and operations on those
>>>>>> variables. It would require generating new SSA IDs or possibly regenerating
>>>>>> / reassigning them
>>>>>> Generating and reassigning SSA IDs is extremely simple compared with
>>>>>> non-SSA IDs. This is why SSA is used in modern compilers to begin with.
>>>>>> Before SSA, folks used IRs with numbered temporaries like 3AC. The
>>>>>> thing that SSA brings to the table is that it makes it easy to find the
>>>>>> definition of a variable given its use. That’s why compilers use it. If all
>>>>>> they wanted was an easy way to generate IDs then it’s just as easy to do
>>>>>> without SSA as with SSA.
>>>>>> That said, I think both of you guys have a point:
>>>>>> - It’s true that editing SPIR-V to insert checks will mean that
>>>>>> you’re not simply passing a SPIR-V blob through. You’re going to have to
>>>>>> decode it to an SSA object graph and then encode that graph back to a blob.
>>>>>> - It’s true that SPIR-V’s use of 32-bit variable IDs makes generating
>>>>>> new ones straightforward.
>>>>>> But I should note that since WebHLSL is not a higher order language,
>>>>>> generating new variable names is pretty easy. Any name not already used is
>>>>>> appropriate, which isn’t significantly different from finding a spare
>>>>>> 32-but variable ID.
>>>>>> > The evidence from WebAssembly vs JavaScript suggests this probably
>>>>>> won’t be true (if by “easier” you mean either “faster” or “simpler to code
>>>>>> correctly”).
>>>>>> It sounds like you are claiming that the JavaScript parser/code
>>>>>> generator is not more complex than the WASM parser/code generator. Is this
>>>>>> correct? Can you provide evidence for this claim?
>>>>>> Depends on what you mean by complexity. And it depends on a lot of
>>>>>> things that are not really inherent to the languages. And it depends on
>>>>>> whether you account for the handicap in JS due to JS being a more complex
>>>>>> language in ways that have nothing to do with binary versus text.
>>>>>> Without a doubt, parsing JavaScript is de facto more code than
>>>>>> parsing WebAssembly. This happens mostly because those parsers have been
>>>>>> hyper optimized over a long time (decade or more in some cases, like the
>>>>>> one in JSC). Maybe it’s also more code to parse JS even if you didn’t do
>>>>>> those optimizations, but I’m not sure we have an easy way of knowing just
>>>>>> by looking at an existing JS parser or wasm parser.
>>>>>> What is sure is that JavaScript has better startup time than
>>>>>> WebAssembly. See:
>>>>>> https://pspdfkit.com/blog/2018/a-real-world-webassembly-benchmark/
>>>>>> So if “complexity” is about time then I don’t think that WebAssembly
>>>>>> wins.
>>>>>> Looks like this varies by browser and it also looks like cases where
>>>>>> one language is faster to start than the other have more to do with the
>>>>>> compiler backend than parsing.
>>>>>> If by complexity you mean bugs, then WebAssembly parsing has bugs as
>>>>>> does JS. JS parsing has less bugs for us, but that may have to do more with
>>>>>> JS being very mature. It may also be because parsing text is easier to get
>>>>>> right.
>>>>>> If by complexity you mean amount of code or difficulty of code after
>>>>>> the parser but before the backend, then it’s unclear. WebAssembly and
>>>>>> JavaScript both have some quirks that implementations have to deal with
>>>>>> before emitting code to the backend. JSC does weird stuff to JS before
>>>>>> emitting bytecode and it has significant complexity in how it interprets
>>>>>> wasm to produce B3 IR. Also, WebAssembly opted against SSA - it’s more of
>>>>>> an AST serialization disguised as a stack-based bytecode than SSA. I think
>>>>>> wasm opted for that because dealing with something AST-like as an input was
>>>>>> thought to be easier than dealing with SSA as an input.
>>>>>> -Filip
>>>>>> On Wed, Nov 7, 2018 at 2:11 PM Myles C. Maxfield <mmaxfield@apple.com>
>>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>>> On Nov 6, 2018, at 3:55 PM, Jeff Gilbert <jgilbert@mozilla.com>
>>>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>>> I don't think it's necessarily helpful to think of this discussion as
>>>>>>> predominately binary vs text.
>>>>>>> I think there is a lot of value in a constrained, targeted ingestion
>>>>>>> format, *and separately* I think SPIR-V is a natural choice for this
>>>>>>> ingestion format.
>>>>>>> SPIR-V's core format is very, very easy to parse,
>>>>>>> SPIR-V is a sequence of 32-bit words, so you’re right that it’s easy
>>>>>>> to read a sequence of 32-bit words.
>>>>>>> However, a Web browser’s job is to understand any possible sequence
>>>>>>> of inputs. What should a browser do when it encounters two
>>>>>>> OpEntryPoint
>>>>>>> <https://www.khronos.org/registry/spir-v/specs/unified1/SPIRV.html#OpEntryPoint> instructions
>>>>>>> that happen to have the same name but different execution models? What
>>>>>>> happens when an ArrayStride
>>>>>>> <https://www.khronos.org/registry/spir-v/specs/unified1/SPIRV.html#Decoration> decoration
>>>>>>> is set to 17 bytes? What happens when both SpecId and BuiltIn decorations
>>>>>>> are applied to the same value
>>>>>>> <https://www.khronos.org/registry/spir-v/specs/unified1/SPIRV.html#_a_id_shadervalidation_a_validation_rules_for_shader_a_href_capability_capabilities_a>?
