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Literature review for disability, privacy and security

From: Scott Hollier <scott@hollier.info>
Date: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 08:19:40 +0000
To: RQTF <public-rqtf@w3.org>
Message-ID: <CO2PR01MB216899AFB729004A0EEB9158DCF70@CO2PR01MB2168.prod.exchangelabs.com>
To the RQTF

Following up on my action item from two weeks ago, I did a literature review on disability as it relates to privacy and security respectively.

In relation to disability and online privacy, most of the literature can be separated into two categories:

  1.  How people with disabilities are able to understand the privacy requirements, i.e. the complexities around privacy policies, how privacy settings are presented, the expectations of privacy if assistive technologies can’t access the information
  2.  Social media privacy specifically:  how social media privacy is monitored, how vulnerable people with intellectual disabilities can safely use social media, research projects designed to maximise benefits of social media while minimising concerns.

In relation to disability and security, the literature can also be separated into two  different categories:

  1.  How systems can meet accessibility requirements while remaining secure. Research tends to focus on either how to make the policy or legislative framework better suited to the online environment, or takes a technical approach such as the security flaws in WCAG and how to overcome them. This represents most of the papers out there
  2.  How people with particular disabilities can challenge security, e.g.  particular disabilities such as autism impact on cybersecurity in relation to their attack and defence skills

I’ve found about 40 peer-reviewed articles from the past 10 years or so with some examples of more recent ones reference below.  and would be happy ow rite this all up if helpful.

Look forward to chatting more on the call.

Scott.

Security and Disability
1. Is There a Relationship Between Cyber-Dependent Crime, Autistic-Like Traits and Autism?

  *   Katy-Louise Payne<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-1>,
  *   Ailsa Russell<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-2>,
  *   Richard Mills<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-3>,
  *   Katie Maras<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-4>,
  *   Dheeraj Rai<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-5> &
  *   Mark Brosnan<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#auth-6>
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/journal/10803> volume 49, pages4159–4169(2019)Cite this article<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#citeas>

