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Re: Draft Specification for Service Based Approach Using WebSockets

From: Gavigan, Kevin <kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com>
Date: Thu, 9 Jun 2016 10:16:43 +0100
Message-ID: <CAKaHsmcdwEEcknbAQ2PHd92-rhHJukkgbJK4TH=49aem7wJneA@mail.gmail.com>
To: Song Li <ls@newskysecurity.com>
Cc: Junichi Hashimoto <xju-hashimoto@kddi.com>, Paul Boyes <Paul.Boyes@inrix.com>, Peter Winzell <Peter.Winzell@melcogot.com>, "Crofts, Adam" <acrofts1@jaguarlandrover.com>, public-automotive <public-automotive@w3.org>, Peter Virk <pvirk1@jaguarlandrover.com>, Lovene Bhatia <lbhatia@jaguarlandrover.com>
Hi Song,

Thanks very much for the very helpful details.

For a server with domain 'infotain', do you have any suggestions/advice on
how to establish a WebSocket wss (TLS secure channel) between the on
vehicle client and server?

I'm thinking particularly about how to prevent a Man in the Middle attack
between client and server and ensuring that the client is certain it is
communicating with the infotain server on the vehicle. Would this be based
on the server having an X.509 certificate for 'infotain'? If so would
manufacturers share an 'infotain' certificate issued by a Certificate
Authority (or have I misunderstood - always a possibility :-) ??

Thanks and regards,

Kevin

*Kevin Gavigan BSc, MSc, PhD, MCP, MCTS*
*Software Architect*
*Connected Infotainment*
*Electrical, Electronic and Software Engineering (EESE)*
Jaguar Land Rover


*Mobile: 07990 084866*
*Email:* kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com

*Office address:*
GO03/057 • Building 523, Gaydon • Maildrop: (G03)
Jaguar Land Rover • Banbury Road • Gaydon • Warwick • CV35 0RR

On 8 June 2016 at 19:02, Song Li <ls@newskysecurity.com> wrote:

