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[Bug 14493] New: Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-2

From: <bugzilla@jessica.w3.org>
Date: Tue, 18 Oct 2011 13:54:20 +0000
To: public-html-bugzilla@w3.org
Message-ID: <bug-14493-2486@http.www.w3.org/Bugs/Public/>
http://www.w3.org/Bugs/Public/show_bug.cgi?id=14493

           Summary: Ready for first implementations Latest Internet
                    Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly
                    build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build:
                    unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build:
                    unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown
                    2009-10-2
           Product: HTML WG
           Version: unspecified
          Platform: Other
               URL: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/#int
                    roduction-4
        OS/Version: other
            Status: NEW
          Severity: normal
          Priority: P3
         Component: other Hixie drafts (editor: Ian Hickson)
        AssignedTo: ian@hixie.ch
        ReportedBy: contributor@whatwg.org
         QAContact: public-html-bugzilla@w3.org
                CC: mike@w3.org


Specification:
http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/links.html
Multipage: http://www.whatwg.org/C#introduction-4
Complete: http://www.whatwg.org/c#introduction-4

Comment:
Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest
Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build:
unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries,
plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie 4.12.1 Introduction Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc:
unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie Links are a conceptual construct, created by a, area,
and link elements, that represent a connection between two resources, one of
which is the current Document. There are two kinds of links in HTML: Links to
external resources These are links to resources that are to be used to augment
the current document, generally automatically processed by the user agent.
Hyperlinks These are links to other resources that are generally exposed to
the user by the user agent so that the user can cause the user agent to
navigate to those resources, e.g. to visit them in a browser or download them.
For link elements with an href attribute and a rel attribute, links must be
created for the keywords of the rel attribute, as defined for those keywords
in the link types section. Similarly, for a and area elements with an href
attribute and a rel attribute, links must be created for the keywords of the
rel attribute as defined for those keywords in the link types section. Unlike
link elements, however, a and area element with an href attribute that either
do not have a rel attribute, or whose rel attribute has no keywords that are
defined as specifying hyperlinks, must also create a hyperlink. This implied
hyperlink has no special meaning (it has no link type) beyond linking the
element's document to the resource given by the element's href attribute. A
hyperlink can have one or more hyperlink annotations that modify the
processing semantics of that hyperlink. 4.12.2 Links created by a and area
elements The href attribute on a and area elements must have a value that is a
valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces. The href attribute on a and area
elements is not required; when those elements do not have href attributes they
do not create hyperlinks. The target attribute, if present, must be a valid
browsing context name or keyword. It gives the name of the browsing context
that will be used. User agents use this name when following hyperlinks. When
an a or area element's activation behavior is invoked, the user agent may
allow the user to indicate a preference regarding whether the hyperlink is to
be used for navigation or whether the resource it specifies is to be
downloaded. In the absence of a user preference, the default should be
navigation if the element has no download attribute, and should be to download
the specified resource if it does. Whether determined by the user's
preferences or via the presence or absence of the attribute, if the decision
is to use the hyperlink for navigation then the user agent must follow the
hyperlink, and if the decision is to use the hyperlink to download a resource,
the user agent must download the hyperlink. These terms are defined in
subsequent sections below. The download attribute, if present, indicates that
the author intends the hyperlink to be used for downloading a resource. The
attribute may have a value; the value, if any, specifies the default filename
that the author recommends for use in labeling the resource in a local file
system. There are no restrictions on allowed values, but authors are cautioned
that most file systems have limitations with regard to what punctuation is
supported in file names, and user agents are likely to adjust file names
accordingly. The ping attribute, if present, gives the URLs of the resources
that are interested in being notified if the user follows the hyperlink. The
value must be a set of space-separated tokens, each of which must be a valid
non-empty URL. The value is used by the user agent for hyperlink auditing. The
rel attribute on a and area elements controls what kinds of links the elements
create. The attribue's value must be a set of space-separated tokens. The
allowed keywords and their meanings are defined below. The rel attribute has
no default value. If the attribute is omitted or if none of the values in the
attribute are recognized by the user agent, then the document has no
particular relationship with the destination resource other than there being a
hyperlink between the two. The media attribute describes for which media the
target document was designed. It is purely advisory. The value must be a valid
media query. The default, if the media attribute is omitted, is "all". The
hreflang attribute on a and area elements that create hyperlinks, if present,
gives the language of the linked resource. It is purely advisory. The value
must be a valid BCP 47 language tag. [BCP47] User agents must not consider
this attribute authoritative — upon fetching the resource, user agents must
use only language information associated with the resource to determine its
language, not metadata included in the link to the resource. The type
attribute, if present, gives the MIME type of the linked resource. It is
purely advisory. The value must be a valid MIME type. User agents must not
consider the type attribute authoritative — upon fetching the resource, user
agents must not use metadata included in the link to the resource to determine
its type. 4.12.3 Following hyperlinks When a user follows a hyperlink Ready
for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox
trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build:
unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries,
plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie created by an element, the user agent
must resolve the URL given by the href attribute of that element, relative to
that element, and if that is successful, must navigate a browsing context to
the resulting absolute URL. In the case of server-side image maps, that
absolute URL must have its hyperlink suffix appended to it before the
navigation is started. If resolving the URL fails, the user agent may report
the error to the user in a user-agent-specific manner, may navigate to an
error page to report the error, or may ignore the error and do nothing. If the
user indicated a specific browsing context when following the hyperlink, or if
the user agent is configured to follow hyperlinks by navigating a particular
browsing context, then that must be the browsing context that is navigated.
Otherwise, if the element is an a or area element that has a target attribute,
then the browsing context that is navigated must be chosen by applying the
rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing context name, using the
value of the target attribute as the browsing context name. If these rules
result in the creation of a new browsing context, it must be navigated with
replacement enabled. Otherwise, if the hyperlink is a sidebar hyperlink and
the user agent implements a feature that can be considered a secondary
browsing context, such a secondary browsing context may be selected as the
browsing context to be navigated. Otherwise, if the element is an a or area
element with no target attribute, but the Document contains a base element
with a target attribute, then the browsing context that is navigated must be
chosen by applying the rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing
context name, using the value of the target attribute of the first such base
element as the browsing context name. If these rules result in the creation of
a new browsing context, it must be navigated with replacement enabled.
