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Literature on AR, SVG and role-based uses

From: Scott Hollier <scott@hollier.info>
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 08:53:04 +0000
To: "public-rqtf@w3.org" <public-rqtf@w3.org>
Message-ID: <MWHPR01MB27668F88B68482F3A19101FEDCF60@MWHPR01MB2766.prod.exchangelabs.com>
To the RQTF

I've been doing a fair bit of digging and reading over the past two weeks in relation to our research areas and have found a number of interesting things in the literature that may help us to focus our efforts.

Looking at the roles, the vast majority of work associated with AR/VR and disability is associated with rehabilitation efforts whereby the digital environment provides a safe place for rehabilitation or it helps as a training mechanism. There are many papers along these lines and I've included a few below.

Another popular area in terms of roles is the use of AR/VR in education, particularly in the area of intellectual and cognitive disability. There's been a number of trials with mixed results, but the thinking is that the complexity of a real-world environment can be simplified in AR or more structure din VR which can be helpful for the learning process.

However, the areas which I see as being most useful to our area of interest is the provisions of map-based data in AR to support people with different disabilities with some solutions focusing on accessible SVG. These papers are quite new but some of the solutions are interesting ranging from audio-based presentations of topographical data through to a vibrating belt that is coordinated with data collected from mobile apps for a person that is blind.

The other area that I think is most beneficial to our work is gaming, and there's several papers that look at how to make gaming more accessible.

Overall I think the research in accessible maps and gaming has the most scalability to the type of broader work applicable to this space.

I'm still reading but I've included the references I've found below for the wiki, and I've also now dug up all the abstracts as well so you can get a feeling for each of the papers. One of the references is a two-volume book which sounds interesting but haven't been able to track that one down yet.

Looking forward to chatting on Wednesday, assuming my connection holds up this time!

References follow.

Scott




Author: Anderson, Fraser and Bisco, Walter F.
Year: 2014
Title: Augmented reality improves myoelectric prosthesis training
Journal: International Journal on Disability and Human Development
Volume: 13
Issue: 3
Pages: 349-354
Abstract:  This paper presents the ARM Trainer, a new augmented reality-based system that can be used to train amputees in the use of myoelectric prostheses. The ARM Trainer provides users with a natural and intuitive method to develop the muscles used to control a myoelectric prosthetic. In addition to improving the training process, the new interface has the potential to mitigate psychological issues arising from amputation that are not addressed by existing approaches (e.g., self-image, phantom limb pain). We conducted an empirical study comparing our system to an existing commercial solution (Myoboy) and found the ARM Trainer to be superior along a number of subjective dimensions (enjoyment, perceived effort, competency, and pressure). We also found no significant difference in terms of muscle control development between the two systems. This study shows the potential of augmented reality-based training systems for myoelectric prostheses.


Author: Benda, P, Ulman, M and Smejkalová, M
Year: 2015
Title: Augmented Reality As a Working Aid for Intellectually Disabled Persons For Work in Horticulture
Journal: AGRIS On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics
Volume: 7
Issue: 4
Pages: 31-37
Abstract: The main focus of this article is to verify experimentally the possibility of using Augmented Reality as a platform for display educational materials in the field of horticulture in the real world for people with intellectual disabilities. Experimental verification was attended by eight people with varying levels of mental disability. The educational material was presented to the research participants in the form of a video, which was accessible via Wikitude platform based on the specific GPS coordinates. To find and display the content, participants used iPad2 and Android tablet devices. Despite the great potential of Augmented Reality technology, on the basis of undertaken studies it is still not possible to recommend this type of education for people with intellectual disabilities.


Author: Calle-Jimenez, Tania and Luján-Mora, Sergio
Year: 2016
Title: Web Accessibility Barriers in Geographic Maps
Journal: International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Pages: 80-87
Abstract:  Geographic information (geo-information) is knowledge about where a place is or what there is in a certain site. Most people use geo-information in everyday life; for example, a map can be drawn to point out an address; a subway map can be interpreted to see which path to follow or to simply choose a route to go to work. Today, the Web is a mean of basic communication, perhaps the most important, and geographic information can also be transmitted through the Web. Therefore, we must ensure that the geographic information published on the Web is accessible. However, the continuing growth of technology causes people to have difficulty in interacting with applications that present geographic information. For this reason, this study presents an analysis of the barriers to web accessibility in geographic maps, explains how technologies and tools have evolved, and proposes the use of scalable vector graphics (SVG) for the implementation of accessible geographic maps.


