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RE: New Paper available for PDF download: Workflow is just a Pi process (or WFM is not BPM)

From: Greg Meredith <gregmer@microsoft.com>
Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2003 09:55:18 -0800
Message-ID: <DB785668D1900E41B8F429EF2B689EF6B3FDAD@RED-MSG-30.redmond.corp.microsoft.com>
To: "Jean-Jacques Dubray" <jeanjadu@Attachmate.com>, "Andrew Berry" <andyb@whyanbeel.net>
Cc: <public-ws-chor@w3.org>


You raise some interesting points. i would very much like to engage in
this dialogue further. Unfortunately, i am under considerable time
constraints until the first part of Dec. But, i have addressed your
concerns, briefly, in-line below.


Best wishes,




-----Original Message-----
From: Jean-Jacques Dubray [mailto:jeanjadu@Attachmate.com] 
Sent: Monday, November 17, 2003 9:01 AM
To: Greg Meredith; Andrew Berry
Cc: public-ws-chor@w3.org
Subject: RE: New Paper available for PDF download: Workflow is just a Pi
process (or WFM is not BPM)


>It is very difficult to model this without mobility. But, this scenario
is all over the place in workflow. It is >especially prevalent in
situations involving a broker-- which is one of the most dominant
patterns to be found in >the domain. 

It is the most prevalent pattern, simply because the technology that is
being sold today cannot support efficiently another pattern. The
challenge of SOA is precisely to invent a technology where P2P is the
prevalent pattern rather than P2B2P. The role of a broker in SOA is
merely reduced to the one of a registry. Nothing says that I want Amazon
to find a shipper for me. What if I don't like this shipper, what if I
use another shipper which is more efficient for my needs? 

The Broker model, like in EAI brings some economies of scale, but solves
the problem by creating other problems, in particular a central focal
point. This is precisely what SOA projects like ebXML have not built in
their architecture. Sure you could be a broker with an ebXML
architecture, that would work, but nothing in the architecture would
require to have a broker. Brokers are useful, but like every good
things, we have to use them reasonably.

So creating a technology that re-enforces this business model (e.g.
Orchestration as a broker not as a peer) is a non-goal for me.

[LGM] Pi-calculus neither enforces nor requires the use of the broker
model. i brought up the broker model only because it is so prevalent in
*business*. It has been in the past and will continue to be in the
future because of asymmetries in the market place. Pi-calculus is
extremely friendly to peer-to-peer where mobility is even more prominent
(because it cannot be the case that everybody knows everybody). Consider
the scenario i gave, but change the names from Consumer, Provider and
Shipper to John, Jill and James. John contacts Jill (at a well known
address because Jill is a known expert on pop music), with a query about
where to download a recording of a particular song, providing her his
email address for response. Jill responds with an email saying, i don't
know about this particular query, but i think James (here's his URL)
might. Even in a peer-to-peer setting, for example, you need a directory
agent to find who you're looking for. The directory agent is a broker.
The broker pattern is an intrinsic pattern that arises from non-uniform
local knowledge. i invite you to consider peer-to-peer in a model
without mobility or even without brokers.

>1. completeness -- i.e. Turing complete 
>2. compositionality -- the model is an algebra, the practical advantage
of which is that large(r) programs are 
>built from small(er) ones 3. concurrency -- the model has an explicit
account of autonomous execution 4. cost -- >the model has an explicit
account of resources like time and space

>Turing machines, for example, fail on features 2 and 3. 
>Lambda calculus fails on 3 and 4. 
>Petri nets fail on 2. 
>CCS, CSP fail on 4. 