Otherwise, the browsing context that must be navigated is the same browsing
context as the one which the element itself is in. The navigation must be done
with the browsing context that contains the Document object with which the
element in question is associated as the source browsing context. 4.12.4
Downloading resources In some cases, resources are intended for later use
rather than immediate viewing. To indicate that a resource is intended to be
downloaded for use later, rather than immediately used, the download attribute
can be specified on the a or area element that creates the hyperlink to that
resource. The attribute can furthermore be given a value, to specify the
filename that user agents are to use when storing the resource in a file
system. This value can be overridden by the Content-Disposition HTTP header's
filename parameters. [RFC6266] In cross-origin situations, the download
attribute has to be combined with the Content-Disposition HTTP header,
specifically with the attachment disposition type, to avoid the user being
warned of possibly nefarious activity. (This is to protect users from being
made to download sensitive personal or confidential information without their
full understanding.) When a user downloads a hyperlink created by an element,
the user agent must run the following steps: Resolve the URL given by the href
attribute of that element, relative to that element. If resolving the URL
fails, the user agent may report the error to the user in a
user-agent-specific manner, may navigate to an error page to report the error,
or may ignore the error and do nothing. In either case, the user agent must
abort these steps. Otherwise, let URL be the resulting absolute URL. In the
case of server-side image maps, append the hyperlink suffix to URL. Return to
whatever algorithm invoked these steps and continue these steps
asynchronously. Fetch URL and handle the resulting resource as a download.
When a user agent is to handle a resource obtained from a fetch algorithm as a
download, it should provide the user with a way to save the resource for later
use, if a resource is successfully obtained; or otherwise should report any
problems downloading the file to the user. If the user agent needs a file name
for a resource being handled as a download, it should select one using the
following algorithm. This algorithm is intended to mitigate security dangers
involved in downloading files from untrusted sites, and user agents are
strongly recommended to follow it. Let filename be the void value. If the
resource has a Content-Disposition header, that header specifies the
attachment disposition type, and the header includes a filename parameter,
then let filename have the value specified by the header, and jump to the step
labeled "sanitize" below. [RFC6266] Let resource origin be the origin of the
resource being downloaded. Let interface origin be the origin of the Document
in which the download or navigate action resulting in the download was
initiated, if any. If there is no interface origin, then let trusted operation
be true. Otherwise, let trusted operation be true if resource origin is the
same origin as interface origin, and false otherwise. If trusted operation is
true and the resource has a Content-Disposition header and that header
includes a filename parameter, then let filename have the value specified by
the header, and jump to the step labeled "sanitize" below. [RFC6266] If the
download was not initiated from a hyperlink created by an a or area element,
or if the element of the hyperlink from which it was initiated did not have a
download attribute when the download was initiated, or if there was such an
attribute but its value when the download was initiated was the empty string,
then jump to the step labeled no proposed filename. Let proposed filename have
the value of the download attribute of the element of the hyperlink that
initiated the download at the time the download was initiated. If trusted
operation is true, let filename have the value of proposed filename, and jump
to the step labeled "sanitize" below. If the resource has a
Content-Disposition header and that header specifies the attachment
disposition type, let filename have the value of proposed filename, and jump
to the step labeled "sanitize" below. [RFC6266] No proposed filename: If
trusted operation is true, or if the user indicated a preference for having
the resource in question downloaded, let filename have a value derived from
the URL of the resource in a user-agent-defined manner, and jump to the step
labeled "sanitize" below. Act in a user-agent-defined manner to safeguard the
user from a potentially hostile cross-origin download. If the download is not
to be aborted, then let filename be set to the user's preferred file name or
to a file name selected by the user agent, and jump to the step labeled
"sanitize" below. If the algorithm reaches this step, then a download was
begun from a different origin than the resource being downloaded, and the
origin did not mark the file as suitable for downloading, and the download was
not initiated by the user. This could be because a download attribute was used
to trigger the download, or because the resource in question is not of a type
that the user agent supports. This could be dangerous, because, for instance,
a hostile server could be trying to get a user to unknowingly download private
information and then re-upload it to the hostile server, by tricking the user
into thinking the data is from the hostile server. Thus, it is in the user's
interests that the user be somehow notified that the resource in question
comes from quite a different source, and to prevent confusion, any suggested
filename from the potentially hostile interface origin should be ignored.