Author: Castillejo, Eduardo, Almeida, Aitor, López-de-Ipiña, Diego and Chen, Liming
Year: 2014
Title: Modeling Users, Context and Devices for Ambient Assisted Living Environments
Place Published: Basel
Publisher: MDPI AG
Volume: 14
Pages: 5354-5391
Abstract:  The participation of users within AAL environments is increasing thanks to the capabilities of the current wearable devices. Furthermore, the significance of considering user&#039;s preferences, context conditions and device&#039;s capabilities help smart environments to personalize services and resources for them. Being aware of different characteristics of the entities participating in these situations is vital for reaching the main goals of the corresponding systems efficiently. To collect different information from these entities, it is necessary to design several formal models which help designers to organize and give some meaning to the gathered data. In this paper, we analyze several literature solutions for modeling users, context and devices considering different approaches in the Ambient Assisted Living domain. Besides, we remark different ongoing standardization works in this area. We also discuss the used techniques, modeled characteristics and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach to finally draw several conclusions about the reviewed works.


Author: Cihak, David F, Moore, Eric J, Wright, Rachel E, McMahon, Don D, Gibbons, Melinda M and Smith, Cate
Year: 2016
Title: Evaluating Augmented Reality to Complete a Chain Task for Elementary Students With Autism
Journal: Journal of Special Education Technology
Volume: 31
Issue: 2
Pages: 99-108
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of augmented reality to teach a chain task to three elementary-age students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Augmented reality blends digital information within the real world. This study used a marker-based augmented reality picture prompt to trigger a video model clip of a student brushing her teeth. All students learned how to brush their teeth independently and maintained the skill 9 weeks later with the introduction of augmented reality. Theoretical and teacher implications are discussed in the context of using new technologies to teach students with ASDs.


Author: Covaci, Alexandra, Kramer, Dean, Augusto, Juan Carlos, Rus, Silvia and Braun, Andreas
Year of Conference: 2015
Title: Assessing Real World Imagery in Virtual Environments for People with Cognitive Disabilities
Abstract: People with cognitive disabilities are often socially excluded. We propose a system based on Virtual and Augmented Reality that has the potential to act as an educational and support tool in everyday tasks for people with cognitive disabilities. Our solution consists of two components: the first that enables users to train for several essential quotidian activities and the second that is meant to offer real time guidance feedback for immediate support. In order to illustrate the functionality of our proposed system, we chose to train and support navigation skills. Thus, we conducted a preliminary study on people with Down Syndrome (DS) based on a navigation task. Our experiment was aimed at evaluating the visual and spatial perception of people with DS when interacting with different elements of our system. We provide a preliminary evaluation that illustrates how people with DS perceive different landmarks and types of visual feedback, in static images and videos. Although we focused our study on people with DS, people with different cognitive disabilities could also benefit from the features of our solution. This analysis is mandatory in the design of a virtual intelligent system with several functionalities that aims at helping disabled people in developing basic knowledge in every day tasks.
Database Provider: Intelligent Environments (IE), 2015 International Conference on


Author: Cruz-Cunha, Maria Manuela and Global, I. G. I.
Year: 2012
Title: Handbook of research on serious games as educational, business and research tools / Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha, editor
Place Published: Hershey, Pa.
Publisher: Hershey, Pa. : IGI Global (701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 17033, USA)
Abstract: &#034;Serious games are being developed at an exponential rate and have applications in management, education, defense, scientific research, health care, and emergency planning. In order to maximize the potential and profit of serious games, organizations, researchers, and developers must understand the opportunities and challenges presented by this new tool in all of its domains of application. Handbook of Research on Serious Games as Educational, Business and Research Tools: Development and Design collects research on the most recent technological developments in all fields of knowledge or disciplines of computer games development, including planning, design, development, marketing, business management, users and behavior. Including research on the technological aspects of serious games, user experience and serious games, serious games for social change, and business opportunities for serious games, this two-volume reference offers key perspectives on all aspects of social game design, development and implementation for researchers, managers, and computer game developers&#034;--Provided by publisher.