  *   2065 Accesses
  *   16 Altmetric
  *   Metrics details<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5/metrics>
Abstract
International law enforcement agencies have reported an apparent preponderance of autistic individuals amongst perpetrators of cyber-dependent crimes, such as hacking or spreading malware (Ledingham and Mills in Adv Autism 1:1–10, 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR52>). However, no empirical evidence exists to support such a relationship. This is the first study to empirically explore potential relationships between cyber-dependent crime and autism, autistic-like traits, explicit social cognition and perceived interpersonal support. Participants were 290 internet users, 23 of whom self-reported being autistic, who completed an anonymous online survey. Increased risk of committing cyber-dependent crime was associated with higher autistic-like traits. A diagnosis of autism was associated with a decreased risk of committing cyber-dependent crime. Around 40% of the association between autistic-like traits and cyber-dependent crime was mediated by advanced digital skills.
Ledingham and Mills (2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR52>) define cybercrime as “The illegal use of computers and the internet, or crime committed by means of computers and the internet.” Within the legal context (e.g. in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark; Ledingham and Mills 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR52>), there are two distinct types of cybercrime: (1) cyber-dependent crime, which can only be committed using computers, computer networks or other forms of information communication technology (ICT). These include the creation and spread of malware for financial gain, hacking to steal important personal or industry data and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks to cause reputational damage; and (2) cyber-enabled crime such as fraud, which can be conducted online or offline, but online may take place at unprecedented scale and speed (McGuire and Dowling 2013<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR57>; The National Crime Agency: NCA 2016<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR63>). In England and Wales, all forms of cybercrime were included in the Office for National Statistics crime estimates for the first time in 2016, which resulted in a near doubling of the crime rate. Cyber-dependent crime specifically represented 20% of UK crime (Office for National Statistics 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR65>) and in England and Wales in 2018, 976,000 cyber-dependent computer misuse incidents were reported (computer viruses and unauthorised access, including hacking: Office for National Statistics 2019<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR66>). Furnell et al. (2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR34>) propose that it is more important to understand the factors leading to cyber-dependent incidents and how to prevent them, than to focus on metrics such as specific costs to the global economy. Having interviewed cyber-dependent criminals, the NCA’s intelligence assessment (2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR64>) identified that perpetrators are likely to be teenage males who are unlikely to be involved in traditional crime and also that autism spectrum disorder (ASD, hereafter autism) appears to be more prevalent amongst cyber-dependent criminals than the general populace—though this remains unproven. No socio-demographic bias has yet been identified amongst cyber-dependent offenders or those on the periphery of criminality.
This apparent relationship between cyber-dependent crime and autism is echoed in a survey of six international law enforcement agencies’ (UK; USA; Australia; New Zealand; Germany; the Netherlands; Denmark) experiences and contact with autisticFootnote 1<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-019-04119-5#Fn1> cybercriminals (Ledingham and Mills 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR52>), which indicated that some autistic individuals commit cyber-dependent offences. Offences committed included: hacking; creating coding to enable a crime to be committed; creating, deploying or managing a bot or bot-net; and malware (Ledingham and Mills 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR52>). This was a small-scale study, limiting the generalisability of findings, but it does indicate a presence of autistic offenders within cyber-dependent crime populations, although the link between autism and cyber-dependent crime remains largely speculative as cyber-dependent criminality may be evidenced within a wide range of populations. Further clarification of any relationship between autism and cyber-dependent crime is required before any conclusions can be inferred.
Studies in Asia, Europe, and North America have identified an average prevalence of autism of between 1% and 2% (CDC 2018<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR21>). Autism is a long-term condition predominately diagnosed in males, characterised by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction coupled with restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities (American Psychiatric Association 2013<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR1>; CDC 2018<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR21>). One possibility is that the anecdotal evidence of apparent autism-like behaviour in cyber-dependent criminals may actually be reflecting people with high levels of autistic-like traits who do not have a diagnosis of autism (Brosnan in press). Autistic-like traits refer to behavioural traits such as social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, and difficulty displaying emotions (Gernsbacher et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR35>). Autistic-like traits are argued to vary continuously across the general population, with studies reporting that autistic groups typically have higher levels of autistic-like traits than non-autistic comparison groups (Baron-Cohen et al. 2001<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR8>, 2006<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR6>; Constantino and Todd 2003<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR26>; Kanne et al. 2012<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR48>; Plomin et al. 2009<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR67>; Posserud et al. 2006<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR68>; Skuse et al. 2009<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR79>; see also Bölte et al. 2011<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR11>; Gernsbacher et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR35>; Ronald and Hoekstra 2011<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR71>; Ruzich et al. 2015a<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR73> for meta-analysis). Autistic-like traits are typically assessed through self-report measures such as the 50-item Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ: Baron-Cohen et al. 2001<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR8>; see also Baghdadli et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR3>). Ruzich et al.’s (2015a<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR73>) meta-analysis of responses to the AQ from almost 7000 non-autistic and 2000 autistic respondents identified that non-autistic males had significantly higher levels of autistic-like traits than non-autistic females, and that autistic people had significantly higher levels of autistic-like traits compared to the non-autistic males (with no sex difference within the autistic sample). A clinical cut-off of a score of 26 on the AQ has been proposed to be suggestive of autism (Woodbury-Smith et al. 2005b<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR88>), and whilst there are similarities between those with and without a diagnosis of autism who score above the cut-off the AQ, the AQ is not diagnostic. Importantly, there are also differences between those with and without a diagnosis of autism who scored above the cut-off (Ashwood et al. 2016<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR2>; Bralton et al. 2018<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR12>; Focquaert and Vanneste 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR30>; Lundqvist and Lindner 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR55>; see also Frith 2014<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR31>).