Sanitize: Optionally, allow the user to influence filename. For example, a
user agent could prompt the user for a file name, potentially providing the
value of filename as determined above as a default value. Adjust filename to
be suitable for the local file system. For example, this could involve
removing characters that are not legal in file names, or trimming leading and
trailing whitespace. If the platform conventions do not in any way use
extensions to determine the types of file on the file system, then return
filename as the file name and abort these steps. Let claimed type be the type
given by the resource's Content-Type metadata, if any is known. Let named type
be the type given by filename's extension, if any is known. For the purposes
of this step, a type is a mapping of a MIME type to an extension. If named
type is consistent with the user's preferences (e.g. because the value of
filename was determined by prompting the user), then return filename as the
file name and abort these steps. If claimed type and named type are the same
type (i.e. the type given by the resource's Content-Type metadata is
consistent with the type given by filename's extension), then return filename
as the file name and abort these steps. If the claimed type is known, then
alter filename to add an extension corresponding to claimed type. Otherwise,
if named type is known to be potentially dangerous (e.g. it will be treated by
the platform conventions as a native executable, shell script, HTML
application, or executable-macro-capable document) then optionally alter
filename to add a known-safe extension (e.g. ".txt"). This last step would
make it impossible to download executables, which might not be desireable. As
always, implementors are forced to balance security and usability in this
matter. Return filename as the file name. For the purposes of this algorithm,
a file extension consists of any part of the file name that platform
conventions dictate will be used for identifying the type of the file. For
example, many operating systems use the part of the file name following the
last dot (".") in the file name to determine the type of the file, and from
that the manner in which the file is to be opened or executed. User agents
should ignore any directory or path information provided by the resource
itself, its URL, and any download attribute, in deciding where to store the
resulting file in the user's file system. 4.12.4.1 Hyperlink auditing Ready
for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox
trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build:
unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries,
plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie If a hyperlink created by an a or area
element has a ping attribute, and the user follows the hyperlink, and the
value of the element's href attribute can be resolved, relative to the
element, without failure, then the user agent must take the ping attribute's
value, split that string on spaces, resolve each resulting token relative to
the element, and then should send a request (as described below) to each of
the resulting absolute URLs. (Tokens that fail to resolve are ignored.) This
may be done in parallel with the primary request, and is independent of the
result of that request. User agents should allow the user to adjust this
behavior, for example in conjunction with a setting that disables the sending
of HTTP Referer (sic) headers. Based on the user's preferences, UAs may either
ignore the ping attribute altogether, or selectively ignore URLs in the list
(e.g. ignoring any third-party URLs). For URLs that are HTTP URLs, the
requests must be performed by fetching the specified URLs using the POST
method, with an entity body with the MIME type text/ping consisting of the
four-character string "PING", from the origin of the Document containing the
hyperlink. All relevant cookie and HTTP authentication headers must be
included in the request. Which other headers are required depends on the URLs
involved. If both the address of the Document object containing the hyperlink
being audited and the ping URL have the same origin The request must include a
Ping-From HTTP header with, as its value, the address of the document
containing the hyperlink, and a Ping-To HTTP header with, as its value, the
address of the absolute URL of the target of the hyperlink. The request must
not include a Referer (sic) HTTP header. Otherwise, if the origins are
different, but the document containing the hyperlink being audited was not
retrieved over an encrypted connection The request must include a Referer
(sic) HTTP header with, as its value, the current address of the document
containing the hyperlink, a Ping-From HTTP header with the same value, and a
Ping-To HTTP header with, as its value, the address of the target of the
hyperlink. Otherwise, the origins are different and the document containing
the hyperlink being audited was retrieved over an encrypted connection The
request must include a Ping-To HTTP header with, as its value, the address of
the target of the hyperlink. The request must neither include a Referer (sic)
HTTP header nor include a Ping-From HTTP header. To save bandwidth,
implementors might also wish to consider omitting optional headers such as
Accept from these requests. User agents must, unless otherwise specified by
the user, honor the HTTP headers (including, in particular, redirects and HTTP
cookie headers), but must ignore any entity bodies returned in the responses.
User agents may close the connection prematurely once they start receiving an
entity body. [COOKIES] For URLs that are not HTTP URLs, the requests must be
performed by fetching the specified URL normally, and discarding the results.
When the ping attribute is present, user agents should clearly indicate to the
user that following the hyperlink will also cause secondary requests to be
sent in the background, possibly including listing the actual target URLs. For
example, a visual user agent could include the hostnames of the target ping
URLs along with the hyperlink's actual URL in a status bar or tooltip. The
ping attribute is redundant with pre-existing technologies like HTTP redirects
and JavaScript in allowing Web pages to track which off-site links are most
popular or allowing advertisers to track click-through rates. However, the
ping attribute provides these advantages to the user over those alternatives:
It allows the user to see the final target URL unobscured. It allows the UA to
inform the user about the out-of-band notifications. It allows the user to
disable the notifications without losing the underlying link functionality. It
allows the UA to optimize the use of available network bandwidth so that the
target page loads faster. Thus, while it is possible to track users without
this feature, authors are encouraged to use the ping attribute so that the
user agent can make the user experience more transparent. 4.12.5 Link types
Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: incomplete
supportLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: incomplete supportLatest WebKit or
Chromium trunk build: incomplete supportLatest Opera beta or preview build:
incomplete supportJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie
The following table summarizes the link types that are defined by this
specification. This table is non-normative; the actual definitions for the
link types are given in the next few sections. In this section, the term
referenced document refers to the resource identified by the element
representing the link, and the term current document refers to the resource
within which the element representing the link finds itself. To determine
which link types apply to a link, a, or area element, the element's rel
attribute must be split on spaces. The resulting tokens are the link types
that apply to that element. Except where otherwise specified, a keyword must
not be specified more than once per rel attribute. Link types are always ASCII
case-insensitive, and must be compared as such. Thus, rel="next" is the same
as rel="NEXT". Link typeEffect on...Brief description linka and area
alternateHyperlinkHyperlinkGives alternate representations of the current
document. authorHyperlinkHyperlinkGives a link to the current document's
author. bookmarknot allowedHyperlinkGives the permalink for the nearest
ancestor section. helpHyperlinkHyperlinkProvides a link to context-sensitive
help. iconExternal Resourcenot allowedImports an icon to represent the current
document. licenseHyperlinkHyperlinkIndicates that the main content of the
current document is covered by the copyright license described by the
referenced document. nextHyperlinkHyperlinkIndicates that the current document
is a part of a series, and that the next document in the series is the
referenced document. nofollownot allowedAnnotationIndicates that the current
document's original author or publisher does not endorse the referenced
document. noreferrernot allowedAnnotationRequires that the user agent not send
an HTTP Referer (sic) header if the user follows the hyperlink.
prefetchExternal ResourceExternal ResourceSpecifies that the target resource
should be preemptively cached. prevHyperlinkHyperlinkIndicates that the
current document is a part of a series, and that the previous document in the
series is the referenced document. searchHyperlinkHyperlinkGives a link to a
resource that can be used to search through the current document and its
related pages. stylesheetExternal Resourcenot allowedImports a stylesheet.