This argumentation is very seducing (I am seduced), but IFAIK, windows
operting systems and C# for instance can support all 4 points. Does it
mean that windows and C# were build on a pi-foundation? (or maybe I am
not understanding what the 4 points are about). I am not questioning the
validity of your claims about formal models, I am more questioning the
validity of a formal model to get a certain job done. What would
pi-calculus give us that a well designed metamodel executed by existing
thenology (windows and C#, or JVM/Java) would not give us? What would be
the impact of having to use pi-calculus if we establish that this is the
only formalism that we can use: do we have to go back and change
microprocessor architectures, operating systems, languages? Or would
pi-calculus give us hints on how to design the best metamodel of a

            [LGM] Until the windows operating system and/or C# offer a
formal semantics neither seems like a particularly great place to start.
Why? Because 

*         reasonable practitioners disagree on the meanings/effects of
certain operations

*         they are much too complex - they don't offer an appropriate

C# is also quite bad as a choice because the model of concurrency is not
compositional and is at odds with what's required by trust boundaries.
Trust boundaries require message passing. Message passing is not a
primitive of C#. So, you will be back to building the thing you need on
top, not leveraging something that already has most of the requirements.

And, this gets to the heart of the matter. On what basis do you judge
"well-designed" in your meta-model? On what framework do you construct
your meta-model? How do you know what the constructs in the meta-model
mean? How do you know what the elements refer to? The mobile process
algebra gives you ready made answers for these more foundational
questions. They rely on well-established mathematics that also turns out
to be realizable on current technology. As an example, "well-designed"
in that setting means that certain calculations (like this
implementation really does respect this description of a flow) become
feasible. i wouldn't know how to begin to do this with C#, let alone
windows. As another example, mobile process algebras are usually
presented in terms of 

*         EBNF grammars to describe the syntactic structure of

*         a notion of structural equivalence, and 

*         a handful of reduction rules in the style of structured
operational semantics

All of these technologies are extremely well-debugged and give crisp,
clear presentations that are, thankfully, so compact that they usually
fit on a page. If you find a presentation of Windows, or C# for that
matter, that fits on page, i would be grateful if you could point me to
it. i have the devil of a time understanding what windows does in
certain cases and could really use such a cheat sheet.;-)


Jean-Jacques Dubray 
tel: 425-649-6584 
Cell: 508-333-7634 

-----Original Message----- 
From: Greg Meredith [mailto:gregmer@microsoft.com] 
Sent: Monday, November 17, 2003 8:28 AM 
To: Andrew Berry; Howard N Smith 
Cc: public-ws-chor@w3.org; W.M.P.v.d.Aalst@tm.tue.nl 
Subject: RE: New Paper available for PDF download: Workflow is just a Pi
process (or WFM is not BPM) 



You raise important concerns for workflow. i completely agree with you
that a decent account of workflow must address locality/distribution and
partial state. But, i must beg to differ on your analysis of the
pi-calculus with regards to partial state.

First, the notion of state must be identified with process in the
pi-calculus. Intuitively, a state is represented by what the process can
do based on what it "knows", i.e. what actions it is willing to engage
in, given what names are in scope. A really good example to consider is
modeling a cell where you can store a value. (See,

-91-180.ps, page 35.) 

Consider a collection, P_i, of processes. Since each process represents
a state, then an aggregate, or partitioned state may be represented by
the parallel composition of the P_i's, P = P_0 | P_1 | ... | P_N.

Notice that in any standard reduction rules for pi-calculus, the rule
for reduction in the parallel composition context will allow these
processes to reduce independently. Thus,

P_0 | P_1 | ... | P_N ->* P_0 | ... | P_j' | ... | P_k' | ... | P_N. 

State change has not happened all at once for all of P. Bit's and pieces
of it have updated, but not the whole thing. You would have to introduce
a protocol, e.g., 2PCPA, amongst the participants of P to get certain
kinds of atomicity and isolation guarantees regarding the visibility of
state change. Fortunately, 2PCPA *is* a protocol and as such can be well
described in pi (see Berger and Honda's paper for a treatment of this,
ftp://ftp.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/lfp/kohei/express00.ps.gz). Therefore, the
agents providing this protocol can be composed with the agents of P to
give the overall semantics desired. 