> Hi Kevin,
>
> Absolutely, I love to elaborate on this. I think it is a good idea to use
> a well-known name for the server, so that all manufactures can use the same
> name. While "localhost" is a well-known name, it is bound to the same
> server (127.0.0.1), I think we can use a different name, say "infotain", so
> that we have the flexibility of using a different ip in the future.
>
> For implementation details, lets assume manufactures are building their
> servers / clients based on some existing OS, i.e. *nix or windows. All
> those systems support hosts file as their first line of domain name
> service. In hosts file, we can map "infotain" to 127.0.0.1, same as
> localhost, this is consistent with today's draft spec. If, in the future,
> for some reason, a manufacture choose to move the server to a different
> machine than the client, a push update of hosts file will let the client
> talk to the new server, no code update required. The client still talks to
> "infotain:4343" but under the hood it is a different machine.
>
> In our spec we do not need to bind the server to a particular ip address,
> I believe this is something up to the manufacture to decide. It is most
> likely be some
>
> This setup will benefit development work as well. In most cases server and
> client will have different development / release schedules. Say the server
> team has a release candidate ServRC1 and deployed for testing, for
> integration tests the client team can simply modify their hosts file so
> that their code talks to ServRC1 instance. They don't have to install both
> client and server on the same machine for the testing.
>
> Now back to Junichi's security concerns. Today when infotain is actually
> localhost, we do not have the protection that we have when server and
> client live on different machines. We need to make sure client cannot
> access the sensitive resources of server. This requires client needs to run
> from a user that's not root, and server's sensitive information such as
> cert, credentials, cookies, etc are saved in places where client cannot
> access.
>
> If in the future client and server are running on different machines, it
> is a standard internet security scenario, where we restrict access to
> server machine's resources by restricting ports, client ip, etc.
>
> Again feedback welcome.
>
> Regards
>
> Song Li
>
> Co-founder and CTO
> NewSky Security <https://newskysecurity.com>
>
> On Wed, Jun 8, 2016 at 1:14 AM, Gavigan, Kevin <
> kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com> wrote:
>
>> Hi Song Li
>>
>> Thank you to you and Junichi for excellent and very helpful feedback
>>
>> I would be very grateful if you could expand on the points you made in
>> your proposal - I have added a question in blue below.
>>
>>
>>    1. Name the server machine differently from "localhost". -
>>    Flexibility in long term evolution, can resolve the name to same machine or
>>    different machine
>>
>> localhost is being used to enable clients running on the vehicle to
>> connect to a server that is also running on the vehicle. This server (which
>> may be implemented using e.g. node.js is acting as a gateway on that
>> vehicle to vehicle signals. There may be other offboard clients, but they
>> also have to obtain the IP address of the vehicle when it is connected to
>> the internet, in addition to being able to address the server running on
>> the vehicle.
>>
>> Instead of using localhost, are you proposing that each server
>> implementer (vehicle manufacturer) should use a different domain name or ip
>> address for the 'server' on the vehicles they manufacture (and this is made
>> known to the client via documentation or a discovery mechanism) or is there
>> a better mechanism?
>>
>> I would be very grateful if you could you please expand on how the
>> alternative to using localhost would work?
>>
>> Thanks and regards,
>>
>> Kevin
>>
>> *Kevin Gavigan BSc, MSc, PhD, MCP, MCTS*
>> *Software Architect*
>> *Connected Infotainment*
>> *Electrical, Electronic and Software Engineering (EESE)*
>> Jaguar Land Rover
>>
>>
>> *Mobile: 07990 084866*
>> *Email:* kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com
>>
>> *Office address:*
>> GO03/057 • Building 523, Gaydon • Maildrop: (G03)
>> Jaguar Land Rover • Banbury Road • Gaydon • Warwick • CV35 0RR
>>
>> On 8 June 2016 at 02:41, Song Li <ls@newskysecurity.com> wrote:
>>
>>> Hi Junichi,
>>>
>>> Thanks for pointing this out - yes, when the client is running on the
>>> same machine as the server, it is a much higher risk if the client is
>>> controlled by attackers, as you pointed out in your email, the attacker
>>> will have access to the server's certificate, and other sensitive
>>> information, from the file system.
>>>
>>> From security's perspective, and putting long-term system evolution into
>>> consideration, I think the problem is "localhost". I am wondering if the
>>> assumption that client and server are running on the same machine will
>>> always be true. It may be the case today, a client is running on the same
>>> computer as the server, but it may not be true in the future, and if it
>>> does happen that client runs on a separate machine than the server, our
>>> code should be able to call server. By binding the server to localhost,
>>> this will not be possible.
>>>
>>> May I propose to give the server a different name? The server's name can
>>> be resolved to the same machine as the client, as it is today, it can also
>>> be resolved to a different machine in the future. On the security side, the
>>> machine running the client should not name the path where the server stores
>>> its sensitive information, i.e. certs, tokens, DB, etc. This can be
>>> achieved with technologies such as virtual machine, or virtual path, etc. A