tagnot allowedHyperlinkGives a tag (identified by the given address) that
applies to the current document. Some of the types described below list
synonyms for these values. These are to be handled as specified by user
agents, but must not be used in documents. 4.12.5.1 Link type "alternate" The
alternate keyword may be used with link, a, and area elements. The meaning of
this keyword depends on the values of the other attributes. If the element is
a link element and the rel attribute also contains the keyword stylesheet The
alternate keyword modifies the meaning of the stylesheet keyword in the way
described for that keyword. The alternate keyword does not create a link of
its own. The alternate keyword is used with the type attribute set to the
value application/rss+xml or the value application/atom+xml The keyword
creates a hyperlink referencing a syndication feed (though not necessarily
syndicating exactly the same content as the current page). The first link, a,
or area element in the document (in tree order) with the alternate keyword
used with the type attribute set to the value application/rss+xml or the value
application/atom+xml must be treated as the default syndication feed for the
purposes of feed autodiscovery. The following link element gives the
syndication feed for the current page: <link rel="alternate"
type="application/atom+xml" href="data.xml"> The following extract offers
various different syndication feeds: <p>You can access the planets database
using Atom feeds:</p> <ul>  <li><a href="recently-visited-planets.xml"
rel="alternate" type="application/atom+xml">Recently Visited Planets</a></li> 
<li><a href="known-bad-planets.xml" rel="alternate"
type="application/atom+xml">Known Bad Planets</a></li>    <li><a
href="unexplored-planets.xml" rel="alternate"
type="application/atom+xml">Unexplored Planets</a></li> </ul> Otherwise The
keyword creates a hyperlink referencing an alternate representation of the
current document. The nature of the referenced document is given by the media,
hreflang, and type attributes. If the alternate keyword is used with the media
attribute, it indicates that the referenced document is intended for use with
the media specified. If the alternate keyword is used with the hreflang
attribute, and that attribute's value differs from the root element's
language, it indicates that the referenced document is a translation. If the
alternate keyword is used with the type attribute, it indicates that the
referenced document is a reformulation of the current document in the
specified format. The media, hreflang, and type attributes can be combined
when specified with the alternate keyword. For example, the following link is
a French translation that uses the PDF format: <link rel=alternate
type=application/pdf hreflang=fr href=manual-fr> This relationship is
transitive — that is, if a document links to two other documents with the
link type "alternate", then, in addition to implying that those documents are
alternative representations of the first document, it is also implying that
those two documents are alternative representations of each other. 4.12.5.2
Link type "author" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer
beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or
Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: incomplete
supportJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The author
keyword may be used with link, a, and area elements. This keyword creates a
hyperlink. For a and area elements, the author keyword indicates that the
referenced document provides further information about the author of the
nearest article element ancestor of the element defining the hyperlink, if
there is one, or of the page as a whole, otherwise. For link elements, the
author keyword indicates that the referenced document provides further
information about the author for the page as a whole. The "referenced
document" can be, and often is, a mailto: URL giving the e-mail address of the
author. [MAILTO] Synonyms: For historical reasons, user agents must also treat
link, a, and area elements that have a rev attribute with the value "made" as
having the author keyword specified as a link relationship. 4.12.5.3 Link type
"bookmark" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta:
unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium
trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript
libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The bookmark keyword may be
used with a and area elements. This keyword creates a hyperlink. The bookmark
keyword gives a permalink for the nearest ancestor article element of the
linking element in question, or of the section the linking element is most
closely associated with, if there are no ancestor article elements. The
following snippet has three permalinks. A user agent could determine which
permalink applies to which part of the spec by looking at where the permalinks
are given.  ...  <body>   <h1>Example of permalinks</h1>   <div id="a">   
<h2>First example</h2>      <p><a href="a.html" rel="bookmark">This</a>
permalink applies to    only the content from the first H2 to the second H2.
The DIV isn't     exactly that section, but it roughly corresponds to it.</p>  
</div>     <h2>Second example</h2>   <article id="b">    <p><a href="b.html"
rel="bookmark">This</a> permalink applies to    the outer ARTICLE element
(which could be, e.g., a blog post).</p>    <article id="c">     <p><a
href="c.html" rel="bookmark">This</a> permalink applies to     the inner
ARTICLE element (which could be, e.g., a blog comment).</p>    </article>  
</article>  </body>  ... 4.12.5.4 Link type "help" Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: incomplete supportJavaScript libraries, plugins,
etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The help keyword may be used with link, a, and
area elements. This keyword creates a hyperlink. For a and area elements, the
help keyword indicates that the referenced document provides further help
information for the parent of the element defining the hyperlink, and its
children. In the following example, the form control has associated
context-sensitive help. The user agent could use this information, for
example, displaying the referenced document if the user presses the "Help" or
"F1" key.  <p><label> Topic: <input name=topic> <a href="help/topic.html"
rel="help">(Help)</a></label></p> For link elements, the help keyword
indicates that the referenced document provides help for the page as a whole.
For a and area elements, on some browsers, the help keyword causes the link to
use a different cursor. 4.12.5.5 Link type "icon" Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: incomplete supportLatest
Firefox trunk nightly build: incomplete supportLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk
build: incomplete supportLatest Opera beta or preview build: incomplete
supportJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The icon
keyword may be used with link elements. This keyword creates an external
resource link. The specified resource is an icon representing the page or
site, and should be used by the user agent when representing the page in the
user interface. Icons could be auditory icons, visual icons, or other kinds of
icons. If multiple icons are provided, the user agent must select the most
appropriate icon according to the type, media, and sizes attributes. If there
are multiple equally appropriate icons, user agents must use the last one
declared in tree order at the time that the user agent collected the list of
icons. If the user agent tries to use an icon but that icon is determined,
upon closer examination, to in fact be inappropriate (e.g. because it uses an
unsupported format), then the user agent must try the next-most-appropriate
icon as determined by the attributes. User agents are not required to update
icons when the list of icons changes, but are encouraged to do so. There is no
default type for resources given by the icon keyword. However, for the
purposes of determining the type of the resource, user agents must expect the
resource to be an image. The sizes attribute gives the sizes of icons for
visual media. Its value, if present, is merely advisory. User agents may use
the value to decide which icon(s) to use if multiple icons are available. If
specified, the attribute must have a value that is an unordered set of unique
space-separated tokens which are ASCII case-insensitive. Each value must be
either an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "any", or a value that
consists of two valid non-negative integers that do not have a leading U+0030
DIGIT ZERO (0) character and that are separated by a single U+0078 LATIN SMALL
LETTER X or U+0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X character. The keywords represent
icon sizes. To parse and process the attribute's value, the user agent must
first split the attribute's value on spaces, and must then parse each
resulting keyword to determine what it represents. The any keyword represents
that the resource contains a scalable icon, e.g. as provided by an SVG image.