With respect to cyber-dependent crime, some members of both autistic and high autistic-like trait groups will have developed advanced digital skills that are likely to be required to commit cyber-dependent crime. Indeed a specific relationship between ‘autism and the technical mind’ has been previously speculated by Baron-Cohen (2012<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR5>; see also Wei et al. 2013<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR84>). Moreover, computer science students and those employed in technology are two of the groups who typically possess higher levels of autistic-like traits (Baron-Cohen et al. 2001<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR8>; Billington et al. 2007<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR9>; Ruzich et al. 2015b<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR72>). These relationships are potentially significant, as cyber-dependent criminal activity requires an advanced level of cyber-related skills (such as proficiency in programming in Java, C/C++, disassemblers, and assembly language and programming knowledge of scripting languages [PHP, Python, Perl, or Shell]; Insights 2018). Thus, there may be an association between autistic-like traits and the potential to develop the advanced digital skills required for cyber-dependent crime.
Assessing the relationship between autistic-like traits and cyber deviancy in a sample of college students, Seigfried-Spellar et al. (2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR77>) found that of 296 university students, 179 (60%) engaged in some form of cyber-deviant behaviour (such as hacking, cyberbullying, identity theft, and virus writing) and the AQ distinguished between those who did and those who did not self-report cyber-deviant behaviour, with higher AQ scores among those reporting cyber-deviant behaviours. The authors also reported that if they used a cut-off score on the AQ of 26 to indicate high levels of autistic-like traits associated with autism, then 7% of the computer non-deviants and 6% of the computer deviants scored in this range. The authors concluded that ‘based on these findings alone, there is no evidence of a significant link between clinical levels of [autism] and computer deviance in the current sample. Nevertheless, the current study did find evidence for computer deviants reporting more autistic-like traits, according to the AQ, compared to computer non-deviants’. However, ‘cyber-deviant’ behaviour in Seigfried-Spellar et al.’s study included both cyber-enabled crimes such as cyberbullying and identity theft, as well as cyber-dependent crimes such as hacking and virus writing. This requires a more nuanced examination as there may be important differences in the relationship between autistic-like traits and cyber-dependent crime compared with cyber-enabled crime.
Cyber-enabled crime is an online variant of traditional crimes (such as fraud) and shares common motivations such as financial gain, whereas the motivations for cyber-dependent crime can be based around a sense of challenge in hacking into a system or enhanced reputation and credibility within hacker communities (NCA 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR64>). This may be pertinent for the relationship between cyber-dependent crime specifically and autism or autistic-like traits, since cyber-dependent criminals typically have not engaged in traditional crime (NCA 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR64>) and autism has been associated with generally being law abiding and low rates of criminality (Blackmore et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR10>; Ghaziuddin et al. 1991<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR36>; Heeramun et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR41>; Howlin 2007<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR45>; Murrie et al. 2002<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR61>; Wing 1981<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR85>; Woodbury-Smith et al. 2005a<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR87>, 2006<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR86>). In addition, several studies have suggested that autistic internet-users can demonstrate a preference for mediating social processes online, such as preferring to use social media over face-to-face interaction to share interests (Brosnan and Gavin 2015<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR17>; Gillespie-Lynch et al. 2014<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR37>; van der Aa et al. 2016<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR83>). This may be significant, as it has been suggested that social relationships developed online are key to progressing into cyber-dependent crime, with forum interaction and reputation development being key drivers of cyber-dependent criminality (NCA 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR64>).
Finally, failing to appreciate the impact of crime upon others may be a relevant factor, as autism has been argued to reflect a diminished social cognition (e.g., theory of mind, Baron-Cohen et al. 1985<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR7>). It has been suggested that there are two levels of social cognition; namely, a quicker and less conscious implicit social cognition, and a more conscious, slower and controlled explicit social cognition (Frith and Frith 2008<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR32>; see also Heyes 2014<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR44>). Autistic individuals are often not impaired in explicit social cognition, but are reportedly impaired on implicit social cognition (Callenmark et al. 2014<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR20>; see also Dewey 1991<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR29>; Frith and Happé 1999<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR33>). This profile is also reflected in non-social cognition such as reasoning (Brosnan et al. 2016<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR18>, 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR16>; Lewton et al. 2018<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR54>) which may be better characterised as impaired processing of automatic, cognitively efficient heuristics (Brosnan and Ashwin 2018<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR15>; Happé et al. 2017<https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.ecu.edu.au/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04119-5#ref-CR39>). Explicit social cognition is therefore a more pertinent measure of the potential to consider the impact of crime upon others.