Author: Deb, Suman, Suraksha, Paritosh and Bhattacharya, Paritosh
Year: 2018
Title: Augmented Sign Language Modeling(ASLM) with interaction design on smartphone - an assistive learning and communication tool for inclusive classroom
Journal: Procedia Computer Science
Volume: 125
Pages: 492-500
Abstract: Augmented Reality(AR) is growing as an acme of the cutting edge developments in the field of human computer interaction. There is a great potential in AR environments to serve as teaching aids in complementing and improving communication as not everyone is gifted to share their thoughts vocally(deaf-mute) due to physical in capacities.Keeping a pace with advent of technology there is a desperate need of cost-effective devices which could convert Hindi (one of the widely-used languages in India) Varnamala to sign gestures using 3D animated hand movements, to establish an independent learning as well communication facility for deaf/mute. The objective of this study was to create an AR application which could present 3D animated sign gesture on mobile system. When the camera is focused on a media-card, the letter marked on card will be spotted by the application and an animated 3D hand movement for the respective letter will be displayed in real-time.A quasi experimental design was used to assess the efficacy of the system and its resultant learning outcome. Evocative statistics were amended to investigate the data from the deployment of prototype. Experimental outcomes demonstrated a substantial improvement in sign language learning of the deaf-mute students. The initial hypothesis of augmented sign learning is effectually attained in this work and it can be further prolonged to cater to a wider assortment of teaching-learning scenarios.


Author: Faller, Josef, Allison, Brendan Z., Brunner, Clemens, Scherer, Reinhold, Schmalstieg, Dieter, Pfurtscheller, Gert and Neuper, Christa
Year: 2017
Title: A feasibility study on SSVEP-based interaction with motivating and immersive virtual and augmented reality
Abstract: Non-invasive steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems offer high bandwidth compared to other BCI types and require only minimal calibration and training. Virtual reality (VR) has been already validated as effective, safe, affordable and motivating feedback modality for BCI experiments. Augmented reality (AR) enhances the physical world by superimposing informative, context sensitive, computer generated content. In the context of BCI, AR can be used as a friendlier and more intuitive real-world user interface, thereby facilitating a more seamless and goal directed interaction. This can improve practicality and usability of BCI systems and may help to compensate for their low bandwidth. In this feasibility study, three healthy participants had to finish a complex navigation task in immersive VR and AR conditions using an online SSVEP BCI. Two out of three subjects were successful in all conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first work to present an SSVEP BCI that operates using target stimuli integrated in immersive VR and AR (head-mounted display and camera). This research direction can benefit patients by introducing more intuitive and effective real-world interaction (e.g. smart home control). It may also be relevant for user groups that require or benefit from hands free operation (e.g. due to temporary situational disability).


Author: Griffin, Amy L., White, Travis, Fish, Carolyn, Tomio, Beate, Huang, Haosheng, Sluter, Claudia Robbi, Bravo, João Vitor Meza, Fabrikant, Sara I., Bleisch, Susanne, Yamada, Melissa and Picanço, Péricles
Year: 2017
Title: Designing across map use contexts: a research agenda
Journal: International Journal of Cartography
Volume: 3
Pages: 90-114
Abstract: ABSTRACT The explosion of map use in the past few decades as part of everyday activities, accelerated through the digital production and dissemination of maps and the availability of low-cost, location-aware devices, has made the job of cartographers and map display designers more challenging. Yet, how do these recent changes affect effective map design? Can we accurately predict which designs will work for a given context? We investigate the concepts of design transferability and context and their potential to help us create map design outcomes that are effective for varying map use situations. We then present a model for operationalizing map use context to support evaluating map design transferability and pose several open research questions that need to be answered to support operationalizing map use context. This is followed by a research agenda that identifies research opportunities related to key research needs that will underpin transferable map design.


Author: Joseph, Samleo L., Xiaochen Zhang, Ivan, Dryanovski, Ivan, Jizhong Xiao, Ivan, Chucai Yi, Ivan and Yingli Tian, Ivan
Year of Conference: 2013
Title: Semantic Indoor Navigation with a Blind-User Oriented Augmented Reality
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design an inexpensive conceivable wearable navigation system that can aid in the navigation of a visually impaired user. A novel approach of utilizing the floor plan map posted on the buildings is used to acquire a semantic plan. The extracted landmarks such as room numbers, doors, etc act as a parameter to infer the way points to each room. This provides a mental mapping of the environment to design a navigation framework for future use. A human motion model is used to predict a path based on how real humans ambulate towards a goal by avoiding obstacles. We demonstrate the possibilities of augmented reality (AR) as a blind user interface to perceive the physical constraints of the real world using haptic and voice augmentation. The haptic belt vibrates to direct the user towards the travel destination based on the metric localization at each step. Moreover, travel route is presented using voice guidance, which is achieved by accurate estimation of the user's location and confirmed by extracting the landmarks, based on landmark localization. The results show that it is feasible to assist a blind user to travel independently by providing the constraints required for safe navigation with user oriented augmented reality.
Database Provider: Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on