Other keywords must be further parsed as follows to determine what they
represent: If the keyword doesn't contain exactly one U+0078 LATIN SMALL
LETTER X or U+0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X character, then this keyword doesn't
represent anything. Abort these steps for that keyword. Let width string be
the string before the "x" or "X". Let height string be the string after the
"x" or "X". If either width string or height string start with a U+0030 DIGIT
ZERO (0) character or contain any characters other than characters in the
range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then this keyword
doesn't represent anything. Abort these steps for that keyword. Apply the
rules for parsing non-negative integers to width string to obtain width. Apply
the rules for parsing non-negative integers to height string to obtain height.
The keyword represents that the resource contains a bitmap icon with a width
of width device pixels and a height of height device pixels. The keywords
specified on the sizes attribute must not represent icon sizes that are not
actually available in the linked resource. In the absence of a link with the
icon keyword, for Documents obtained over HTTP or HTTPS, user agents may
instead attempt to fetch and use an icon with the absolute URL obtained by
resolving the URL "/favicon.ico" against the document's address, as if the
page had declared that icon using the icon keyword. The following snippet
shows the top part of an application with several icons. <!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>    <head>     <title>lsForums — Inbox</title>   <link rel=icon
href=favicon.png sizes="16x16" type="image/png">   <link rel=icon
href=windows.ico sizes="32x32 48x48" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon">    <link
rel=icon href=mac.icns sizes="128x128 512x512 8192x8192 32768x32768">    <link
rel=icon href=iphone.png sizes="57x57" type="image/png">   <link rel=icon
href=gnome.svg sizes="any" type="image/svg+xml">   <link rel=stylesheet
href=lsforums.css>   <script src=lsforums.js></script>     <meta
name=application-name content="lsForums">  </head>  <body>   ... For
historical reasons, the icon keyword may be preceded by the keyword
"shortcut". If the "shortcut" keyword is present, it must be come immediately
before the icon keyword and the two keywords must be separated by only a
single U+0020 SPACE character. 4.12.5.6 Link type "license" Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc:
unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The license keyword may be used with link, a, and
area elements. This keyword creates a hyperlink. The license keyword indicates
that the referenced document provides the copyright license terms under which
the main content of the current document is provided. This specification does
not specify how to distinguish between the main content of a document and
content that is not deemed to be part of that main content. The distinction
should be made clear to the user. Consider a photo sharing site. A page on
that site might describe and show a photograph, and the page might be marked
up as follows: <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html>  <head>    <title>Exampl Pictures:
Kissat</title>     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/style/default">    </head> 
<body>     <h1>Kissat</h1>   <nav>    <a href="../">Return to photo index</a>  
</nav>     <figure>    <img src="/pix/39627052_fd8dcd98b5.jpg">    
<figcaption>Kissat</figcaption>   </figure>   <p>One of them has six toes!</p>
  <p><small><a rel="license"
href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php">MIT
Licensed</a></small></p>   <footer>    <a href="/">Home</a> | <a
href="../">Photo index</a>    <p><small>© copyright 2009 Exampl Pictures. All
Rights Reserved.</small></p>   </footer>  </body> </html> In this case the
license applies to just the photo (the main content of the document), not the
whole document. In particular not the design of the page itself, which is
covered by the copyright given at the bottom of the document. This could be
made clearer in the styling (e.g. making the license link prominently
positioned near the photograph, while having the page copyright in light small
text at the foot of the page. Synonyms: For historical reasons, user agents
must also treat the keyword "copyright" like the license keyword. 4.12.5.7
Link type "nofollow" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer
beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or
Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build:
unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The
nofollow keyword may be used with a and area elements. This keyword does not
create a hyperlink, but annotates any other hyperlinks created by the element
(the implied hyperlink, if no other keywords create one). The nofollow keyword
indicates that the link is not endorsed by the original author or publisher of
the page, or that the link to the referenced document was included primarily
because of a commercial relationship between people affiliated with the two
pages. 4.12.5.8 Link type "noreferrer" Ready for first implementations Tests:
1 — View... Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc:
unknown 2009-10-28 Ms2ger The noreferrer keyword may be used with a and area
elements. This keyword does not create a hyperlink, but annotates any other
hyperlinks created by the element (the implied hyperlink, if no other keywords
create one). It indicates that no referrer information is to be leaked when
following the link. If a user agent follows a link defined by an a or area
element that has the noreferrer keyword, the user agent must not include a
Referer (sic) HTTP header (or equivalent for other protocols) in the request.
This keyword also causes the opener attribute to remain null if the hyperlink
creates a new browsing context. 4.12.5.9 Link type "prefetch" Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: complete but buggy supportLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk
build: complete but buggy supportLatest Opera beta or preview build:
unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2010-09-07 simonp The
prefetch keyword may be used with link, a, and area elements. This keyword
creates an external resource link. The prefetch keyword indicates that
preemptively fetching and caching the specified resource is likely to be
beneficial, as it is highly likely that the user will require this resource.
There is no default type for resources given by the prefetch keyword.
4.12.5.10 Link type "search" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet
Explorer beta: incomplete supportLatest Firefox trunk nightly build:
incomplete supportLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera
beta or preview build: incomplete supportJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc:
unknown 2009-10-28 zcorpan The search keyword may be used with link, a, and
area elements. This keyword creates a hyperlink. The search keyword indicates
that the referenced document provides an interface specifically for searching
the document and its related resources. OpenSearch description documents can
be used with link elements and the search link type to enable user agents to
autodiscover search interfaces. [OPENSEARCH] 4.12.5.11 Link type "stylesheet"
Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: complete but
buggy supportLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: complete but buggy
supportLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: complete but buggy supportLatest
Opera beta or preview build: complete but buggy supportJavaScript libraries,
plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The stylesheet keyword may be used with
link elements. This keyword creates an external resource link that contributes
to the styling processing model. The specified resource is a resource that
describes how to present the document. Exactly how the resource is to be
processed depends on the actual type of the resource. If the alternate keyword
is also specified on the link element, then the link is an alternative
stylesheet; in this case, the title attribute must be specified on the link
element, with a non-empty value. The default type for resources given by the
stylesheet keyword is text/css. The appropriate time to obtain the resource is
when the external resource link is created or when its element is inserted
into a document, whichever happens last. If the resource is an alternative
stylesheet then the user agent may defer obtaining the resource until it is
part of the preferred style sheet set. [CSSOM] Quirk: If the document has been
set to quirks mode, has the same origin as the URL of the external resource,
and the Content-Type metadata of the external resource is not a supported
style sheet type, the user agent must instead assume it to be text/css.