The aim of the present study was to explore the apparent relationship identified by international law enforcement agencies between autistic-like traits and cyber-dependent crime. To do this, we conducted an online survey exploring autistic-like traits, cyber-related activities (legal and illegal) as well as perceived interpersonal support and explicit theory of mind. Our research question addressed whether higher autistic-like traits, lower explicit theory of mind and lower perceived interpersonal support would increase the risk of committing cyber-dependent crime. We also addressed whether autistic-like traits would be associated with cyber-dependent crime and whether this relationship would be mediated by advanced digital skills. Given the findings associating higher levels of law-abiding behaviour with autism, we also speculated that autism may represent a group of individuals with higher levels of autistic-like traits, but without a higher risk of committing cyber-dependent crime.
2. ‘I kind of figured it out’: the views and experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in using social media—self-determination for participation and inclusion online<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/8020615970?databaseList=638>
by Melissa Brunner<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DBrunner%2C%20Melissa&databaseList=638>, Stuart Palmer<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DPalmer%2C%20Stuart&databaseList=638>, Leanne Togher<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DTogher%2C%20Leanne&databaseList=638>, Bronwyn Hemsley<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DHemsley%2C%20Bronwyn&databaseList=638>
Format:
Article Publication year: 2019 Peer-reviewed No other editions or formats
Journal: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders v54 n2 (March/April 2019): 221-233
Background: Social media can support people with communication disability to access information, social participation and support. However, little is known about the experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who use social media to determine their needs in relation to social media use.<br>Aims: To determine the views and experiences of adults with TBI and cognitive-communication disability on using social media, specifically: (1) the nature of their social media experience; (2) barriers and facilitators to successful use; and (3) strategies that enabled their use of social media.<br>Methods & Procedures: Thirteen adults (seven men, six women) with TBI and cognitive-communication disability were interviewed about their social media experiences, and a content thematic analysis was conducted.<br>Outcomes & Results: Participants used several social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and virtual gaming worlds. All but one participant used social media several times each day and all used social media for social connection. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) getting started in social media for participation and inclusion; (2) drivers to continued use of social media; (3) manner of using social media; (4) navigating social media; and (5) an evolving sense of social media mastery. In using platforms in a variety of ways, some participants developed an evolving sense of social media mastery. Participants applied caution in using social media, tended to learn through a process of trial and error, and lacked structured supports from family, friends or health professionals. They also reported several challenges that influenced their ability to use social media, but found support from peers in using the social media platforms. This information could be used to inform interventions supporting the use of social media for people with TBI and directions for future research.<br>Conclusions & Implications: Social media offers adults with TBI several opportunities to communicate and for some to develop and strengthen social relationships. However, some adults with TBI also reported the need for more information about how to use social media. Their stories suggested a need to develop a sense of purpose in relation to using social media, and ultimately more routine and purposeful use to develop a sense of social media mastery. Further research is needed to examine the social media data and networks of people with TBI, to verify and expand upon the reported findings, and to inform roles that family, friends and health professionals may play in supporting rehabilitation goals for people with TBI.
Background: Social media can support people with communication disability to access information, social participation and support. However, little is known about the experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who use social media to determine their needs in relation to social media use.<br>Aims: To determine the views and experiences of adults with TBI and cognitive-communication disability on using social media, specifically: (1) the nature of their social media experience; (2) barriers and facilitators to successful use; and (3) strategies that enabled their use of social media.<br>Methods & Procedures: Thirteen adults (seven men, six women) with TBI and cognitive-communication disability were interviewed about their social media experiences, and a content thematic analysis was conducted.<br>Outcomes & Results: Participants used several social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and virtual gaming worlds. All but one participant used social media several times each day and all used social media for social connection. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) getting started in social media for participation and inclusion; (2) drivers to continued use of social media; (3) manner of using social media; (4) navigating social media; and (5) an evolving sense of social media mastery. In using platforms in a variety of ways, some participants developed an evolving sense of social media mastery. Participants applied caution in using social media, tended to learn through a process of trial and error, and lacked structured supports from family, friends or health professionals. They also reported several challenges that influenced their ability to use social media, but found support from peers in using the social media platforms. This information could be used to inform interventions supporting the use of social media for people with TBI and directions for future research.<br>Conclusions & Implications: Social media offers adults with TBI several opportunities to communicate and for some to develop and strengthen social relationships. However, some adults with TBI also reported the need for more information about how to use social media. Their stories suggested a need to develop a sense of purpose in relation to using social media, and ultimately more routine and purposeful use to develop a sense of social media mastery. Further research is needed to examine the social media data and networks of people with TBI, to verify and expand upon the reported findings, and to inform roles that family, friends and health professionals may play in supporting rehabilitation goals for people with TBI.