>>>>>>> SPIR-V today is clearly not a dream for ingestion. It is more difficult for
>>>>>>> a browser to understand a SPIR-V program than a WHLSL program.
>>>>>>> and lends itself
>>>>>>> well to simple but robust parsing. Lifetimes are clearly expressed,
>>>>>>> instruction invocations are very explicit, and ecosystem support is
>>>>>>> already good. It's a dream format for ingestion.
>>>>>>> Binning it with other (particularly older) binary formats is just
>>>>>>> inaccurate. Doing the initial parse gives you the structures
>>>>>>> (functions, types, bindings) you want pretty immediately. By
>>>>>>> construction, most unsafe constructs are impossible or trivially
>>>>>>> validatable. (SSA, instruction requirements, unsafe types, pointers)
>>>>>>> For what it's worth, text formats are technically binary formats
>>>>>>> with a charset. I would rather consume a constrained,
>>>>>>> rigidly-structured (SSA-like? s-expressions?) text-based assembly
>>>>>>> than some binary formats I've worked with. (DER, ugh!)
>>>>>>> Disentangling our ingestion format from the pressures of both
>>>>>>> redundancies and elisions that are desirable in directly-authored
>>>>>>> languages, simplifies things and actually prevents ambiguity. It
>>>>>>> immediately frees the authoring language to change and evolve at a
>>>>>>> faster rate, and tolerates more experimentation.
>>>>>>> I would rather solve the compilation tool distribution use-case
>>>>>>> without sacrificing simplicity and robustness in ingestion. A
>>>>>>> authoring-to-ingestion language compiler in a JS library would let us
>>>>>>> trivially share everything above the web-IR->host-IR translation,
>>>>>>> including optimization passes.
>>>>>>> On Tue, Nov 6, 2018 at 3:16 PM Ken Russell <kbr@google.com> wrote:
>>>>>>> Hi Myles,
>>>>>>> Our viewpoint is based on the experience of using GLSL as WebGL's
>>>>>>> input language, and dealing with hundreds of bugs associated with parsing,
>>>>>>> validating, and passing a textual shading language through to underlying
>>>>>>> drivers.
>>>>>>> Kai wrote this up at the beginning of the year in this Github issue:
>>>>>>> https://github.com/gpuweb/gpuweb/issues/44 , and there is a
>>>>>>> detailed bug list (which is still only a sampling of the associated bugs we
>>>>>>> fixed over the years) in this spreadsheet:
>>>>>>> https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1bjfZJcvGPI4M6Df5HC8BPQXbl847RpfsFKw6SI6_T30/edit#gid=0
>>>>>>> Unlike what I said on the call, the main issues aren't really around
>>>>>>> the parsing of the input language or string handling. Both the
>>>>>>> preprocessor's and compiler's parsers in ANGLE's shader translator are
>>>>>>> autogenerated from grammars. Of more concern were situations where we had
>>>>>>> to semi-arbitrarily restrict the source language so that we wouldn't pass
>>>>>>> shaders through to the graphics driver which would crash its own shader
>>>>>>> compiler. Examples included having to restrict the "complexity" or "depth"
>>>>>>> of expression trees to avoid stack overflows in some drivers (this was
>>>>>>> added as an implementation-specific security workaround rather than to the
>>>>>>> spec), working around bugs in variable scoping and shadowing, defeating
>>>>>>> incorrect compiler optimizations, and more. Please take the time to read
>>>>>>> Kai's writeup and go through the spreadsheet.
>>>>>>> The question will come up: would using a lower-level representation
>>>>>>> like SPIR-V for WebGPU's shaders really address these problems? I think it
>>>>>>> would. SPIR-V uses  SSA form and simple numbers for variables, which will
>>>>>>> eliminate entire classes of bugs in mishandling of language-level
>>>>>>> identifiers, variables, and scopes. SPIR-V's primitives are lower level
>>>>>>> than those in a textual shader language, and if it turns out restrictions
>>>>>>> on shaders are still needed in WebGPU's environment spec in order to work
>>>>>>> around driver bugs, they'll be easier to define more precisely against
>>>>>>> SPIR-V than source text. Using SPIR-V as WebGPU's shader ingestion format
>>>>>>> would bring other advantages, including that it's based on years of
>>>>>>> experience developing a portable binary shader representation, and has been
>>>>>>> designed in conjunction with GPU vendors across the industry.
>>>>>>> On the conference call I didn't mean to over-generalize the topic to
>>>>>>> "binary formats vs. text formats in the browser", so apologies if I
>>>>>>> misspoke.
>>>>>>> -Ken
>>>>>>> On Mon, Nov 5, 2018 at 10:58 PM Myles C. Maxfield <
>>>>>>> mmaxfield@apple.com> wrote:
>>>>>>> Hi!
>>>>>>> When we were discussing WebGPU today, the issue of binary vs text
>>>>>>> was raised. We are confused at the viewpoint that binary languages on the
>>>>>>> Web are inherently safer and more portable than text ones. All of our
>>>>>>> browsers accept HTML, CSS, JavaScript, binary image formats, binary font
>>>>>>> files, GLSL, and WebAssembly, and so we don’t understand how our teams came
>>>>>>> to opposite conclusions given similar circumstances.
>>>>>>> Can you describe the reasons for this viewpoint (as specifically as
>>>>>>> possible, preferably)? We’d like to better understand the reasoning.
>>>>>>> Thanks,
>>>>>>> Myles
Received on Tuesday, 13 November 2018 18:56:50 UTC

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