4.12.5.12 Link type "tag" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet
Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit
or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build:
unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The tag
keyword may be used with a and area elements. This keyword creates a
hyperlink. The tag keyword indicates that the tag that the referenced document
represents applies to the current document. Since it indicates that the tag
applies to the current document, it would be inappropriate to use this keyword
in the markup of a tag cloud, which lists the popular tags across a set of
pages. 4.12.5.13 Sequential link types Ready for first implementations Latest
Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build:
unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or
preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23
Hixie Some documents form part of a sequence of documents. A sequence of
documents is one where each document can have a previous sibling and a next
sibling. A document with no previous sibling is the start of its sequence, a
document with no next sibling is the end of its sequence. A document may be
part of multiple sequences. 4.12.5.13.1 Link type "next" Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: incomplete supportJavaScript libraries, plugins,
etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The next keyword may be used with link, a, and
area elements. This keyword creates a hyperlink. The next keyword indicates
that the document is part of a sequence, and that the link is leading to the
document that is the next logical document in the sequence. 4.12.5.13.2 Link
type "prev" Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta:
unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium
trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: incomplete
supportJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie The prev
keyword may be used with link, a, and area elements. This keyword creates a
hyperlink. The prev keyword indicates that the document is part of a sequence,
and that the link is leading to the document that is the previous logical
document in the sequence. Synonyms: For historical reasons, user agents must
also treat the keyword "previous" like the prev keyword. 4.12.5.14 Other link
types Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta:
unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium
trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript
libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie Extensions to the predefined
set of link types may be registered in the Microformats wiki
existing-rel-values page. [MFREL] Anyone is free to edit the Microformats wiki
existing-rel-values page at any time to add a type. Extension types must be
specified with the following information: Keyword The actual value being
defined. The value should not be confusingly similar to any other defined
value (e.g. differing only in case). If the value contains a U+003A COLON
character (:), it must also be an absolute URL. Effect on... link One of the
following: Not allowed The keyword must not be specified on link elements.
Hyperlink The keyword may be specified on a link element; it creates a
hyperlink. External Resource The keyword may be specified on a link element;
it creates an external resource link. Effect on... a and area One of the
following: Not allowed The keyword must not be specified on a and area
elements. Hyperlink The keyword may be specified on a and area elements; it
creates a hyperlink. External Resource The keyword may be specified on a a and
area elements; it creates an external resource link. Hyperlink Annotation The
keyword may be specified on a a and area elements; it annotates other
hyperlinks created by the element. Brief description A short non-normative
description of what the keyword's meaning is. Specification A link to a more
detailed description of the keyword's semantics and requirements. It could be
another page on the Wiki, or a link to an external page. Synonyms A list of
other keyword values that have exactly the same processing requirements.
Authors should not use the values defined to be synonyms, they are only
intended to allow user agents to support legacy content. Anyone may remove
synonyms that are not used in practice; only names that need to be processed
as synonyms for compatibility with legacy content are to be registered in this
way. Status One of the following: Proposed The keyword has not received wide
peer review and approval. Someone has proposed it and is, or soon will be,
using it. Ratified The keyword has received wide peer review and approval. It
has a specification that unambiguously defines how to handle pages that use
the keyword, including when they use it in incorrect ways. Discontinued The
keyword has received wide peer review and it has been found wanting. Existing
pages are using this keyword, but new pages should avoid it. The "brief
description" and "specification" entries will give details of what authors
should use instead, if anything. If a keyword is found to be redundant with
existing values, it should be removed and listed as a synonym for the existing
value. If a keyword is registered in the "proposed" state for a period of a
month or more without being used or specified, then it may be removed from the
registry. If a keyword is added with the "proposed" status and found to be
redundant with existing values, it should be removed and listed as a synonym
for the existing value. If a keyword is added with the "proposed" status and
found to be harmful, then it should be changed to "discontinued" status.