PRIVACY

Online Privacy and Disability
Applying a critical approach to investigate barriers to digital inclusion and online social networking among young people with disabilities<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7108790367?databaseList=638>
by Lareen Newman<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DNewman%2C%20Lareen&databaseList=638>, Kathryn Browne-Yung<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DBrowne-Yung%2C%20Kathryn&databaseList=638>, Parimala Raghavendra<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DRaghavendra%2C%20Parimala&databaseList=638>, Denise Wood<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DWood%2C%20Denise&databaseList=638>, Emma Grace<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DGrace%2C%20Emma&databaseList=638>
Format:Article
Publication year: 2017 Peer-reviewed
No other editions or formats
Journal: Information Systems Journal v27 n5 (September 2017): 559-588
Despite the seeming ubiquity of young people's Internet use, there are still many for whom access to the Internet and online social networking remains inequitable and patterned by disadvantage. The connection between information technology and young people with disabilities is particularly under-researched. This article contributes to the field of critical information systems research by exposing significant barriers and facilitators to Internet accessibility for young people with disabilities. It uses Bourdieu's critical theory to explore how the unequal distribution of resources shapes processes of digital inclusion for young people with disabilities. It highlights access needs and experiences that are both disability and non-disability related. The article draws on interviews in South Australia with 18 young people aged 10-18 years with a physical disability (such as cerebral palsy) or acquired brain injury and with 17 of their family members. Interviews evaluated participants' and parents' reflections on the benefits of a home-based, goal-oriented intervention to increase the young person's Internet use for social participation purposes. The Bourdieuian analysis demonstrated how varying levels of accrued individual and family offline capital resources are related to digital/online resources and disability-specific online resources. This revealed how unequal resources of capital can influence technology use and hence digital inclusion for young people with disabilities. Our study demonstrates that young people with particular types of disabilities require intensive, personalised and long-term support from within and beyond the family to ‘get online’. We conclude that Internet studies need to more frequently adopt critical approaches to investigate the needs of users and barriers to information technology use within sub-groups, such as young people with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Despite the seeming ubiquity of young people's Internet use, there are still many for whom access to the Internet and online social networking remains inequitable and patterned by disadvantage. The connection between information technology and young people with disabilities is particularly under-researched. This article contributes to the field of critical information systems research by exposing significant barriers and facilitators to Internet accessibility for young people with disabilities. It uses Bourdieu's critical theory to explore how the unequal distribution of resources shapes processes of digital inclusion for young people with disabilities. It highlights access needs and experiences that are both disability and non-disability related. The article draws on interviews in South Australia with 18 young people aged 10-18 years with a physical disability (such as cerebral palsy) or acquired brain injury and with 17 of their family members. Interviews evaluated participants' and parents' reflections on the benefits of a home-based, goal-oriented intervention to increase the young person's Internet use for social participation purposes. The Bourdieuian analysis demonstrated how varying levels of accrued individual and family offline capital resources are related to digital/online resources and disability-specific online resources. This revealed how unequal resources of capital can influence technology use and hence digital inclusion for young people with disabilities. Our study demonstrates that young people with particular types of disabilities require intensive, personalised and long-term support from within and beyond the family to ‘get online’. We conclude that Internet studies need to more frequently adopt critical approaches to investigate the needs of users and barriers to information technology use within sub-groups, such as young people with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

2. Improving the information society skills: Is knowledge accessible for all?<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7673149923?databaseList=638>
by David Fonseca<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DFonseca%2C%20David&databaseList=638>, Miguel Ángel Conde<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DConde%2C%20Miguel%20A%CC%81ngel&databaseList=638>, Francisco J García-Peñalvo<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DGarci%CC%81a-Pen%CC%83alvo%2C%20Francisco%20J&databaseList=638>
Format:
Article Publication year: 2018
Peer-reviewed: No other editions or formats
Journal: Universal Access in the Information Society : International Journal v17 n2 (201806): 229-245
The emergence and popularization of information and communications technologies (ICT) is changing modern society and its educational landscape. ICT facilitates individuals’ ability to learn anywhere and at any time. In fact, by using ICT, access to knowledge acquisition is not restricted to formal contexts, such as academic institutions. This position paper reviews the educational contexts in which new learning strategies using ICT have been adapted, by focusing on how users access information and improve their digital skills. Our initial hypothesis is that in technological environments, learners use very specific devices and applications to access information, because content accessibility depends on both the user’s profiles and ICT. We demonstrate this through a case study applied in several Spanish university institutions.
The emergence and popularization of information and communications technologies (ICT) is changing modern society and its educational landscape. ICT facilitates individuals’ ability to learn anywhere and at any time. In fact, by using ICT, access to knowledge acquisition is not restricted to formal contexts, such as academic institutions. This position paper reviews the educational contexts in which new learning strategies using ICT have been adapted, by focusing on how users access information and improve their digital skills. Our initial hypothesis is that in technological environments, learners use very specific devices and applications to access information, because content accessibility depends on both the user’s profiles and ICT. We demonstrate this through a case study applied in several Spanish university institutions.

