RE: Keywords needed to help with music domain searches

To the RQTF

I've spent the week in my second attempt to find domain-specific literature for music accessibility and happily I've had more success. However, after going through hundreds of possibilties I"ve only found a small number that are directly relevant. Which I've provided below. It's a small start but hopefully we can build it up from here. 



Author: Bellini, P., Barthelemy, J., Nesi, P. and Zoia, G.
Year: 2004
Title: A proposal for the integration of symbolic music notation into multimedia frameworks
Place Published: USA
Pages: 36-43
Abstract: Integration of music notation in multimedia frameworks, and particularly in MPEG, could open new ways of valorization for that important part of our cultural heritage that is known as "music notation". Integration of music notation with multimedia content could also increase the distribution and diffusion of music notation. Moreover, integration with video, interactivity, digital rights management would enable the development of a huge number of completely new applications in several domains, from education and distance learning, to rehearsal and musical practice at home, and any forms of enjoyment of music that can be imagined. For these reasons we started a work for integrating symbolic music representation into MPEG standardization process and format. A proposal for realizing this integration in the MPEG-4 players is presented together with the main relationships that the symbolic music representation could have with all the MPEG components. The proposal is grounded on the basis of the assessment of the requirements of a large set of emerging new applications in which music notation is synchronized with multimedia content.

Author: Borges, José Antonio and Tomé, Dolores
Year: 2014
Title: Teaching Music to Blind Children: New Strategies for Teaching through Interactive Use of Musibraille Software
Journal: Procedia Computer Science
Volume: 27
Issue: C
Pages: 19-27
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for teaching music to blind children, based on the interaction with the Musibraille software, to which specific functions were added so it can support the activities of basic music education. The main activities and related functions are described and illustrated. Some essential project characteristics are also quickly shown, especially to explain the big changes it has produced in the role of Braille Music and in the music education of blind people in Brazil.

Author: Brown, Silas and Robinson, Peter
Year: 2004
Title: Transformation frameworks and their relevance in universal design
Journal: International Journal
Volume: 3
Issue: 3
Pages: 209-223
Abstract: Music, engineering, mathematics, and many other disciplines have established notations for writing their documents. Adjusting these notations can contribute to universal access by helping to address access difficulties, such as disabilities, cultural backgrounds, or restrictive hardware. Tools that support the programming of such transformations can also assist by allowing the creation of new notations on demand, which is an under-explored option in the relief of educational difficulties. This paper reviews some programming tools that can be used to effect such transformations. It also introduces a tool, called “4DML,” which allows the programmer to create a “model” of the desired result, from which the transformation is derived.

Author: Crombie, D., Diikstra, S., Lenoir, R., McKenzie, N. and Schut, E.
Year: 2002
Title: Towards accessible multimedia music
Place Published: USA
Pages: 192-199
Abstract: This paper addresses the provision of music for the print impaired in the digital age. In recent years a number of key initiatives, such as those undertaken by EC funded projects like HARMONICA and WEDELMUSIC, have opened up new opportunities in the field of interactive multimedia music. The area of music encoding is moving towards greater unification and co-ordination of effort with the activities and strategies being pursued by the Music Network. For organizations providing support and alternative format materials for print impaired people this offers the exciting challenge of bringing together several disparate activities and building a far stronger future for coding activities in this field. This paper provides an overview of the current situation
a detailed description of the key emergent themes
information about recent technical initiatives
and some insight into the activities planned for the coming years.