Anyone can change the status at any time, but should only do so in accordance
with the definitions above. Conformance checkers must use the information
given on the Microformats wiki existing-rel-values page to establish if a
value is allowed or not: values defined in this specification or marked as
"proposed" or "ratified" must be accepted when used on the elements for which
they apply as described in the "Effect on..." field, whereas values marked as
"discontinued" or not listed in either this specification or on the
aforementioned page must be rejected as invalid. Conformance checkers may
cache this information (e.g. for performance reasons or to avoid the use of
unreliable network connectivity). When an author uses a new type not defined
by either this specification or the Wiki page, conformance checkers should
offer to add the value to the Wiki, with the details described above, with the
"proposed" status. Types defined as extensions in the Microformats wiki
existing-rel-values page with the status "proposed" or "ratified" may be used
with the rel attribute on link, a, and area elements in accordance to the
"Effect on..." field. [MFREL] 4.13 Common idioms without dedicated elements
Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: not
applicableLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: not applicableLatest WebKit or
Chromium trunk build: not applicableLatest Opera beta or preview build: not
applicableJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: not applicable 2009-10-23 Hixie
4.13.1 The main part of the content The main content of a page — not
including headers and footers, navigation links, sidebars, advertisements, and
so forth — can be marked up in a variety of ways, depending on the needs of
the author. The simplest solution is to not mark up the main content at all,
and just leave it as implicit. Another way to think of this is that the body
elements marks up the main content of the page, and the bits that aren't main
content are excluded through the use of more appropriate elements like aside
and nav. Here is a short Web page marked up along this minimalistic school of
thought. The main content is highlighted. Notice how all the other content in
the body is marked up with elements to indicate that it's not part of the main
content, in this case header, nav, and footer. <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html>  <head> 
 <title> My Toys </title>  </head>  <body>   <header>     <h1>My toys</h1>  
</header>   <nav>    <p><a href="/">Home</a></p>    <p><a
href="/contact">Contact</a></p>   </nav>   <p>I really like my chained book
and my telephone. I'm not such a   fan of my big ball.</p>   <p>Another toy I
like is my mirror.</p>     <footer>    <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>  
</footer>  </body> </html> If the main content is an independent unit of
content that one could imagine syndicating independently, then the article
element would be appropriate to mark up the main content of the document. The
document in the previous example is here recast as a blog post: <!DOCTYPE
HTML> <html>  <head>   <title> The Boy Blog: My Toys </title>  </head>   
<body>
  <header>    <h1>The Boy Blog</h1>   </header>   <nav>    <p><a
href="/">Home</a></p>     <p><a href="/contact">Contact</a></p>     </nav>  
<article>    <header>      <h1>My toys</h1>     <p>Published <time pubdate
datetime="2010-08-04">August 4th</time></p>    </header>    <p>I really like
my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a    fan of my big ball.</p>   
<p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>   </article>   <footer>    <p>©
copyright 2010 by the boy</p>    </footer>  </body> </html> If the main content
is not an independent unit of content so much as a section of a larger work,
for instance a chapter, then the section element would be appropriate to mark
up the main content of the document. Here is the same document, case as a
chapter in an online book: <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html>  <head>   <title> Chapter 2:
My Toys — The Book of the Boy </title>  </head>  <body>   <header>   
<h1>Chapter 2: My Toys</h1>   </header>   <nav>    <p><a href="/">Front
Page</a></p>    <p><a href="/toc">Table of Contents</a></p>    <p><a
href="/c1">Chapter 1</a> — <a href="/c3">Chapter 3</a></p>   </nav>  
<section>    <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a
   fan of my big ball.</p>    <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>  
</section>   <footer>     <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>   </footer> 
</body> </html> If neither article nor section would be appropriate, but the
main content still needs an explicit element, for example for styling
purposes, then the div element can be used. This is the same as the original
example, but using div for the main content instead of leaving it implied:
<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html>    <head>     <title> My Toys </title>   <style>    body
>
div { background: navy; color: yellow; }   </style>  </head>  <body>  
<header>    <h1>My toys</h1>   </header>   <nav>    <p><a
href="/">Home</a></p>     <p><a href="/contact">Contact</a></p>     </nav>  
<div>     <p>I really like my chained book and my telephone. I'm not such a   
fan of my big ball.</p>    <p>Another toy I like is my mirror.</p>   </div>  
<footer>    <p>© copyright 2010 by the boy</p>   </footer>  </body> </html>
4.13.2 Bread crumb navigation This specification does not provide a
machine-readable way of describing bread-crumb navigation menus. Authors are
encouraged to just use a series of links in a paragraph. The nav element can
be used to mark the section containing these paragraphs as being navigation
blocks. In the following example, the current page can be reached via two
paths. <nav>  <p>   <a href="/">Main</a> >   <a href="/products/">Products</a>
>   <a href="/products/dishwashers/">Dishwashers</a> >	 <a>Second hand</a> 
</p>  <p>   <a href="/">Main</a> >   <a href="/second-hand/">Second hand</a> >
  <a>Dishwashers</a>  </p> </nav> 4.13.3 Tag clouds Ready for first
implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk
nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest
Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc:
unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie This specification does not define any markup
specifically for marking up lists of keywords that apply to a group of pages
(also known as tag clouds). In general, authors are encouraged to either mark
up such lists using ul elements with explicit inline counts that are then
hidden and turned into a presentational effect using a style sheet, or to use
SVG. Here, three tags are included in a short tag cloud: <style> @media
screen, print, handheld, tv {    /* should be ignored by non-visual browsers */
  .tag-cloud > li > span { display: none; }   .tag-cloud > li { display:
inline; }   .tag-cloud-1 { font-size: 0.7em; }     .tag-cloud-2 { font-size:
0.9em; }   .tag-cloud-3 { font-size: 1.1em; }    .tag-cloud-4 { font-size:
1.3em; }   .tag-cloud-5 { font-size: 1.5em; } } </style> ... <ul
class="tag-cloud">  <li class="tag-cloud-4"><a title="28 instances"
href="/t/apple">apple</a> <span>(popular)</span>  <li class="tag-cloud-2"><a
title="6 instances"  href="/t/kiwi">kiwi</a> <span>(rare)</span>  <li
class="tag-cloud-5"><a title="41 instances" href="/t/pear">pear</a>
<span>(very popular)</span> </ul> The actual frequency of each tag is given
using the title attribute. A CSS style sheet is provided to convert the markup
into a cloud of differently-sized words, but for user agents that do not
support CSS or are not visual, the markup contains annotations like
"(popular)" or "(rare)" to categorize the various tags by frequency, thus
enabling all users to benefit from the information. The ul element is used
(rather than ol) because the order is not particularly important: while the
list is in fact ordered alphabetically, it would convey the same information
if ordered by, say, the length of the tag. The tag rel-keyword is not used on
these a elements because they do not represent tags that apply to the page
itself; they are just part of an index listing the tags themselves. 4.13.4
Conversations Ready for first implementations Latest Internet Explorer beta:
unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build: unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium
trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or preview build: unknownJavaScript
libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23 Hixie This specification does not
define a specific element for marking up conversations, meeting minutes, chat
transcripts, dialogues in screenplays, instant message logs, and other
situations where different players take turns in discourse. Instead, authors
are encouraged to mark up conversations using p elements and punctuation.
Authors who need to mark the speaker for styling purposes are encouraged to
use span or b. Paragraphs with their text wrapped in the i element can be used
for marking up stage directions. This example demonstrates this using an
extract from Abbot and Costello's famous sketch, Who's on first: <p> Costello:
Look, you gotta first baseman? <p> Abbott: Certainly. <p> Costello: Who's
playing first? <p> Abbott: That's right. <p> Costello becomes exasperated. <p>
Costello: When you pay off the first baseman every month, who gets the money?
