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Re: Change on Request 3.2.5? Is warning required for links that open new windows?

From: Ramón Corominas <listas@ramoncorominas.com>
Date: Sun, 27 Jul 2014 18:33:51 +0200
Message-ID: <53D529EF.2000609@ramoncorominas.com>
To: Userite <richard@userite.com>
CC: "Aubrey, Richard" <richard.aubrey@rbc.com>, "'Paul J. Adam'" <paul.adam@deque.com>, 'Phill Jenkins' <pjenkins@us.ibm.com>, w3c-wai-ig@w3.org
Hello, Richard.

In principle, activating a link or pressing a button is not considered 
"changing the setting of any user interface component". Indeed, if you 
follow a link to another page you will always have a change of context.

A better example of a failure of 3.2.2 would be using a select that 
redirects automatically to another page (or reloads the current one) 
when you just change the selected option without confirming it with an 
"action" component such as a button or link.

In any case, if a link opens in a new window but does not offer 
information to anyone it would probably be a usability issue more than 
an accessibility one, since no one would know about the new window, and 
many people would find it confusing even if they don't have a disability.


Richard wrote:

> I have always understood that 3.2.2 (on input) covers this situation 
> when it says 
> (http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#consistent-behavior-unpredictable-change)
> “Changing the setting of any user interface component does not 
> automatically cause a _change of context_ unless the user has been 
> advised of the behavior before using the component. (Level A) “
> According to the guideline definitions “change of context” 
> (http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#context-changedef) =
> Changes in context include changes of:
> 1. user agent;
> 2. *viewport**;*
> Furthermore “Viewport” is defined as 
> (http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#viewportdef)
> “object in which the user agent presents content
> /Note 1: /The user agent presents content through one or more viewports. 
> Viewports include windows, frames, loudspeakers, and virtual magnifying 
> glasses. A viewport may contain another viewport (e.g., nested frames). 
> Interface components created by the user agent such as prompts, menus, 
> and alerts are not viewports. “
> So if a link opens a new window without warning it surely fails 3.2.2 as 
> it moves the viewport to a new window.
> Fortunately it is quite easy to warn users if a new window will open 
> using either text or an icon with alt text WITHIN the link text.
> When we come to 3.2.5 (which is AAA level) the guidelines are asking 
> that such change of context (even with a warning) can be avoided by the 
> user either by not requesting the change,  or a mechanism exists that 
> allows the user to turn of such changes (i.e by default). This implies 
> that any pages that are targeted by “new window” links are also 
> available via links that do not open new windows at all (maintaining  a 
> consistent browsing platform).
> Regards
> Richard Warren
> Technical Manager
> http://www.userite.com
> -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
> *From:* Aubrey, Richard <mailto:richard.aubrey@rbc.com>
> *Sent:* Tuesday, July 22, 2014 3:28 PM
> *To:* 'Paul J. Adam' <mailto:paul.adam@deque.com> ; 'Phill Jenkins' 
> <mailto:pjenkins@us.ibm.com>
> *Cc:* mailto:w3c-wai-ig@w3.org
> *Subject:* RE: Q: Change on Request 3.2.5? Is warning required for links 
> that open new windows?
> Hi,
>  From my perspective, this warning comes in handy for users who are 
> blind and are working in an application window. opening additional 
> windows makes it confusing in navigation back to the application and 
> difficult to know when you close the window (ALT F4) whether you are 
> closing the application or just the additional window that has been opened.
> Richard Aubrey | Manager, RBC IT Accessibility & National Co-Chair RBC 
> REACH ERG for People With Disabilities, Enterprise Architecture Office 
> (EAO) | Technology & Operations |* RBC Royal Bank* | 416-348-2926
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> *From:* Paul J. Adam [mailto:paul.adam@deque.com]
> *Sent:* Monday, 21 July, 2014 5:04 PM
> *To:* Phill Jenkins
> *Cc:* w3c-wai-ig@w3.org Group
> *Subject:* Re: Q: Change on Request 3.2.5? Is warning required for links 
> that open new windows?
> Thanks for the feedback Phill! Since this is AAA I've never actually 
> worked with it because clients only request AA.
> I think it should only be required for cases like modal dialogs where 
> the browser or AT can't detect the target attribute.
> Safari for OS X warns you in the status bar if the link is going to open 
> a new tab. No other browsers I tested did this.
> For Usability I think those link icons with alt should be required for 
> new windows, file types, etc.
> Paul J. Adam
> Accessibility Evangelist
> www.deque.com <http://www.deque.com>
> On Jul 17, 2014, at 11:59 AM, Phill Jenkins <pjenkins@us.ibm.com 