Author: Encelle, Benoit, Jessel, Nadine, Mothe, Josiane, Ralalason, Bachelin and Asensio, Javier
Year: 2009
Title: BMML: Braille Music Markup Language
Journal: Open Information Systems Journal
Volume: 3
Pages: 123-135
Abstract: Thanks to the WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative) guidelines for producing accessible HTML documents, visually impaired people can have better access to a lot of textual information. Concerning musical score, several encoding formats are available, focusing on the representation of different aspects of this kind of content. As XML is the standard for exchanging content through the Web, several XML applications have already been specified for representing musical scores, using the traditional music notation. As a result, users can access and share a lot of different types of musical content using the Web. However, for specific notations - like the Braille one - no dedicated XML application has been developed yet. Therefore, visually impaired musicians cannot easily represent, share, and access scores using the Web. This paper presents the application we have developed to respond to this need: BMML (Braille Music Markup Language). BMML handles specificities of Braille Music notation and takes into account the core features of existing formats. The main objective of BMML is to improve the accessibility of Braille musical scores.

Author: Goto, D., Gotoh, T., Minamikawa-Tachino, R. and Tamura, N.
Year: 2006
Title: A Transcription System from MusicXML Format to Braille Music Notation
Journal: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing
Volume: 2007
Issue: 1
Pages: 1-9
Abstract: The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.

Author: Homenda, W.
Year: 2010
Title: Intelligent computing technologies in music processing for blind people
Pages: 1400-1405
Abstract: A discussion on involvement of knowledge based methods in implementation of user friendly computer programs for disabled people is the goal of this paper. The paper presents a concept of a computer program that is aimed to aid blind people dealing with music and music notation. The concept is solely based on computational intelligence methods involved in implementation of the computer program. The program is build around two research fields: information acquisition and knowledge representation and processing which are still research and technology challenges. Information acquisition module is used for recognizing printed music notation and storing acquired information in computer memory. This module is a kind of the paper-to-memory data flow technology. Acquired music information stored in computer memory is then subjected to mining implicit relations between music data, to creating a space of music information and then to manipulating music information. Storing and manipulating music information is firmly based on knowledge processing methods. The program described in this paper involves techniques of pattern recognition and knowledge representation as well as contemporary programming technologies. It is designed for blind people: music teachers, students, hobbyists, musicians.

Author: Kiriella, Dawpadee B., Kumari, Shyama C., Ranasinghe, Kavindu C. and Jayaratne, Lakshman
Year: 2014
Title: Music Training Interface for Visually Impaired through a Novel Approach to Optical Music Recognition
Journal: GSTF Journal on Computing (JoC)
Volume: 3
Issue: 4
Pages: 1-14
Abstract: Some inherited barriers which limits the human abilities can be surprisingly win through technology. This research focuses on defining a more reliable and a controllable interface for visually impaired people to read and study eastern music notations which are widely available in printed format. One of another concept behind was that differently-abled people should be assisted in a way which they can proceed interested tasks in an independent way. The research provide means to continue on researching the validity of using a controllable auditory interface instead using Braille music scripts converted with the help of 3 rd parties. The research further summarizes the requirements aroused by the relevant users, design considerations, evaluation results on user feedbacks of proposed interface.

Reference Type:  Generic
Record Number: 32
Author: Petrie, H., Fisher, W., Langer, I., Weber, G., Gladstone, K., Rundle, C. and Pyfers, L.
Year: 2002
Title: Universal interfaces to multimedia documents
Place Published: USA
Pages: 319-324
Short Title: Universal interfaces to multimedia documents
DOI: 10.1109/ICMI.2002.1167015
Keywords: Computing and Processing
Abstract: Electronic documents theoretically have great advantages for people with print disabilities, although currently this potential is not being realized. This paper reports research to develop multimedia documents with universal interfaces which can be configured to the needs of people with a variety of print disabilities. The implications of enriching multimedia documents with additional and alternative single media objects is discussed and an implementation using HTML + TIME has been undertaken.


Dr Scott Hollier 
Digital Access Specialist 
Mobile: +61 (0)430 351 909
Technology for everyone
WCAG 2.1 has arrived – is your organisation ready? Keep up-to-date by following @scotthollier on Twitter and subscribing to Scott’s digital access newsletter. 

