W3C home > Mailing lists > Public > www-math@w3.org > July 2003

Re: XHTML & XML + MathML

From: David Carlisle <davidc@nag.co.uk>
Date: Mon, 21 Jul 2003 10:58:11 +0100
Message-Id: <200307210958.KAA03323@penguin.nag.co.uk>
To: fr_m@hotmail.com
CC: www-math@w3.org

> 1)      MathML documents can be exported both in pure XML and in XHTML,
> right ?

MathML is an XML application so any MathML is "pure XML" (although I
don't think that term is defined anywhere). Obviously a mathematical
formula does not usually live in isolation, most mathematics lives in a
larger document of some sort. People have used MathML with XHTML,
DocBook, TEI, Elseveier's DTD and several other DTD. There is an
XHTML+MathML example DTD distributed alongside the mathml dtd but that is
just an example. there is no requirement on a MathML system to
understand XHTML.

> 2)   Is XML tag validation case-dependent ?

XML validation is always cases sensitive, that's specified by the XML
recommendation, nothing specifically to do with MathML.

> 2)      What is the correct header for an XML file embedding MathML ?

I'm not sure what you mean by "header" here. Depending on the document
type that is being used you might nor might not need to put something at
the top of a file if it includes mathml. That would be a requirement of
the host language rather than a MathML requirement.

> 3)      What is the correct header for an XHTML file embedding MathML ?
> I have found various headers:
(3) just appears to be a special case of (2).

> This is the header used as example in MathML specifications section 1
> (working with Mozilla\Netscape but not with IE+MathPlayer):
That wasn't a header, that was an entire document.
Mozilla is a native (presentation) mathml renderer so will render that
document. IE requires some microsoft specific object elements and
processing instructions to enable the mathplayer behavior (or any
behavior) to render the non-xhtml elements. The easiest way to do that
and avoid putting microsoft-specific code in your files is to let the
mathml XSLT stylesheet add it for you, see
but note that stylesheet is a method of getting things working in
current browsers it is not part of the specifcation of MathML that it be

As in any XML, you can choose to specify a DTD in which case a validating
parser will check the elements match the grammar specified in your DTD,
but often it is more convenient to publish the file without the DTD and
just use the DTD as an authoring check. This is user choice.
Note however that if you use entity references such as &rightarrow; you
will need some DTD to define the entities.

> "http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/dtd/xhtml-math11-f.dtd". Riga 148,

IE had some problems reading that version of the DTD it has anyway been
updated, see the errata page of teh mathml specification, the new
version should work in IE6 SP1 (the original IE6 had a  broken 
XML parser that can not read the mathml DTD at all)


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Received on Monday, 21 July 2003 05:58:48 UTC

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