Fwd: RE: Initial Thoughts on CSS and PTSD (my action items from CSUN)

  From Tim  Boland  - Note : it’s early draft subject to change..
---- On Mon, 05 May 2014 17:44:44 +0300 Boland Jr<frederick.boland@nist.gov> wrote ---  
   Some initial draft input on my action items (from CSUN) on CSS review and PTSD feasibility is following.  
 First comes CSS, and then PTSD.   Just to let you know I’m working on it..
   Just started this – 
 have a lot more work to do – should I put this in a wiki somewhere?  If so, how do I do this?
 Thanks and best wishes
 Tim Boland NIST 
 Initial Notes/Thoughts on CSS Use for Persons With Cognitive Disabilities
 Date: 03 May 2014 - adapted from WCAG 2.0 CSS Techniques
 NOTE: There is a wide range/diversity of cognitive issues and impacts, so these 
 statements may or may not apply.. 
 Visual appearance may be enhanced via style sheets while still maintaining a 
 meaningful presentation when style sheets are not applied. Using the positioning
 properties of CSS2, content may be displayed at any position on the user's viewport.
 Depending on the position, this use may help or confuse those with cognitive disabilities.
 Using structural elements ensures that the meaning of the content can still be 
 determined when styling is not available.  Persons with cognitive disabilities may have 
 difficulties determining such meaning without the use of CSS.
 Using CSS, it is possible to supplement the link text by adding additional
 text that describes the unique function of the link but styling the additional text
 so that it is not rendered on the screen by user agents that support CSS.  If available
 and accessible to those with cognitive issues, this additional text may provide
 additional context to the link purpose. 
 Using CSS, the visual appearance of spacing in text may be enhanced via style sheets
 while still maintaining meaningful text sequencing. The CSS letter-spacing property
 helps developers control the amount of white space between characters. This is 
 recommended over adding blank characters to control the spacing, since the blank 
 characters can change the meaning and pronunciation of the word.  This may help 
 those with cognitive disabilities by making it easier to read the text while still 
 preserving the order of the text.
 CSS supports a mechanism to add purely decorative
 images and images used for visual formatting to Web content without requiring 
 additional markup within the content. This makes it possible for assistive 
 technologies to ignore the non-text content. Some user agents can ignore or turn 
 off CSS at the user's request, so that background images included with CSS 
 simply "disappear" and do not interfere with display settings such as enlarged
 fonts or high contrast settings.  This may present a problem for users with 
 cognitive disabilities, because of unnecessary clutter which distracts.
 CSS supports specifying text font size proportionally so that user agents can 
 scale content effectively. If a font-size is specified for the body element, 
 all other elements inherit that value, unless overridden by a more specific 
 selector.  This may help those with cognitive disabilities to properly interpret 
 the meaning and semantics of the text, without the unwelcome influence of different
 font sizes for no reason.
 CSS can specify a named font size that expresses the relative font size desired. 
 These values provide hints so that the user agent can choose a font-size relative
 to the inherited font-size.  This may help those with cognitive disabilities by 
 preserving the meaning of the content without distortion by incorrectly-computed 
 font sizes.
 CSS can specify text font size in em units so that user agents can scale content
 effectively. Since the em is a property of the font, it scales as the font 
 changes size. If a font-size is specified for the body element, all other
 elements inherit that value, unless overridden by a more specific selector.
 This may help those with cognitive disabilities by preserving understanding and 
 perception of scaled content.
 The objective of this technique is to demonstrate how visual appearance may be
 enhanced via style sheets to provide visual feedback when an interactive 
 element has focus or when a user hovers over it using a pointing device. 
 Highlighting the element that has focus or is hovered over can provide 
 information such as the fact that the element is interactive or the scope of
 the interactive element.  This may help those with cognitive disabilities by
 providing clues to properly understand and use interactive elements.
 CSS can be used to ensure that text-based form controls resize when text size
 is changed in the user agent. This will allow users to enter text and read 
 what they have entered in input boxes because the text is displayed at the 
 size required by the user.  This may promote readability and legibility when 
 interacting with forms.