Author: Katz, B.F.G., Dramas, F., Parseihian, G., Gutierrez, O., Kammoun, S., Brilhault, A., Brunet, L., Gallay, M., Oriola, B., Auvray, M., Truillet, P., Denis, M., Thorpe, S. and Jouffrais, C.
Year: 2012
Title: NAVIG: Guidance system for the visually impaired using virtual augmented reality
Journal: Technology and Disability
Volume: 24
Issue: 2
Pages: 163-178
Abstract: Finding ones way to an unknown destination, navigating complex routes, finding inanimate objects; these are all tasks that can be challenging for the visually impaired. The project NAVIG (Navigation Assisted by artificial VIsion and GNSS) is directed towards increasing the autonomy of visually impaired users in known and unknown environments, exterior and interior, large scale and small scale, through a combination of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and rapid visual recognition with which the precise position of the user can be determined. Relying on geographical databases and visually identified objects, the user is guided to his or her desired destination through spatialized semantic audio rendering, always maintained in the head-centered reference frame. This paper presents the overall project design and architecture of the NAVIG system. In addition, details of the new type of detection and localization device are presented in relation to guidance directives developed through participative design with potential users and educators for the visually impaired. A fundamental concept in this project is the belief that this type of assistive device is able to solve one of the major problems faced by the visually impaired: their difficulty in localizing specific objects.

Author: Lee, Kyungmin
Year: 2017
Title: Improving Usability of Mobile Applications Through Speculation and Distraction Minimization
Abstract: We live in a world where mobile computing systems are increasingly integrated with our day-to-day activities. People use mobile applications virtually everywhere they go, executing them on mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smart watches. People commonly interact with mobile applications while performing other primary tasks such as walking and driving (e.g., using turn-by-turn directions while driving a car). Unfortunately, as an application becomes more mobile, it can experience resource scarcity (e.g., poor wireless connectivity) that is atypical in a traditional desktop environment. When critical resources become scarce, the usability of the mobile application deteriorates significantly. In this dissertation, I create system support that enables users to interact smoothly with mobile applications when wireless network connectivity is poor and when the user's attention is limited. First, I show that speculative execution can mitigate user-perceived delays in application responsiveness caused by high-latency wireless network connectivity. I focus on cloud-based gaming, because the smooth usability of such application is highly dependent on low latency. User studies have shown that players are sensitive to as little as 60 ms of additional latency and are aggravated at latencies in excess of 100ms. For cloud-based gaming, which relies on powerful servers to generate high-graphics quality gaming content, a slow network frustrates the user, who must wait a long time to see input actions reflected in the game. I show that by predicting the user's future gaming inputs and by performing visual misprediction compensation at the client, cloud-based gaming can maintain good usability even with 120 ms of network latency. Next, I show that the usability of mobile applications in an attention-limited environment (i.e., driving a vehicle) can be improved by automatically checking whether interfaces meet best-practice guidelines and by adding attention-aware scheduling of application interactions. When a user is driving, any application that demands too much attention is an unsafe distraction. I first develop a model checker that systematically explores all reachable screens for an application and determines whether the application conforms to best-practice vehicular UI guidelines. I find that even well- known vehicular applications (e.g., Google Maps and TomTom) can often demand too much of the driver's attention. Next, I consider the case where applications run in the background and initiate interactions with the driver. I show that by quantifying the driver's available attention and the attention demand of an interaction, real-time scheduling can be used to prevent attention overload in varying driving conditions.