<p> Abbott: Every dollar of it. The following extract shows how an IM
conversation log could be marked up. <p> <time>14:22</time> <b>egof</b> I'm
not that nerdy, I've only seen 30% of the star trek episodes <p>
<time>14:23</time> <b>kaj</b> if you know what percentage of the star trek
episodes you have seen, you are inarguably nerdy <p> <time>14:23</time>
<b>egof</b> it's unarguably <p> <time>14:23</time> <i>* kaj blinks</i> <p>
<time>14:24</time> <b>kaj</b> you are not helping your case HTML does not have
a good way to mark up graphs, so descriptions of interactive conversations
from games are more difficult to mark up. This example shows one possible
convention using dl elements to list the possible responses at each point in
the conversation. Another option to consider is describing the conversation in
the form of a DOT file, and outputting the result as an SVG image to place in
the document. [DOT] <p> Next, you meet a fisherman. You can say one of several
greetings: <dl>  <dt> "Hello there!"  <dd>   <p> He responds with "Hello, how
may I help you?"; you can respond with:   <dl>      <dt> "I would like to buy a
fish."      <dd> <p> He sells you a fish and the conversation finishes.    
<dt>
"Can I borrow your boat?"    <dd>     <p> He is surprised and asks "What are
you offering in return?".     <dl>    <dt> "Five gold." (if you have enough)
     <dt> "Ten gold." (if you have enough)    <dt> "Fifteen gold." (if you
have enough)      <dd> <p> He lends you his boat. The conversation ends.     
<dt> "A fish." (if you have one)      <dt> "A newspaper." (if you have one)   
  <dt> "A pebble." (if you have one)      <dd> <p> "No thanks", he replies.
Your conversation options           at this point are the same as they were
after asking to borrow        his boat, minus any options you've suggested
before.     </dl>    </dd>   </dl>  </dd>  <dt> "Vote for me in the next
election!"  <dd> <p> He turns away. The conversation finishes.    <dt> "Sir,
are
you aware that your fish are running away?"  <dd>   <p> He looks at you
skeptically and says "Fish cannot run, sir".   <dl>    <dt> "You got me!"   
<dd> <p> The fisherman sighs and the conversation ends.    <dt> "Only
kidding."    <dd> <p> "Good one!" he retorts. Your conversation options at
this    point are the same as those following "Hello there!" above.    <dt>
"Oh, then what are they doing?"    <dd> <p> He looks at his fish, giving you
an opportunity to steal    his boat, which you do. The conversation ends.  
</dl>  </dd> </ul> 4.13.5 Footnotes Ready for first implementations Latest
Internet Explorer beta: unknownLatest Firefox trunk nightly build:
unknownLatest WebKit or Chromium trunk build: unknownLatest Opera beta or
preview build: unknownJavaScript libraries, plugins, etc: unknown 2009-10-23
Hixie HTML does not have a dedicated mechanism for marking up footnotes. Here
are the recommended alternatives. For short inline annotations, the title
attribute should be used. In this example, two parts of a dialogue are
annotated with footnote-like content using the title attribute. <p>
<b>Customer</b>: Hello! I wish to register a complaint. Hello. Miss? <p>
<b>Shopkeeper</b>: <span title="Colloquial pronunciation of 'What do you'"
>Watcha</span> mean, miss? <p> <b>Customer</b>: Uh, I'm sorry, I have a cold.
I wish to make a complaint. <p> <b>Shopkeeper</b>: Sorry, <span title="This
is, of course, a lie.">we're closing for lunch</span>. For longer annotations,
the a element should be used, pointing to an element later in the document.
The convention is that the contents of the link be a number in square
brackets. In this example, a footnote in the dialogue links to a paragraph
below the dialogue. The paragraph then reciprocally links back to the
dialogue, allowing the user to return to the location of the footnote. <p>
Announcer: Number 16: The <i>hand</i>. <p> Interviewer: Good evening. I have
with me in the studio tonight Mr Norman St John Polevaulter, who for the past
few years has been contradicting people. Mr Polevaulter, why <em>do</em> you
contradict people? <p> Norman: I don't. <sup><a href="#fn1"
id="r1">[1]</a></sup> <p> Interviewer: You told me you did! ... <section>  <p
id="fn1"><a href="#r1">[1]</a> This is, naturally, a lie,  but paradoxically
if it were true he could not say so without  contradicting the interviewer and
thus making it false.</p> </section> For side notes, longer annotations that
apply to entire sections of the text rather than just specific words or
sentences, the aside element should be used. In this example, a sidebar is
given after a dialogue, giving it some context. <p> <span
class="speaker">Customer</span>: I will not buy this record, it is scratched.
<p> <span class="speaker">Shopkeeper</span>: I'm sorry? <p> <span
class="speaker">Customer</span>: I will not buy this record, it is scratched.
<p> <span class="speaker">Shopkeeper</span>: No no no, this's'a tobacconist's.
<aside>  <p>In 1970, the British Empire lay in ruins, and foreign 
nationalists frequented the streets — many of them Hungarians  (not the
streets — the foreign nationals). Sadly, Alexander  Yalt has been publishing
incompetently-written phrase books. </aside> For figures or tables, footnotes
can be included in the relevant figcaption or caption element, or in
surrounding prose. In this example, a table has cells with footnotes that are
given in prose. A figure element is used to give a single legend to the
combination of the table and its footnotes. <figure>  <figcaption>Table 1.
Alternative activities for knights.</figcaption>  <table>   <tr>    <th>
Activity    <th> Location    <th> Cost     <tr>     <td> Dance    <td> Wherever
possible    <td> £0<sup><a href="#fn1">1</a></sup>   <tr>    <td> Routines,
chorus scenes<sup><a href="#fn2">2</a></sup>    <td> Undisclosed    <td>
Undisclosed   <tr>    <td> Dining<sup><a href="#fn3">3</a></sup>    <td>
Camelot    <td> Cost of ham, jam, and spam<sup><a href="#fn4">4</a></sup> 
</table>  <p id="fn1">1. Assumed.</p>  <p id="fn2">2. Footwork impeccable.</p>
 <p id="fn3">3. Quality described as "well".</p>  <p id="fn4">4. A lot.</p>
</figure> 4.14 Matching HTML 

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