 The CSS properties for margins and padding can be used on their own or in 
 combination to control the layout. The margin properties ('margin-top', 
 'margin-right', 'margin-bottom', 'margin-left', and the shorthand 'margin')
 can be used on any element that is displayed as a block; they add space at
 the outside of an element. The padding properties ('padding-top', 
 'padding-right', 'padding-bottom', 'padding-left', and the shorthand 'padding')
 can be used on any element; they add space inside the element.  This may 
 help or hurt those with cognitive disabilities, depending on the use of these 
 properties (can highlight the intended meaning or distort it).
 CSS can be used to align blocks of text either left or right by setting the
 CSS text-align property.  Individuals with cognitive disabilities want consistency
 as intended by the author, so if the blocks of text are always to the left that is
 probably good.  If the blocks are always to the right that may be less good becuase
 the user needs to read more to get to the blocks of text (depending on the 
 language used).  If the blocks of text are sometimes left and sometimes right 
 that may be disorienting, unless there is a specific purpose to this that is
 given clearly.
 CSS can allow users to view content in such a way that line length can average 80 
 characters or less. This makes it possible for users with certain reading 
 or vision disabilities that have trouble keeping their place when reading 
 long lines of text to view and interact with the content more efficiently. 
 This technique also allows for column width to grow wider as font sizes 
 increase, which will reduce the possibility of clipping as the text size 
 increases.  This preserves the entire content as much as possible to aid in
 Many people with cognitive disabilities have trouble tracking lines of text
 when a block of text is single spaced. Providing spacing between 1.5 to 2
 allows them to start a new line more easily once they have finished the 
 previous one.  This can be accomplished via CSS.
 Using CSS, users can modify, via the user agent, the visual characteristics of the text
 (such as size, color, font family and relative placement) to meet their requirements. 
 Text within images has several accessibility problems.  It is better to use
 real text for the text portion of these elements, and a combination of 
 semantic markup and style sheets to create the appropriate visual presentation,
 to help those with cognitive disabilities.
 Some Web pages use colors to identify different groupings. The objective 
  is to allow users to select specific color combinations for
 the text and background of the main content while retaining visual clues 
 to the groupings and organization of the web page. When a user overrides 
 the foreground and background colors of all the text on a page, visual clues
 to the grouping and organization of the Web page may be lost, making it 
 much more difficult to understand and use.  This may present problems for 
 those with cognitive issues.
 When an author does not specify
 the colors of the text and background of the main content, it is possible
 to change the colors of those regions in the browser without the need to
 override the colors with a user style sheet. Specifying the text and 
 background colors of secondary content means that the browser will not 
 override those colors.  With CSS,the author uses the default text color
 and background color of the main area. As a result the colors are 
 completely determined by the user agent via the user's color preferences.
 The user can ensure that the color selection best meets his needs and 
 provides the best reading experience. 
 Using CSS, users can increase the size of text without having to scroll 
 horizontally to read that text. To do this, an author specifies
 the width of text containers using percent values. This may 
 help those with cognitive disabilities by not requiring them to scroll 
 left to right to read the text.
 It is possible to specify borders and layout using CSS and leave text and
 background colors to render according to the user's browser and/or 
 operating system settings. This allows users to view the text in the colors
 they require while maintaining other aspects of the layout and page design
 such as columns of text, borders around sections or vertical lines between
 a menu and main content area. It will also prevent some display issues in
 some browsers when pages contain Javascript pop-up boxes or drop-down menus
 and have the colors overridden.  Borders and layout indicators help many people
 with cognitive disabilities, as does flexibility over the text and background colors. 
 Sometimes these 
 two needs are in conflict when the user has to over-ride the author's color
 selection of text and background in the browser and the browser also 
 removes the borders and the intended layout. This can mean the page is 
 displayed in a single column with one block of content below the other, 
 which can result in unnecessary whitespace and long lines of text. It can
 also mean that pop-up boxes gain a transparent background, superimposing
 the text of the box on the text of the page, and drop-down menus either
 become transparent or gain a dark-grey background. When a Web author 
 does not specify the colors of any text and background, while specifying
 border colors and layout, it is possible, in most popular browsers, to 
 change the text and background colors without affecting the other 
 (author-specified) CSS declarations.
 There may be situations where an author needs to use a layout that requires
 horizontal scrolling. In that case, it is sufficient to provide options
 within the content that switch to a layout that does not require the 
 user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text. This may be achieved
 via CSS by using standard style switching technology. This may 
 help those with cognitive disabilities as indicated previously.
