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DTTF: summary (gasp!)

From: Jonathan Borden <jonathan@openhealth.org>
Date: Wed, 22 May 2002 01:10:57 -0400
Message-ID: <002001c2014f$0fe05740$0301a8c0@ne.client2.attbi.com>
To: "WebOnt WG" <www-webont-wg@w3.org>
The WebOnt WG has been debating the issues surrounding the layering of OWL onto RDF for the existence of the WG with seemingly no end. At its core, the issue regards the ability to create a new language on top of an existing language in which everything which is said, is said to be a truth, the new language looses its ability to add anything to the equation or worse paradoxes ensue.

Note: this is long, to cut to the chase skip to the end. This document is also at: http://www.openhealth.org/WOWG/DTTF

The effort to both develop OWL as an extension to RDF and assert each and every triple, appears to have been akin to an attempt to stuff a balloon filled with water into a cube whose volume is less than that of the balloon: every attempt to stuff the balloon in results in some part of the balloon squeezing itself out somewhere.

The effort to summarize this discussion has been difficult, in a large part to the the unfortunate lack of proper _Subject_ lines to our email discussions. In any case:

The Problem: Peter Patel-Schneider has provided multiple and lengthly discourses on the paradoxes that ensue as a result of OWL as a  "same syntax" extension of RDF.

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002Feb/0172.html

The problem seems to be a result of the requirement for:

1) all RDF triples to be asserted i.e. "truths"

2) classes as instances

3) OWL's need to support commonsense entailments e.g. intersectionOf(student,employee) <=> intersectionOf(employee,student)

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0059.html

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0064.html

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002Apr/0240.html

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0057.html

> _:1 fowl:onProperty rdf:type .
> _:1 fowl:hasClass _:2 .
> _:2 fowl:OneOf _:3 .
> _:3 fowl:first _:4 .
> _:3 fowl:rest fowl:nil .
> _:4 fowl:complementOf _:1 .
>
>   _:1 is the set of objects
>   that are related to a particular complement of _:1
>   via rdf:type
>
>   if x rdf:type _:1
>   then x rdf:type _:4
>   but _:1 and _:4 are complements
>
>   so not x rdf:type _:1
>   if not x rdf:type _:1
>   then x rdf:type _:4
>   because _:1 and _:4 are complements
>
>   but then x rdf:type _:1
>


Pat Hayes states the problem such paradoxes cause for the Semantic Web:

[[

Look, the paradoxes are not a programming problem, and they don't have anything to do with non-termination. (A non-terminating process corresponds to something that is undecideable, roughly, not to a paradox.) If the SW tried to do reasoning in the presence of paradoxes, the problem would not be that code fails to terminate. All the reasoning engines would work fine, and if they were using DL-style logic then they would probably work quite efficiently and rapidly, producing correct, checkable proofs using semantically correct inference rules. However, the conclusions would all be worthless, because that perfectly valid logic would be able to prove that 2+2=5 and the Pope was both a Roman Catholic and also not a Roman Catholic, and so on. The problem would not be in the code, but in the content of the expressions manipulated by the code. The correctness of the code would not guarantee that the conclusions made any sense (in fact, it would guarantee that they *didnt* make sense.) The conclusions produced by any reasoner are only as good as the information it is given. In the presence of paradoxes it can produce nonsense all by itself, so any information it handles is potentially corrupted.

]]

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/2002Apr/0088.html 
Such problems illustrate the subtleties which result from simple assertions as simple "truthes" e.g. from Peter F. Patel-Schneider

[[

Now what about a document that consists of the following single statement:

         this a n3:falsehood .


Consider any interpretation for the document. Suppose the statement is
true in the interpretation.  But then the statement is false, because the
entire document belongs to n3:falsehood, and the statement is the only
statement in the document.  Suppose the statement is false in the
interpretation.  But then it is true, because the entire document does not
belong to n3:falsehood and the statement is the only statement in the
document.  Thus it is impossible to assign a truth value to this
statement (and document), thinking model theoretically, or it is possible
to derive both this formula and its negation, thinking proof
theoretically.

(The document is, of course, just the liar's paradox in another guise. If
anyone is uncomfortable with the use of an implicit scope for ``this'', the
statement 


       { this a n3:falsehood } a log:Truth .


under a reading that log:Truth is contingent truth would have done just as
well.)

]]

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/2002Apr/0095.html

Followup:

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/2002Apr/0106.html

Tarski's "Liar's paradox" led to his stating:

[[
8. THE INCONSISTENCY OF SEMANTICALLY CLOSED LANGUAGES.7

     If we now analyze the assumptions which lead to the antinomy of the
liar, we notice the following:


We have implicitly assumed that the language in which the antinomy is
constructed contains, in addition to its expressions, also the names of
these expressions, as well as semantic terms such as the term "true"
referring to sentences of this language; we have also assumed that all
sentences which determine the adequate usage of this term can be asserted in
the language. A language with these properties will be called "semantically
closed."

We have assumed that in this language the ordinary laws of logic hold.
]]
-- http://www.ditext.com/tarski/tarski.html


And so the problem of such paradoxes may be intrinsic to attempts to "layer" languages on top of languages which are "semantically closed" such as RDF sans unasserted triples.

Solution

The provision for triples that are unasserted allows such triples to be employed by OWL for purely syntactic purposes e.g.

<intersectionOf>

     <List><first><Class rdf:resource="#student"/></first>

          <rest><List><first><Class rdf:resource="#employee"/></first>

                           <rest><nil/></rest>

                     </List>

           </rest>

     </List>

</intersectionOf>

can be defined to entail =>

<intersectionOf>

     <List><first><Class rdf:resource="#employee"/></first>

          <rest><List><first><Class rdf:resource="#student"/></first>

                           <rest><nil/></rest>

                     </List>

           </rest>

     </List>

</intersectionOf>

i.e. owl:List, owl:first, owl:rest are used for syntactic purposes by OWL, whose MT defines the equivalence of the expressions regardless of the "truth" about which is first etc.

Similarly expressions such as:

this owl:include <http://example.org/anOntology.owl> .

are used as syntactic extensions to RDF, and result in committment to the referenced ontology.

The real requirement for unasserted triples comes down to the real inability of a language to extend itself:

[[

This idea of a self-extending language that can, in 
principle, describe extensions to itself and then in some sense 
become those extensions, like a railway locomotive laying its own 
tracks ahead of itself, is a powerful vision, and one that I can see 
might excite considerable enthusiasm.  However, so is a 
perpetual-motion machine, and for much the same reasons. 

]]

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002Apr/0253.html



"Comprehensive entailments" (CE) had been proposed as a "way out of the dark" i.e. a solution wich does not involve unasserted triples:

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002Apr/0155.html

 http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0060.html

This proposal appears to have problems with paradoxes:

http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0064.html

From a theoretical perspective Godel's Proof raises concerns as to the viability of such an approach (e.g. substitute "CE" for "PM"). In any case, given the raised paradox, such an approach would appear to require a considerable degree of additional research which is not appropriate to the charter of the WG. http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002May/0098.html

Implementing "unasserted triples" in RDF.

The RDF MT as it stands is entirely compatible with triples that are not asserted. A mechanism is needed to label such triples. There are several options:

1) a syntactic device such as contexts e.g. embedded <rdf:RDF> or <rdf:context> or <rdf:dark> 

****2) an RDFS based device such as http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-webont-wg/2002Apr/0290.html

-- this is my preference and would (IMHO) require the least change to RDF

Jonathan
Received on Wednesday, 22 May 2002 00:58:19 GMT

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