Note that, since this introduces a coding overhead, various researchers
in the process algebra community have added primitives to the calculus
to abstract this coding. This foreshadows a more general point i want to
make that can be illustrated by considering the issue of modeling

i completely agree that locality and distribution are notions almost
completely lacking in plain vanilla pi-calculus. Unfortunately, i think
that a terrible type/token confusion takes over in these discussions. It
should be plainly obvious that barebones, plain pi-calculus cannot be
used for serious applications like workflow without considerable
enrichment. For example, 

1. real workflow applications will describe message flows branching on
numeric computation; the pi-calculus doesn't have a useable theory of
numeric computation; and the encodings of numbers to be found-- though
quite intriguing-- would simply be too arduous with which to code; 2.
real workflow applications will describe message flows with complex
message structure, e.g. messages with structure like XML documents;
neither monadic nor polyadic pi-calculus is up to this task; 3. real
workflow applications require that there is not a global name manager;
plain vanilla pi-calculus requires that there *is* one; 4. real workflow
applications are probably not going to require a heavy-weight protocol
to ensure-- in a distributed setting-- the summation semantics the
pi-calculus delineates.

That said, the pi-calculus provides a *framework* in which to develop
the appropriate formalism. This framework is objectively and
demonstrably different from the other models of computation put forward.

And, it is better suited to the modeling of domains like workflow than
any other model put forward so far. i will return to this point in a

So, as long as we recognize that the pi-calculus is really a stand in
for the class of mobile process algebras, then we are much more likely
to achieve an understanding of how the pi-calculus can genuinely help
model scenarios in the workflow domain. With respect to distribution and
locality, there are several very variations of the pi-calculus that
provide very useful accounts of these notions. For example, Vasconselos,
et al, recently developed lsd-pi which addresses distribution in a typed
setting (http://www.di.fc.ul.pt/~vv/papers/02-4.pdf). Another approach
to these problems is found in the join-calculus of Fournet
(http://www.cs.unibo.it/~laneve/papers/bisim.ps), et al. Another
approach is found in the work of Wischik, et al, on explicit fusions

Just as you will have to adapt the framework to provide a variant that
deals with complex message structure, you will have to adapt the
framework to provide a variant that deals with distribution. There are
several flavors. Try a few on a few problems and see which one is better
suited. If none are suited, that's wonderful, we have discovered

Now, as for the suitability of the framework to this domain, it turns
out that the mobile process algebras are the first model of computation
to simultaneously enjoy four features

1. completeness -- i.e. Turing complete 
2. compositionality -- the model is an algebra, the practical advantage
of which is that large(r) programs are built from small(er) ones 3.
concurrency -- the model has an explicit account of autonomous execution
4. cost -- the model has an explicit account of resources like time and

Turing machines, for example, fail on features 2 and 3. 
Lambda calculus fails on 3 and 4. 
Petri nets fail on 2. 
CCS, CSP fail on 4. 

And, of course, each one of these also has the very same issue in that
they are abstractions, frameworks, not ready-made models, and will have
to be adapted to fit the domain. For example, it would be much too
onerous to use Church numerals (ala lambda calculus) to do the
arithmetic calculations on which to make workflow decisions.

Noting that the pre-mobile process algebras only lack a notion of cost,
it is most instructive to see how the introduction of mobility
simultaneously provides many important features of both practical and
theoretical import. For example, an account of space consumption of a
program is available in pi (and its variants): count the fresh names
generated by a computation. It is also quite necessary as a practical
feature in workflow. Consider the following scenario.

Consumer goes to a well known port of Provider (www.amazon.com) and
emits a message containing a port (consumer@msn.com) at which she would
like to be contacted for further interaction. Provider processes
consumers message, contacts Shipper and emits a messages to Consumer
with, among other things, the port (www.ups.com/tracking) where Consumer
may see the status of her purchase. 

It is very difficult to model this without mobility. But, this scenario
is all over the place in workflow. It is especially prevalent in
situations involving a broker-- which is one of the most dominant
patterns to be found in the domain.

