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Re: [csswg-drafts] [css-text] Prevent line breaking after explicit hyphens (#3434)

From: hftf via GitHub <sysbot+gh@w3.org>
Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 01:47:36 +0000
To: public-css-archive@w3.org
Message-ID: <issue_comment.created-448828577-1545270455-sysbot+gh@w3.org>
Thank you for investigating my issue!

> I just clarified that in 806cd4e

I think this commit contains a typo: `a visually indication`. I am also somewhat concerned that this only begins to define what a “hyphenation opportunity” is _not_, rather than what it _is_. Maybe explicitly contrasting the “hyphenation” mechanism with line breaking behavior would be a helpful addition here, as well as an explicit, unambiguous sentence that literally begins “A _hyphenation opportunity_ is a….”

---

> * For words like e-mail or T-shirt, the UA is already allowed to be smart enough and decide that hyphens after a single letter do not introduce a breaking opportunity, or some similar heuristic.

To clarify, is this independent of `hyphenate-limit-chars`, which was suggested in the teleconf? From what I gather, that property only controls “hyphenation opportunities,” and so, as newly redefined, only could affect whether `email` gets hyphenated to `e-` and `mail`, but not whether `e-mail` breaks apart.

> &lt;dael> fantasai: Seems really weird that you'd take hyphenated phrase like one in issue, forbid breaking in a long term is unusually strict. I can see not breaking at a point that's not the hyphen, but breaking at hyphen I don't imagine you'd want to suppress.
>
> &lt;dael> fantasai: t-shirt could be a case where you don't break if it's less then 2 char on other side. You can control that for hyphenation in L4.
> &lt;dael> fantasai: long-term breaking there is less likely to be because each half is too short
>
> etc.

It’s not about whether the parts of a hyphenated compound are shorter than a threshold. In general, most hyphenated compounds are conceived as a single unit (and inflected atomically when spoken out loud). Personal names and hyphenated keywords in code are two good examples to add to my meager sample of three [frequent](https://www.wordfrequency.info/free.asp?s=y) English words. But I think the use case is much broader and is not “weird” or “unusual.” Keeping compounds together avoids interrupting or misleading the reader (a miscue or [false scent](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_scent#Metaphorical_usage) or [garden path](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden-path_sentence)) and increases legibility. Some style advice is collected below (not all relevant):

<details>
<summary>
Links to selected style manuals and authorities
</summary>

<!-- Any strong emphasis below is mine. -->

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[The Canadian Style: 2. Hyphenation: Compounding and Word Division](https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tcdnstyl-chap?lang=eng&lettr=chapsect2&info0=2)

> In many cases only one syllable in the compound is stressed. The trend over the years has been for the English compound to begin as two separate words, then be hyphenated and finally, if there is no structural impediment to union, become a single word written without a space or hyphen.

##### 2.17: Word division

> In order to ensure clear, unambiguous presentation, avoid dividing words at the end of a line as much as possible. If word division is necessary, text comprehension and readability should be your guides. The accepted practice is summarized below:

> (i) Avoid misleading breaks that might cause the reader to confuse one word with another, as in *read-just* and *reap-pear*.
> (j) Divide compounds only at the hyphen, if possible (*court-martial*, not *court-mar-tial*). A compound written as one word should be divided between its elements (*hot-house*, *sail-boat*).

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### Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition

#### 2: Manuscript Preparation, Manuscript Editing, and Proofreading

[2.13: Hyphenation](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part1/ch02/psec013.html)

> The hyphenation function on your word processor should be turned off. The only hyphens that should appear in the manuscript are hyphens that would appear regardless of where they appeared on the page (e.g., in compound forms). Do not worry if such a hyphen happens to fall at the end of a line or if the right-hand margin is extremely ragged.

[2.96: Marking dashes and hyphens](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part1/ch02/psec096.html)

> End-of-line hyphens should be marked to distinguish between soft (i.e., conditional or optional) and hard hyphens. Soft hyphens are those hyphens that are invoked only to break a word at the end of a line; hard hyphens are permanent (such as those in cul-de-sac) and must remain no matter where the hyphenated word or term appears.

[2.112: Proofreading for word breaks](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part1/ch02/psec112.html)

> When it is a question of an intelligible but nonstandard word break for a line that would otherwise be too loose or too tight, the nonstandard break (such as the hyphenation of an already hyphenated term) may be preferred.