>>> different name for the server will help this separation. As long as the
>>> client, which is considered vulnerable and can be compromised, cannot name
>>> the sensitive resources, i.e. cannot specify the resource's path, it is
>>> considered safe from the client code and attacker.
>>>
>>> To summarize my proposal, we can:
>>>
>>>    1. Name the server machine differently from "localhost". -
>>>    Flexibility in long term evolution, can resolve the name to same machine or
>>>    different machine
>>>    2. Prevent client code from naming sensitive resources of server. If
>>>    client cannot name it, it cannot access it.
>>>       1. Multiple technologies can be used to achieve the naming
>>>       prevention, details to be discussed during implementation.
>>>
>>> Feedback welcome.
>>>
>>> Regards
>>>
>>> Song Li
>>>
>>> Co-founder and CTO
>>> NewSky Security <https://newskysecurity.com>
>>>
>>> On Tue, Jun 7, 2016 at 5:53 PM, Junichi Hashimoto <
>>> xju-hashimoto@kddi.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Hi Song,
>>>>
>>>> I think certificate type is a different topic but if your example
>>>> solves my concern, please share the idea.
>>>>
>>>> In the draft[1], we see the following sample code:
>>>>   var vehicle  = new WebSocket(“wss://localhost:4343”);
>>>>
>>>> To implement this, the local server has to keep a certificate which
>>>> common name is 'localhost' and also keep the corresponding private key.
>>>>
>>>> Because this key is a part of the local server 'app', it is very hard
>>>> to prevent attackers retrieving this key. This cause issues. e.g.,
>>>>
>>>> - Falsification of data
>>>> - Man-in-the-middle between apps and the local server
>>>>
>>>> Additionally, the certificate and the key are valid on anywhere,
>>>> anydevice. I don't think major providers allow such use.
>>>>
>>>> [1]
>>>> https://www.w3.org/auto/wg/wiki/Vehicle_Information_Service_Specification#Security_and_Privacy_Considerations
>>>>
>>>> Regards,
>>>> Junichi
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> On 2016/06/08 8:57, Song Li wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> Allow me to jump in for these questions.
>>>>>
>>>>> There are two types of ssl certificates: wild card and multi-domain. If
>>>>> example.com <http://example.com> is going to have a wild card
>>>>> certificate, it will cover all example.com <http://example.com>
>>>>> subdomains, such as www.example.com <http://www.example.com>
>>>>> api.example.com <http://api.example.com>, etc. If admin of example.com
>>>>> <http://example.com> choose to use multi-domain certificates, the
>>>>> certificates will cover a limited number of domains of example.com
>>>>> <http://example.com>. Multiple domains can share the same certificate
>>>>> in
>>>>> both cases, they do not have to have different certificates, but they
>>>>> can.
>>>>>
>>>>> Certificates are deployed to servers and they should not be shared with
>>>>> people who are not admins of the domains. Certificates are deployed on
>>>>> the servers hosting the domain(s), and only public key portion of the
>>>>> certificates will be sent over the wire. Things get more complicated if
>>>>> CDN is used to speed up content distribution, but can be solved using
>>>>> multi-domain certificates. Clients, such as browsers / java code,
>>>>> verifies the certificates before communicating with server for secured
>>>>> content.
>>>>>
>>>>> Let me know if you need examples / implementation details. Our
>>>>> company's
>>>>> using a wild card certificated for our https://www.newskysecurity.com
>>>>> domains.
>>>>>
>>>>> Regards
>>>>>
>>>>> Song Li
>>>>>
>>>>> Co-founder and CTO
>>>>> NewSky Security <https://newskysecurity.com>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Tue, Jun 7, 2016 at 4:23 PM, Junichi Hashimoto
>>>>> <xju-hashimoto@kddi.com <mailto:xju-hashimoto@kddi.com>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>     Hi Kevin,
>>>>>
>>>>>     Implementers would like to know how to manage the certificates for
>>>>>     https/wss connection in the server. For example, they would like to
>>>>>     know whether each server should have different certificates or not,
>>>>>     how the certificates should be kept securely, etc.
>>>>>
>>>>>     Junichi
>>>>>
>>>>>     On 2016/06/08 0:36, Gavigan, Kevin wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>         Hi,
>>>>>
>>>>>         I've updated the Security section to include some general
>>>>> points
>>>>>         that
>>>>>         apply to both WebSockets and RESTful web services:
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> https://www.w3.org/auto/wg/wiki/Vehicle_Information_Service_Specification#Security_and_Privacy_Considerations
>>>>>
>>>>>         Kind regards,
>>>>>
>>>>>         Kevin
>>>>>
>>>>>         /Kevin Gavigan BSc, MSc, PhD, MCP, MCTS/
>>>>>         /Software Architect/
>>>>>         /Connected Infotainment/
>>>>>         /Electrical, Electronic and Software Engineering (EESE)//
>>>>>         /
>>>>>         Jaguar Land Rover
>>>>>         /
>>>>>         /
>>>>>         /Mobile: 07990 084866
>>>>>         /
>>>>>         /Email:/ kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com
>>>>>         <mailto:kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com>
>>>>>         <mailto:kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com
>>>>>         <mailto:kgavigan@jaguarlandrover.com>>
>>>>>
>>>>>         /Office address:/
>>>>>         GO03/057 • Building 523, Gaydon • Maildrop: (G03)/
>>>>>         /Jaguar Land Rover • Banbury Road • Gaydon • Warwick • CV35 0RR
>>>>>
>>>>>         On 7 June 2016 at 14:18, Paul Boyes <Paul.Boyes@inrix.com
>>>>>         <mailto:Paul.Boyes@inrix.com>
>>>>>         <mailto:Paul.Boyes@inrix.com <mailto:Paul.Boyes@inrix.com>>>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>             Excellent indeed.  I will look at this in detail later