In my brief experience with the domain i have found that the four
features outlined above constitute a bare minimum of requirements of the
computational model necessary to model workflow without imposing undue
labor on the part of the modeler. The mobile process algebras are
objectively, the first models of computation to enjoy these properties

Very likely, now that we have examples of models that enjoy these
properties together we will come up with new and better ones. But, the
only way i know how to do that is to go about the job of modeling real
application scenarios with the best technology available and seeing
where the technology falls short, and then, seeing what it takes (from
minor tweak to paradigm shift) to account for what's actually happening
or needs to happen in the application.

Best wishes, 

L.G. Meredith 

P.S. There is a coda to this discussion regarding the difference between
modeling workflow and providing *public descriptions* of a flow. A model
may be quite detailed and provide information about implementation and
strategy that a business is not interested in revealing to its customers
or competitors. A public description has one primary function -- to
facilitate search and discovery. Given this distinction, the language in
which public descriptions are expressed should *not* be complete.

Fortunately, in this connection, the mobile process algebras present
another distinguishing characteristic. Over the past decade, a notion of
behavioral typing has emerged and been effected in the mobile process
algebra setting. The languages for these types have exactly the right
properties to be used as the basis for public descriptions of processes.

See my recent paper in the ACM for a more detailed discussion of these


-----Original Message----- 
From: public-ws-chor-request@w3.org 
[mailto:public-ws-chor-request@w3.org] On Behalf Of Andrew Berry 
Sent: Monday, November 17, 2003 2:57 AM 
To: Howard N Smith 
Cc: public-ws-chor@w3.org; W.M.P.v.d.Aalst@tm.tue.nl 
Subject: Re: New Paper available for PDF download: Workflow is just a Pi
process (or WFM is not BPM) 



You have a fundamental problem with the choice of Pi Calculus: there is
no concept of locality or partial state. In choreography and web
services in general, you can guarantee that participants (processes) are
physically distributed and need to make choices based on a partial view
of state.  To successfully model, program and reason about these
processes, you need to be able to identify and reason about partial

Consider your deferred choice semantics.  If the processes identified as
choices are physically distributed, you *cannot* make a choice without
synchronisation of processes because distinct choices can be made in a
truly concurrent fashion.  Pi Calculus has no way of identifying this
issue, let alone reasoning about it.  Explicit synchronisation
processes, while solving the problem for a given process, require that
the programmer reason about distribution and locality outside the bounds
of the Pi Calculus semantics.  I would therefore argue that a worflow
and in particular a choreography is not a Pi Process.




On Wednesday, November 12, 2003, at 03:00  AM, Howard N Smith wrote: 

> Choreography pioneers, 
> Following a short conversation with Steve R-T, he agreed for me to 
> send you this paper. 
> It is intended as a draft for discussion. 
> The paper is new information. It shows how, based on BPML, it is 
> possible to model all of the advanced workflow patterns identified by 
> workflow theorists, whereas most workflow engines only support approx 
> 50% of patterns directly and very few of the advanced patterns. 
> In addition, it gives insights into the BPML implementation inherent 
> to a BPMS, and how a BPMS is able to support many process models not 
> supported by workflow technology. 
> Screenshots from Intalio|n3 BPMS are given as examples. Further, the 
> workflow engine itself can be modelled in BPML, as reusable processes 
> for use in end-to-end processes. The paper was written to more fully 
> explain the work of BPMI.org and its direction in creating BPMS 
> foundation technologies. 
> Peter Fingar and I have taken great care with this paper, and do hope 
> it adds to the understanding of BPML/BPMI/BPMS direction. While the 
> paper cannot present proof of these claims, you can consider it a 
> report on the work so far. 
> The paper can be downloaded from: 
> http://www.bpm3.com/picalculus/workflow-is-just-a-pi-process.pdf 
> Regards, 
> Howard 
> --- 
> New Book - Business Process Management: The Third Wave www.bpm3.com 
> Howard Smith/CSC/BPMI.org 
> cell             +44 7711 594 494 (worldwide) 
> home office +44 20 8660 1963 
Received on Monday, 17 November 2003 12:59:36 UTC

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