 With CSS, it can be ensured that the order of content 
 in the source code is the same as the visual presentation of the content.
 The order of content in the source code can be changed by the author to
 any number of visual presentations with CSS. Each order may be meaningful
 to users with certain cognitive issues but may cause confusion for many 
 other users with different cognitive limitations. If 
 such a user, who reads the page following the
 source order, is working with another user who reads the page in 
 visual order, they may be confused when they encounter information in 
 different orders. 
 Certain users may have 
 trouble predicting where focus will go next when the source order
 does not match the visual order.  There may also be situations where
 the visually presented order is necessary to the overall understanding
 of the page, and if the source order is presented differently, it may
 be much more difficult to understand. When the source order matches 
 the visual order, everyone will read the content and interact with it
 in the same (correct) order. This may 
 help those with cognitive disabilities.
 Using CSS, it is possible to specify the width and/or height of containers,
 that contain text or that will accept text input, in em units. This will
 allow user agents that support text resizing to resize the text containers
 in line with changes in text size settings. The width and/or height of text
 containers that have been specified using other units risk text cropping 
 because it falls outside the container boundaries when the text size has
 been increased. The containers generally control the placement of text 
 within the Web page and can include layout elements, structural elements
 and form controls. This may help those with cognitive disabilities by 
 preserving the meaning and readability of the text.
 PTSD Description (from http://www.ptsd.va.gov and 
 Posttaumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), once called shell shock or battle
 fatigue syndrome, is a serious condition that can develop after a person
 has experienced or witnessed a traumatic or terrifying event in which 
 serious physical harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is a lasting 
 consequence of traumatic ordeals that cause intense fear, helplessness,
 or horror, such as a sexual or physical assault, the unexpected death
 of a loved one, an accident, war, or natural disaster. Families of 
 victims can also develop PTSD, as can emergency personnel and rescue workers.
 Symptoms of PTSD most often begin within three months of the event. In some
 cases, however, they do not begin until years later. The severity and 
 duration of the illness vary. Some people recover within six months, 
 while others suffer much longer.
 Symptoms of PTSD often are grouped into three main categories, including:
 Reliving: People with PTSD repeatedly relive the ordeal through thoughts
 and memories of the trauma. These may include flashbacks, hallucinations,
 and nightmares. They also may feel great distress when certain things 
 remind them of the trauma, such as the anniversary date of the event.
 Avoiding: The person may avoid people, places, thoughts, or situations 
 that may remind him or her of the trauma. This can lead to feelings of 
 detachment and isolation from family and friends, as well as a loss of 
 interest in activities that the person once enjoyed.
 Increased arousal: These include excessive emotions; problems relating 
 to others, including feeling or showing affection; difficulty falling 
 or staying asleep; irritability; outbursts of anger; difficulty 
 concentrating; and being "jumpy" or easily startled. The person may 
 also suffer physical symptoms, such as increased blood pressure and 
 heart rate, rapid breathing, muscle tension, nausea, and diarrhea.
 Young children with PTSD may suffer from delayed development in areas 
 such as toilet training, motor skills, and language.
 Most people who experience a traumatic event will have reactions that
 may include shock, anger, nervousness, fear, and even guilt. These 
 reactions are common; and for most people, they go away over time. For
 a person with PTSD, however, these feelings continue and even increase,
 becoming so strong that they keep the person from living a normal life.
 People with PTSD have symptoms for longer than one month and cannot
 function as well as before the event occurred.
 Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder 
 in the DSM iV; the characteristic symptoms are not present before 
 exposure to the violently traumatic event. In the typical case, the
 individual with PTSD persistently avoids all thoughts and emotions, 
 and discussion of the stressor event and may experience amnesia for 
 it. However, the event is commonly relived by the individual through
 intrusive, recurrent recollections, flashbacks, and nightmares. The 
 characteristic symptoms are considered acute if lasting less than 
 three months, and chronic if persisting three months or more, and 
 with delayed onset if the symptoms first occur after six months or 
 some years later. PTSD is distinct from the briefer acute stress 
 disorder, and can cause clinical impairment in significant areas 
 of functioning.
 PTSD is a psychiatric disorder, and may have heredity implications.