#### 7: Spelling, Distinctive Treatment of Words, and Compounds

##### 7.36–7.47: Word Division

[7.40: Dividing compounds, prefixes, and suffixes](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/ch07/psec040.html)

> Hyphenated or closed compounds and words with prefixes or suffixes are best divided at the natural breaks.
>
> poverty- / stricken (*rather than* pov- / erty-stricken)

[7.42: Dividing proper nouns and personal names](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/ch07/psec042.html)

> Proper nouns of more than one element, especially personal names, should be broken, if possible, between the elements rather than within any of the elements.
>
> Heitor Villa- / Lobos (*or, better,* Heitor / Villa-Lobos)

##### 7.81–7.89: Compounds and Hyphenation

7.81: To hyphenate or not to hyphenate
7.82: Compounds defined

[7.83: The trend toward closed compounds](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/ch07/psec083.html)

> With frequent use, open or hyphenated compounds tend to become closed (*on line* to *on-line* to *online*).

[7.84: Hyphens and readability](https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/ch07/psec084.html)

> A hyphen can make for easier reading by showing structure and, often, pronunciation. Words that might otherwise be misread, such as *re-creation* or *co-op*, should be hyphenated. Hyphens can also eliminate ambiguity. For example, the hyphen in *much-needed clothing* shows that the clothing is greatly needed rather than abundant and needed.

---

Microsoft Manual of Style: 7. Practical issues of style: Line breaks

> - Try to keep headings on one line. If a two-line heading is unavoidable, break the lines so that the first line is longer. Do not break headings by hyphenating words, and avoid breaking a heading between the parts of a hyphenated word. It does not matter whether the line breaks before or after a conjunction, but avoid breaking between two words that are part of a verb phrase.
>
>   <dl><dt>Microsoft style</dt>
>   <dd>Bookmarks, cross-references,<br> and captions</dd>
>   <dt>Not Microsoft style</dt>
>   <dd>Bookmarks, cross-<br>references, and captions</dd></dl>
>
> - Try to avoid breaking function names and parameters. If hyphenating is necessary, break these names between the words that make up the function or parameter, not within a word itself.

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Garner’s Modern English Usage: Headlinese: Peculiar Use Of

> Second, line breaks should reflect logical and grammatical breaks as closely as possible. Sometimes a break can create a miscue. … Even when no miscue is possible, it’s best not to split a preposition from its object between lines, for example, or to from the verb in an infinitive.
> In a similar vein, the importance of hyphenating phrasal adjectives becomes apparent in the close quarters of a headline.

---

[Technical Communication: Appendix: Reference Handbook: Part C: Editing and Proofreading Your Documents: Hyphens](http://www.macmillanhighered.com/BrainHoney/Resource/6698/digital_first_content/trunk/test/techcomm11e_full/techcomm11e_full_app3_3.html)

> 5. Use hyphens to divide a word at the end of a line.
>    > We will meet in the pavil-<br>ion in one hour.
>
>    Whenever possible, however, avoid such line breaks; they slow the reader down.

Illustrator CC: Visual QuickStart Guide: 20. Style & Edit Type: Applying hyphenation

> Regardless of the current hyphenation settings, you will need to “eyeball” your hyphenated text and, if necessary, correct any awkward breaks using a soft return or the No Break command. To prevent a particular word from breaking at the end of a line, such as a compound word (e.g., “single-line”), to reunite an awkwardly hyphenated word (e.g., “sex-tuplet”)…

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[GPO Style Manual: 6. Compounding Rules](https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/html/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008-8.htm)

> A compound word is a union of two or more words, either with or without a hyphen. It conveys a unit idea that is not as clearly or quickly conveyed by the component words in unconnected succession. The hyphen is a mark of punctuation that not only unites but also separates the component words; it facilitates understanding, aids readability, and ensures correct pronunciation. When compound words must be divided at the end of a line, such division should be made leaving prefixes and combining forms of more than one syllable intact.

[To Hyphenate or Not to Hyphenate](https://www.jstor.org/stable/811371)

[StackOverflow: English Language & Usage: Should hyphenated compound words be permitted to break across lines?](https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/351806/should-hyphenated-compound-words-be-permitted-to-break-across-lines)

[StackOverflow: English Language & Usage: Is it normal to separate hyphenated words on different lines? [duplicate]](https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/1688/is-it-normal-to-separate-hyphenated-words-on-different-lines)

</details>

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