-----Original Message-----
From: Janina Sajka <> 
Sent: Wednesday, 19 September 2018 8:49 PM
To: Scott Hollier <>
Cc: Research Questions Task Force <>
Subject: Re: Keywords needed to help with music domain searches

Hi, Scott:

You are indeed most perceptive! I'm not surprised there would be lots of data on recorded music and its tagging. That is indeed NOT what we're talking about.

Some suggested search terms:

musical scoring rendering

And, I have a few URIs for you as well:

The DAISY Music Braille Project, now very active, is at:

And, the W3C activity on a successor markup for MusicXML, also quite active, is at:

Talk with you soon!


Scott Hollier writes:
> To the RQTF
> I've spent the past week having a  look for domain-specific literature in music and following up on some references I came across in my STEM searches. Unfortunately, the references I found led to discussion more on the benefit of digital music and the benefits of ID tags over music recorded on a physical medium such as a record which would seem to be out of scope of what I understand we're seeking.
> As such, I'll need some help in putting together the relevant keywords to narrow down the focus for the accessible music domain. If I could get some help with this it'd be great, then I'll return to my hunt for literature.
> In the meantime, I've found two more references relating to STEM which I think look really interesting.
> Dave: could you please add the two below to the wiki you created for the STEM literature?
> Thanks everyone,
> Scott.
> Author: Maćkowski, Michał, Brzoza, Piotr, Żabka, Marek and Spinczyk, 
> Dominik
> Year: 2018
> Title: Multimedia platform for mathematics' interactive learning 
> accessible to blind people
> Journal: An International Journal
> Volume: 77
> Issue: 5
> Pages: 6191-6208
> Alternative math presentation
> Math tutoring platform
> Distance learning
> Abstract: Nowadays, the math learning is an important step in developing professional carriers in technical and economic sciences. Increasing the number of e-learning tools used in universities courses can reduce the potential barrier of access to mathematical knowledge, but most of them are not accessible for impaired students. Moreover, classical printed math books include little explicit instructional information about structural information interpretations. Taking into account these barriers the article presents the developed method used for creating interactive steps of decomposed math's exercise solution and alternative description of math formulas accessible for the blind. The elements of proposed methodology: generation of state machine, design and presentation of transition conditions, generating the presentation layer and a typical usage by a blind user are presented. A set of rules for describing mathematical formulas were proposed after consultation with mathematicians and teachers of blind people. The application was developed as web application. The graphical interface of presented application was designed using PHP and JavaScript technologies. The collection of prepared exercises include about 240 prepared exercises from different areas of mathematics and 60 selected exercises including alternative description layer. About 1000 students and about 40 impaired students, from 6 faculties of the university use this platform during math courses for both self and class learning. The defined rules were used to read aloud mathematical formulas to the visually impaired people with a different level of mathematical knowledge. The results confirmed good understanding of mathematical formulas by using prepared alternative description.
> Author: Landau, Rubin H., Páez, Manuel J. and Bordeianu, Cristian C.
> Year: 2015
> Title: Visions and Realizations of a Computational eTextbook
> Journal: Computing in Science & Engineering
> Volume: 17
> Issue: 5
> Pages: 72-79
> Abstract: The authors describe a series of implementations of a multisensory, interactive eTextbook in computational physics with multiple executable elements and various ways to include text, computational laboratories, demonstrations, and video-based lecture modules. The authors also discuss advances and setbacks in the realizations of their original vision, as well as modifications instigated by changing Web technologies and mobile devices.
> [Scott Hollier logo]Dr Scott Hollier
> Digital Access Specialist
> Mobile: +61 (0)430 351 909
> Web:<>
> Technology for everyone
> WCAG 2.1 has arrived - is your organisation ready<>? Keep up-to-date by following @scotthollier on Twitter<> and subscribing to Scott's digital access newsletter<>.


Janina Sajka

Linux Foundation Fellow
Executive Chair, Accessibility Workgroup:

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
Chair, Accessible Platform Architectures

Received on Wednesday, 26 September 2018 07:05:47 UTC