 Some of the most common symptoms of PTSD include recurring memories
 or nightmares of the event(s), sleeplessness, loss of interest, or
 feeling numb, anger, and irritability, but there are many ways 
 PTSD can impact your everyday life.
 It’s not just the symptoms of PTSD but also how you may react to them
 that can disrupt your life. You may:
 Frequently avoid places or things that remind you of what happened
 Consistent drinking or use of drugs to numb your feelings
 Consider harming yourself or others
 Start working all the time to occupy your mind
 Pull away from other people and become isolated
 Sometimes these symptoms don’t surface for months or years after the
 event or returning from deployment. They may also come and go. If 
 these problems won’t go away or are getting worse—or you feel like 
 they are disrupting your daily life—you may have PTSD.
   From: lisa.seeman [mailto:lisa.seeman@zoho.com] 
 Sent: Sunday, May 04, 2014 7:24 AM
 To: public-cognitive-a11y-tf; Steve Lee
 Cc: Jim Allan; steve.jacobs; Joseph K O'Connor; Liddy Nevile; Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo; Elle Waters; Cynthia Jimes; jfeng@towson.edu; Avi Golden; Chuck Hitchcock; Lewis, Clayton (Contractor); easeofuse@ca.rr.com; Steve Lee; Boland Jr, Frederick E.; Jonathan Lazar; Laura Carlson; Rossi Setchi
 Subject: Agenda and call information for the Cognitive Accessibility Task Force Teleconference - Monday, April 28, 2014
    Agenda and call information for the Cognitive Accessibility Task Force Teleconference
 When: UTC (GMT/Zulu)-time: Monday, April 28, 2014 at 16:00
 11am Austin time
 12pm Boston and New York 
 5pm London
 7 pm IST Israel 
 2 am Tues AEST Melbourne
 Please verify the correct time of this meeting in your time zone using the Fixed Time Clock at:http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/fixedtime.html?msg=The+Cognitive+Accessibility+Task+Force+%28Weekly+Call%29&iso=20140505T12&p1=43&ah=1
 Call Details
 Dial the W3C Zakim bridge at: +1.617.761.6200 (This is a U.S. number). 
 Pass-code:  2642   (coga) 
   If you have SIP you can call sip: zakim@voip.w3.org 
   Pass-code:  2642   (coga) 
 IRC access 
 An IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel will be available during the call. 
 You can access the channel  via the Web at http://irc.w3.org/?channels=coga
 The server is  irc.w3.org, 
 The port number is 6665 (Note this is not the normal default) 
 The channel is #coga
 You can write any name as a nickname
 Preliminary Agenda 
   Meeting:The Cognitive Accessibility Task Force Teleconference 
   agenda: this 
   agenda+ preview agenda 
   agenda+ set scribe
   agenda+ user groups, finding good practice and identifying bad practice
   agenda+ housekeeping : User group research,  technology reviews, mixing up groups, setting and reviewing actions
   agenda+ CSS review questions, how to do a technology review.
   agenda+ functional approach to inclusion 
   agenda+ user group findings:  dyslexia, other
   agenda+ be done 
 Other Information (less important)
 Resource: For Reference 
   Home Page: http://www.w3.org/WAI/PF/cognitive-a11y-tf/
   Work Statement: http://www.w3.org/WAI/PF/cognitive-a11y-tf/work-statement
   Email Archive: http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-cognitive-a11y-tf/
   Wiki Main Page: http://www.w3.org/WAI/PF/cognitive-a11y-tf/wiki/Main_Page
   Wiki Gap Analysis: http://www.w3.org/WAI/PF/cognitive-a11y-tf/wiki/Gap_Analysis
   * Some helpful Scribing and Participation Tips 
   - For more on W3C use of IRC see: 
   Instructions for connecting using SIP: 
   Place for users to contribute additional VoIP tips. 
   During the conference you can manage your participation with Zakim 
   commands as follows: 
   61# to mute yourself 
   60# to unMute yourself 
   41# to raise your hand (enter speaking queue) 
   40# to lower your hand (exit speaking queue) 
   The system acknowledges these commands with a rapid, three-tone 
   confirmation. Mobile phone users especially should use the mute 
   if they don't have a mute function in their phone. But the hand-raising 
   function is a good idea for anyone not using IRC. 
   All the best
   Lisa Seeman

Received on Monday, 5 May 2014 15:39:18 UTC