Reference Type:  Generic
Record Number: 24
Author: Magee, John
Year: 2012
Title: Adaptable interfaces for people with motion disabilities
Abstract: People with severe paralysis typically cannot use traditional human-computer interface devices. Those with limited or no motor control below the neck are able to use buttons or switches pressed with their heads as a way to control wheelchairs or interact with computers. Computer vision-based interaction systems have recently enabled other modes of interaction, such as controlling a mouse pointer by tracking a user&#039;s head movements. This dissertation builds upon the success of these systems. Typically, users are required to adapt to the interfaces that they wish to use. We propose interfaces that change and adapt to the user and their individual abilities. This dissertation consists of two parts. First, we present a framework to adapt software to the needs of individuals with severe motion disabilities who use mouse substitution interfaces. The Hierarchical Adaptive Interface Layout (HAIL) model is a set of specifications for the design of user interface applications that adapt to the user. In HAIL applications, all of the interactive components take place on configurable toolbars along the edge of the screen. We show two HAIL-based applications: a general purpose web browser and a Twitter client. Second, we study the human-computer interaction of users with severe motor disabilities who control the mouse pointer with a head tracking interface. We describe the difficulties users encounter in having to conform to the motion requirements of their interface system. Our analysis shows that some users are able to move in some directions easier than other directions. We propose several mouse pointer mappings that adapt to a user&#039;s movement abilities. These mappings take into account the user&#039;s motions in two or three dimensions to move the mouse pointer to the intended location on the screen. We conducted user studies to evaluate the efficacy of our interfaces. This dissertation presents observations of participants with severe motion impairments, including small children, teenagers, and adults. We also propose the inclusion of social networking features in our interfaces. In particular, we investigate if automatically generated messages, posted by users with severe disabilities, can help enhance users&#039; communication with family and caregivers.


Author: Magee, John
Year: 2012
Title: Adaptable interfaces for people with motion disabilities
Abstract: People with severe paralysis typically cannot use traditional human-computer interface devices. Those with limited or no motor control below the neck are able to use buttons or switches pressed with their heads as a way to control wheelchairs or interact with computers. Computer vision-based interaction systems have recently enabled other modes of interaction, such as controlling a mouse pointer by tracking a user&#039;s head movements. This dissertation builds upon the success of these systems. Typically, users are required to adapt to the interfaces that they wish to use. We propose interfaces that change and adapt to the user and their individual abilities. This dissertation consists of two parts. First, we present a framework to adapt software to the needs of individuals with severe motion disabilities who use mouse substitution interfaces. The Hierarchical Adaptive Interface Layout (HAIL) model is a set of specifications for the design of user interface applications that adapt to the user. In HAIL applications, all of the interactive components take place on configurable toolbars along the edge of the screen. We show two HAIL-based applications: a general purpose web browser and a Twitter client. Second, we study the human-computer interaction of users with severe motor disabilities who control the mouse pointer with a head tracking interface. We describe the difficulties users encounter in having to conform to the motion requirements of their interface system. Our analysis shows that some users are able to move in some directions easier than other directions. We propose several mouse pointer mappings that adapt to a user&#039;s movement abilities. These mappings take into account the user&#039;s motions in two or three dimensions to move the mouse pointer to the intended location on the screen. We conducted user studies to evaluate the efficacy of our interfaces. This dissertation presents observations of participants with severe motion impairments, including small children, teenagers, and adults. We also propose the inclusion of social networking features in our interfaces. In particular, we investigate if automatically generated messages, posted by users with severe disabilities, can help enhance users&#039; communication with family and caregivers.


Author: Magee, John
Year: 2012
Title: Adaptable interfaces for people with motion disabilities
Abstract: People with severe paralysis typically cannot use traditional human-computer interface devices. Those with limited or no motor control below the neck are able to use buttons or switches pressed with their heads as a way to control wheelchairs or interact with computers. Computer vision-based interaction systems have recently enabled other modes of interaction, such as controlling a mouse pointer by tracking a user&#039;s head movements. This dissertation builds upon the success of these systems. Typically, users are required to adapt to the interfaces that they wish to use. We propose interfaces that change and adapt to the user and their individual abilities. This dissertation consists of two parts. First, we present a framework to adapt software to the needs of individuals with severe motion disabilities who use mouse substitution interfaces. The Hierarchical Adaptive Interface Layout (HAIL) model is a set of specifications for the design of user interface applications that adapt to the user. In HAIL applications, all of the interactive components take place on configurable toolbars along the edge of the screen. We show two HAIL-based applications: a general purpose web browser and a Twitter client. Second, we study the human-computer interaction of users with severe motor disabilities who control the mouse pointer with a head tracking interface. We describe the difficulties users encounter in having to conform to the motion requirements of their interface system. Our analysis shows that some users are able to move in some directions easier than other directions. We propose several mouse pointer mappings that adapt to a user&#039;s movement abilities. These mappings take into account the user&#039;s motions in two or three dimensions to move the mouse pointer to the intended location on the screen. We conducted user studies to evaluate the efficacy of our interfaces. This dissertation presents observations of participants with severe motion impairments, including small children, teenagers, and adults. We also propose the inclusion of social networking features in our interfaces. In particular, we investigate if automatically generated messages, posted by users with severe disabilities, can help enhance users&#039; communication with family and caregivers.