3. The Potential of Digital Technology to Improve Self-Care for Musculoskeletal Conditions<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7408003533?databaseList=638>
by Courtenay Stewart<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DStewart%2C%20Courtenay&databaseList=638>, Ryan Fraiser<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DFraiser%2C%20Ryan&databaseList=638>, Patricia Zheng<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DZheng%2C%20Patricia&databaseList=638>
Format: Article
Publication year: 2018
No other editions or formats
Journal: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports v6 n1 (201803): 45-48
Digital technology offers a broad range of tools that can be used to enhance health care. We aim to summarize for the physiatrist use-cases of these tools in musculoskeletal self-care.<br>Recent advances in and increasing prevalence of wearable sensors and mobile phones make these digital technologies ideal tools to help patients become active participants in their own healthcare. However, given digital health technologies’ fast-paced growth and turnover, implementation and research challenges remain.<br>Digital technology provides novel methods to objectively evaluate patients and to engage them in active rehabilitation. Further research is needed to guide the adaptation of these emerging tools to enhance self-care of musculoskeletal conditions. Physiatrists, who have extensive experience in non-surgical management of mobility-limiting conditions, are particularly equipped to lead the efforts in the design and validation of these technologies.
Digital technology offers a broad range of tools that can be used to enhance health care. We aim to summarize for the physiatrist use-cases of these tools in musculoskeletal self-care.<br>Recent advances in and increasing prevalence of wearable sensors and mobile phones make these digital technologies ideal tools to help patients become active participants in their own healthcare. However, given digital health technologies’ fast-paced growth and turnover, implementation and research challenges remain.<br>Digital technology provides novel methods to objectively evaluate patients and to engage them in active rehabilitation. Further research is needed to guide the adaptation of these emerging tools to enhance self-care of musculoskeletal conditions. Physiatrists, who have extensive experience in non-surgical management of mobility-limiting conditions, are particularly equipped to lead the efforts in the design and validation of these technologies.

4. Leveraging Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities through Participation on Facebook<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7261499889?databaseList=638>
by Carmit-Noa Shpigelman<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DShpigelman%2C%20Carmit-Noa&databaseList=638>
Format: Article
Publication year: 2018
Peer-reviewed
No other editions or formats
Journal: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities v31 n1 (January 2018): e79-e91
Background: Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited.<br>Method: This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities.<br>Results: The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital.<br>Conclusions: Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation.
Background: Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited.<br>Method: This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities.<br>Results: The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital.<br>Conclusions: Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation.

5. Cyber Victimization and Depression among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Buffering Effects of Parental Mediation and Social Support<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7435816932?databaseList=638>
by Michelle F Wright<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DWright%2C%20Michelle%20F&databaseList=638>
Format: Article
Publication year: 2018
Peer-reviewed
No other editions or formats
Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma v11 n1 (201803): 17-25
The purpose of the present study was to examine the buffering effect of parental mediation of technology use and social support from parents on the association between cyber victimization and depression, assessed over one year. Participants were 113 7th through 9th graders from the Midwestern United States (age ranged from 12 to 17 years old; 86% were male) who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. They completed questionnaires on their perceptions of parental mediation of technology use, perceived social support from parents, and self-reported face-to-face and cyber victimization and depression at Wave 1. One year later, at Wave 2, they completed a questionnaire on their depression. Results indicated that the associations between cyber victimization and depression were more negative at higher levels of perceived parental technology mediation and social support, while these associations were more negative at lower levels of these variables, after controlling for face-to-face victimization and Wave 1 depression.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the buffering effect of parental mediation of technology use and social support from parents on the association between cyber victimization and depression, assessed over one year. Participants were 113 7th through 9th graders from the Midwestern United States (age ranged from 12 to 17 years old; 86% were male) who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. They completed questionnaires on their perceptions of parental mediation of technology use, perceived social support from parents, and self-reported face-to-face and cyber victimization and depression at Wave 1. One year later, at Wave 2, they completed a questionnaire on their depression. Results indicated that the associations between cyber victimization and depression were more negative at higher levels of perceived parental technology mediation and social support, while these associations were more negative at lower levels of these variables, after controlling for face-to-face victimization and Wave 1 depression.