>>>>> today.
>>>>>
>>>>>             *Paul J. Boyes* | INRIX | Director of Telematics and
>>>>> Standards -
>>>>>             OpenCar  |  206-276-9675 <tel:206-276-9675> |
>>>>>         paul.boyes@inrix.com <mailto:paul.boyes@inrix.com>
>>>>>             <mailto:bryan@inrix.com <mailto:bryan@inrix.com>> |
>>>>>         www.inrix.com <http://www.inrix.com>
>>>>>
>>>>>         <
>>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.inrix.com_&d=BQMFAg&c=QbuapHRvbn0JdC8vTVkPHg&r=PRAN7lum5Ra662QLho8LU3bhFjBvLXn3bBkFbW0Amjo&m=V5l0WXfOEJwhcE0JsN06mQ5SQhpXL-DuAuK3YcnTZoc&s=OqQVi_DcS5rv8or8hZdFvY0re6YF0Wl-_8okxrxOF0w&e=
>>>>> >
>>>>>
>>>>>                 On Jun 7, 2016, at 3:56 AM, Peter Winzell
>>>>>                 <Peter.Winzell@melcogot.com
>>>>>             <mailto:Peter.Winzell@melcogot.com>
>>>>>             <mailto:Peter.Winzell@melcogot.com
>>>>>
>>>>>             <mailto:Peter.Winzell@melcogot.com>>>
>>>>>                 wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>                 Excellent !____
>>>>>                 I have just browsed through – Thank you for your hard
>>>>>             work!!____
>>>>>                 /pw____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 *From:* Crofts, Adam
>>>>>             [mailto:acrofts1@jaguarlandrover.com
>>>>>             <mailto:acrofts1@jaguarlandrover.com>]
>>>>>                 *Sent:* Monday, June 6, 2016 12:58 PM
>>>>>                 *To:* public-automotive
>>>>>                 *Cc:* Kevin Gavigan; Peter Virk; Lovene Bhatia
>>>>>                 *Subject:* Draft Specification for Service Based
>>>>>             Approach Using
>>>>>                 WebSockets____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 Hi All, ____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 Kevin and I have drafted a specification for the
>>>>> service
>>>>>             based
>>>>>                 approach using WebSockets, as discussed in Issue 81
>>>>>                 <https://github.com/w3c/automotive/issues/81>. The
>>>>> draft
>>>>>             can be
>>>>>                 found in the working group wiki here
>>>>>
>>>>>             <
>>>>> https://www.w3.org/auto/wg/wiki/Vehicle_Information_Service_Specification#WebSocket_2
>>>>> >.____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 The specification builds upon the approach raised by
>>>>> Powell
>>>>>                 Kinney, using a single WebSocket to send JSON data
>>>>>             structures to
>>>>>                 the server. The JSON structure specifies the desired
>>>>> vehicle
>>>>>                 signal specification (VSS) path, an action parameter to
>>>>>             specify
>>>>>                 get, set, subscribe or unsubscribe as well as a number
>>>>>             of optional
>>>>>                 parameters.____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 This specification allows:____
>>>>>
>>>>>                   * Use of the VSS, including wildcards and
>>>>> indexing____
>>>>>                   * GET/SET over WebSocket____
>>>>>                   * SUBSCRIBE to receive change notifications, allowing
>>>>>             settable
>>>>>                     change thresholds and upper/lower bounds____
>>>>>                   * SUBSCRIBE to receive notifications at a given time
>>>>>             interval.____
>>>>>                   * UNSUBSCRIBE via a subscription handle____
>>>>>                   * UNSUBSCRIBE from all notifications____
>>>>>                   * Security tokens to be passed from the client to the
>>>>>             server,
>>>>>                     such as OAuth 2.0____
>>>>>
>>>>>                 We'll go through this on the call on Tuesday night and
>>>>> look
>>>>>                 forward to hearing your thoughts.____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 Kind regards, ____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 Adam____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 -- ____
>>>>>                 *Adam C**rofts MEng (Hons) MIET*____
>>>>>                 Connected Infotainment____
>>>>>                 Vehicle Engineering____
>>>>>                 Tel: +44 (0) 1926 921607
>>>>>             <tel:%2B44%20%280%29%201926%20921607> | 87311607____
>>>>>                 Mob: +44 (0) 7790 094350
>>>>>             <tel:%2B44%20%280%29%207790%20094350>
>>>>>
>>>>>                 Desk: G03/054, Building 523, Gaydon____
>>>>>                 Mail Drop: G/26/3, Building 523, Gaydon____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 ____
>>>>>                 __ __
>>>>>                 Jaguar Land Rover Limited____
>>>>>                 Registered Office: Abbey Road, Whitley, Coventry CV3
>>>>> 4LF
>>>>>             ____
>>>>>                 Registered in England No: 1672070____
>>>>>                 __ __
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>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>     --
>>>>>     <>------------------------------------------------<>
>>>>>              au x HAKUTO  MOON CHALLENGE
>>>>>                http://au-hakuto.jp/
>>>>>        KDDI/au competing in the Google Lunar XPRIZE
>>>>>        Providing communication technology support for
>>>>>        the Japanese team - HAKUTO
>>>>>     <>------------------------------------------------<>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> <>------------------------------------------------<>
>>>>          au x HAKUTO  MOON CHALLENGE
>>>>            http://au-hakuto.jp/
>>>>    KDDI/au competing in the Google Lunar XPRIZE
>>>>    Providing communication technology support for
>>>>    the Japanese team - HAKUTO
>>>> <>------------------------------------------------<>
>>>>
>>>
>>>
>>
>
Received on Thursday, 9 June 2016 09:17:56 UTC

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