Author: McMahon, Don D, Smith, Cate C, Cihak, David F, Wright, Rachel and Gibbons, Melinda M
Year: 2015
Title: Effects of Digital Navigation Aids on Adults With Intellectual Disabilities
Journal: Journal of Special Education Technology
Volume: 30
Issue: 3
Pages: 157-165
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different navigation aids with students with intellectual disability. Participants included six college-aged students with intellectual disability who attended a postsecondary education program. An adapted alternating treatment design was used to compare a paper map, Google Maps on a mobile device, and an augmented reality navigation application. The results indicated that the augmented reality navigation application was functionally the most effective condition. Conclusions are discussed in the context of supporting people with intellectual disability by teaching navigation skills.


Author: Pase, Shane, Hare, Garry, Alvord, Mary, Hagan, Cynthia and Hogg, Jerri Lynn
Year: 2015
Title: Inattentional blindness and mobile augmented reality applications: A study of inattentional blindness effects during sustained attention to a mobile augmented reality application
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation systems, designed to increase accuracy and efficiency, have been shown to negatively impact on attention. We wished to assess the effect "head-up" AR displays have on attention, efficiency, and accuracy, while performing a surgical task, compared with the same information being presented on a submonitor (SM).
METHODS:
Fifty experienced otolaryngology surgeons (n = 42) and senior otolaryngology trainees (n = 8) performed an endoscopic surgical navigation exercise on a predissected cadaveric model. Computed tomography-generated anatomic contours were fused with the endoscopic image to provide an AR view. Subjects were randomized to perform the task with a standard endoscopic monitor with the AR navigation displayed on an SM or with AR as a single display. Accuracy, task completion time, and the recognition of unexpected findings (a foreign body and a critical complication) were recorded.
RESULTS:
Recognition of the foreign body was significantly better in the SM group (15/25 [60%]) compared with the AR alone group (8/25 [32%]; p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in task completion time (p = 0.83) or accuracy (p = 0.78) between the two groups.
CONCLUSION:
Providing identical surgical navigation on a SM, rather than on a single head-up display, reduced the level of inattentional blindness as measured by detection of unexpected findings. These gains were achieved without any measurable impact on efficiency or accuracy. AR displays may distract the user and we caution injudicious adoption of this technology for medical procedures.


Author: Schito, Joram and Fabrikant, Sara Irina
Year: 2018
Title: Exploring maps by sounds: using parameter mapping sonification to make digital elevation models audible
Journal: International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Pages: 1-33
Abstract: ABSTRACT This study empirically investigates the potential of auditory displays for spatial data exploration, as an additional means to broaden the accessibility and dissemination of geographic information for a diverse body of users. In a mixed factorial experiment, three parameter mapping sonification methods are empirically evaluated to interactively explore discrete and continuous digital elevation models by auditory means. Contrasting prior sonification research, this study's unique empirical evidence suggests that participants can indeed successfully interpret sonified displays containing continuous spatial data. Specifically, the auditory variable pitch leads to significantly better response accuracy, compared to the sound variable duration. Background and training has a weak effect on data interpretation performance with the auditory display. The more immersive the experienced soundscape, the better participants can interpret the sonified terrain. These encouraging empirical results indeed suggest that interactive auditory displays might offer additional means to disseminate spatial information, and to increase the accessibility to spatial data, beyond the currently dominant visual paradigm.