6. Ethical Design of Intelligent Assistive Technologies for Dementia: A Descriptive Review<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/7807531929?databaseList=638>
by Marcello Ienca<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DIenca%2C%20Marcello&databaseList=638>, Tenzin Wangmo<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DWangmo%2C%20Tenzin&databaseList=638>, Fabrice Jotterand<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DJotterand%2C%20Fabrice&databaseList=638>, Reto W Kressig<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DKressig%2C%20Reto%20W&databaseList=638>, Bernice Elger<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DElger%2C%20Bernice&databaseList=638>
Format:
Article
Publication year: 2018
Peer-reviewed
No other editions or formats
Journal: Science and Engineering Ethics v24 n4 (201808): 1035-1055
The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology (IAT) in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the design of current IATs. Our screening shows that a significant portion of current IATs is designed in the absence of explicit ethical considerations. These results suggest that the lack of ethical consideration might be a codeterminant of current structural limitations in the translation of IATs from designing labs to bedside. Based on these data, we call for a coordinated effort to proactively incorporate ethical considerations early in the design and development of new products.
The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology (IAT) in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the design of current IATs. Our screening shows that a significant portion of current IATs is designed in the absence of explicit ethical considerations. These results suggest that the lack of ethical consideration might be a codeterminant of current structural limitations in the translation of IATs from designing labs to bedside. Based on these data, we call for a coordinated effort to proactively incorporate ethical considerations early in the design and development of new products.

7. What Pacemakers Can Teach Us about the Ethics of Maintaining Artificial Organs<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/detailed-record/6881055775?databaseList=638>
by Katrina Hutchison<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DHutchison%2C%20Katrina&databaseList=638>, Robert Sparrow<https://ecu.on.worldcat.org/search?queryString=au%3DSparrow%2C%20Robert&databaseList=638>
Format:
Article
Publication year: 2016
Peer-reviewed
No other editions or formats
Journal: Hastings Center Report v46 n6 (November/December 2016): 14-24
<i>One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs.</i><br><i>We briefly outline the nature and history of cardiac pacemakers, with a particular focus on the need for technical support, maintenance, and replacement of these devices. Drawing on the existing medical literature and on our conversations and correspondence with cardiologists, regulators, and manufacturers, we describe five sources of ethical issues associated with pacemaker maintenance: the location of the devices inside the human body, such that maintenance generates surgical risks; the complexity of the devices, which increases the risk of harms to patients as well as introducing potential injustices in access to treatment; the role of software—particularly software that can be remotely accessed—in the functioning of the devices, which generates privacy and security issues; the impact of continual development and improvement of the device; and the influence of commercial interests in the context of a medical device market in which there are several competing products. Finally, we offer some initial suggestions as to how these questions should be answered.</i>
<i>One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs.</i><br><i>We briefly outline the nature and history of cardiac pacemakers, with a particular focus on the need for technical support, maintenance, and replacement of these devices. Drawing on the existing medical literature and on our conversations and correspondence with cardiologists, regulators, and manufacturers, we describe five sources of ethical issues associated with pacemaker maintenance: the location of the devices inside the human body, such that maintenance generates surgical risks; the complexity of the devices, which increases the risk of harms to patients as well as introducing potential injustices in access to treatment; the role of software—particularly software that can be remotely accessed—in the functioning of the devices, which generates privacy and security issues; the impact of continual development and improvement of the device; and the influence of commercial interests in the context of a medical device market in which there are several competing products. Finally, we offer some initial suggestions as to how these questions should be answered.






3.


[Scott Hollier logo]Dr Scott Hollier
Digital Access Specialist
Mobile: +61 (0)430 351 909
Web: www.hollier.info<http://www.hollier.info/>

Technology for everyone

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