Author: Vizenor, Katie
Year: 2014
Title: Binary Lives: Digital Citizenship and Disability Participation in a User Content Created Virtual World
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
Abstract: Digital Citizenship is a concept typically used in discussions of how technology impacts our relationships with others and our physical world communities. It is also used to describe ways that we can leverage our technology use and skill to make our communities and nations better and stronger. Educators are now teaching &#034;good digital citizenship&#034; as part of a larger civics curriculum. But, there is a second, emerging concept that I refer to as platform specific digital citizenship. I define this platform specific citizenship as the deep and abiding commitment and sense of responsibility that people develop in relation to a particular technology, such as software or technology brand. It may also refer to the ideas that people express in regard to how technology should ideally be used and what rights and responsibilities it requires of its adherents. Massively Multiplayer Online Worlds (MMOWs) are one place researchers are finding this deep, platform specific digital citizenship emerging. These are persistent digital universes where people from all over the world develop online personas, leadership structures, discussion forums, and business and non-profit entities. The ability and extent to which this online organization is possible is largely due to the underlying structure, rules and allowances of the world of which people choose to be a part. One online world, Second Life, has a large, active and vocal disabled population. They have committed to this environment because of the unique opportunities and freedoms that it provides. As a user content created environment, residents, as Second Life participants are referred to, are given an unprecedented amount of freedom to create the kind of experience they want. This may involve developing relationships and projects with other disabled residents. It can also involve exploring other aspects of themselves and their interests that are often neglected in their real lives due to social exclusion, and/or lack of financial and physical access. Most of the research and popular media examinations of disability in Second Life centers on participation in disability specific communities or the benefits of identity exploration through avatar design. But, the reasons disabled people stay here is much broader and varied than what this limited discussion suggests. Commitment to Second Life is strong precisely because disability community commitment and disability expression are not the only options but exist among a wide range of choices. Moreover, the expression of disability and use of such mediated environments is constantly debated in both word and deed. This dissertation explores the concept of digital citizenship and why people that identify as disabled in real life are attracted to committed participation in virtual worlds, in particular, Second Life. What opportunities and rights are disabled people afforded here through the technology structure? What are the avenues of entry into the Second Life community, and what does the variety of these entry points and special interest sub-communities tell us about what is important to them? How is commitment debated and deepened through the use of public spaces and forums? And, what can researchers, public health and information professionals learn from these features that can improve their own outreach?


Author: Weninger, Markus, Ortner, Gerald, Hahn, Tobias, Drümmer, Olaf and Miesenberger, Klaus
Year: 2015
Title: ASVG - Accessible Scalable Vector Graphics: intention trees to make charts more accessible and usable
Journal: Journal of Assistive Technologies
Volume: 9
Issue: 4
Pages: 239-246
Abstract:  Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enhance accessibility of graphical information in particular for blind and visually handicapped people. Design/methodology/approach - Prototype development based on an intense analysis of the state of the art and potential technologies with later on heuristic analysis of different approaches to enrich graphical information for better accessibility. Findings - A novel approach to enhance accessibility named &#034;Intention Tree&#034; for enhancing accessibility. It allows integrating descriptive and navigation information into standard Scalable Vector Graphics and also mechanisms to analyse and aggregate data. Research limitations/implications - The approach promises interesting new tools for better accessing and navigating graphical information with potential not only for blind and visually handicapped people. Practical implications - Design prototype for further development. Social implications - Potential for better social inclusion and participation. Originality/value - This paper presents a novel and new approach for enhanced accessibility and usability and a new technique for authoring graphical information.


Author: Zheng-Yu, Hoe, I-Jui, Lee, Chien-Hsu, Chen and Kuo-Ping, Chang
Year: 2017
Title: Using an augmented reality-based training system to promote spatial visualization ability for the elderly
Journal: Universal Access in the Information Society
Pages: 1-16
Abstract: The physical condition and cognitive ability of older adults tends to decline. This study focused on the development of an augmented reality (AR)-based rehabilitation training system to improve the spatial visualization and mental rotation abilities of elderly people. Using one's imagination to manipulate objects is common in everyday life. However, training tasks for the elderly are still presented in two-dimension, which research indicates generates a cognitive load that reduces the participants' interest and diminishes the effects of training. AR can effectively reduce cognitive load, improve one's sense of spatial direction, and increase participants' interest in training. Therefore, this study used AR technology, combined with a tangible user interface as a manual controller, to allow participants to directly manipulate a virtual three-dimensional model that used a cube to conduct mental rotation tasks (MRT) for the elderly to improve their mental rotation ability. After 6 weeks of intervention, we used an ABA (reversal) design and paired-sample t tests in SPSS to compare the learning effects on the experimental group's pre- and posttests. The participants' error rates significantly declined and their reaction times significantly improved during the MRT test.



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Digital Access Specialist
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Received on Tuesday, 13 February 2018 09:26:25 UTC

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