> <mailto:pjenkins@us.ibm.com>> wrote:
>> Paul said: ". . . So reading that portion I don't see how it applies 
>> to links because the user is actively "requesting" (clicking on the 
>> link) and links do happen to open in new windows often for all users."
>> I believe the intent of 3.2.5 AAA is to inform the user whether 
>> clicking the link will open a _new window_ or whether it will simply 
>> load a new page in the _existing window_.  In other words, how does 
>> the user predict what will happen when the link is clicked - whether a 
>> new window is opened or not.? new window = change of context.  We see 
>> these little icons next to links all the time indicating which ones 
>> open new windows, or change web sites, etc. helping the user predict 
>> how it will operate.    3.2.5 AAA has to be read in context with the 
>> whole 3.2 guideline and the other four success criteria in it.
>> *Guideline 3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in 
>> predictable ways. *
>> I would NOT recommend reading or trying to interpret each success 
>> criteria without considering the other success criteria in the 
>> guideline. 
>> The other "context" needed for correctly interpreting the success 
>> criteria (in my opinion) is to consider the role of the user agent, 
>> assistive technology, and user settings.  Does the browser have a 
>> responsibility to warn the user by having a setting to allow it to 
>> warn the user that a new window (change of context) will happen?  If 
>> the user isn't using a browser capable (e.g. older version , etc.), or 
>> if the user hasn't set the setting due to lack of training, then the 
>> working group added some of these tripple A success criteria to 
>> compensate for lack of conformance of user agents with UAAG 2.0 and/or 
>> lack of training of users to use their assistive technology and/or 
>> potential conflicts as mentioned.
>> ____________________________________________
>> Regards,
>> Phill Jenkins,
>> Senior Accessibility Engineer & Business Development Executive
>> IBM Research - Human Ability & Accessibility Center
>> http://www.ibm.com/able
>> http://www.facebook.com/IBMAccessibility
>> http://twitter.com/IBMAccess
>> http://www.linkedin.com/in/philljenkins
>> From:        "Paul J. Adam" <paul.adam@deque.com 
>> <mailto:paul.adam@deque.com>>
>> To:        "w3c-wai-ig@w3.org <mailto:w3c-wai-ig@w3.org> Group" 
>> <w3c-wai-ig@w3.org <mailto:w3c-wai-ig@w3.org>>,
>> Date:        07/17/2014 09:09 AM
>> Subject:        Q: Change on Request 3.2.5? Is warning required for 
>> links that open new windows?
>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>> Can I get some help interpreting WCAG AAA please? I still don't see 
>> where the normative requirements state that links which open new 
>> windows must have a warning to pass AAA.
>> <_http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20-20140311/consistent-behavior-no-extreme-changes-context.html_> 
>> Some pasted snippets<snip> out of the understanding document:
>> <snip>
>> Change on Request:
>> Understanding SC 3.2.5
>> 3.2.5 Change on Request: Changes of context are initiated only by user 
>> request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes. (Level AAA)
>> </snip>
>> <snip>
>> This Success Criterion aims to eliminate potential confusion that may 
>> be caused by unexpected changes of context such as automatic launching 
>> of new windows
>> </snip>
>> <snip>
>> Note: Clicking on a link is an example of an action that is "initiated 
>> only by user request."
>> </snip>
>> So reading that portion I don't see how it applies to links because 
>> the user is actively "requesting" (clicking on the link) and links do 
>> happen to open in new windows often for all users. I see this 
>> requirement as more for pop ups that jump out of nowhere with no 
>> action taken by the user or when a stupid news site forces a page 
>> reload to add new articles and the user's focus is lost. 
>> However, it does mention in the techniques F22: Failure of Success 
>> Criterion 3.2.5 due to opening windows that are not requested by the 
>> user which reads:
>> <_http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20140311/F22_>
>> <snip>
>> Failure due to opening new windows when the user does not expect them. 
>> New windows take the focus away from what the user is reading or 
>> doing. This is fine when the user has interacted with a piece of User 
>> Interface and expects to get a new window, such as an options 
>> dialogue. The failure comes when pop-ups appear unexpectedly.
>> </snip>
>> <snip>
>> Failure Example 2:
>> A user clicks on a link, and a new window appears. The original link 
>> has no associated text saying that it will open a new window.
>> </snip>
>> I only see this requirement specified in the techniques but then I see 
>> it says techniques are informative:
>> <snip>
>> Techniques are informative—that means they are not required. The basis 
>> for determining conformance to WCAG 2.0 is the success criteria
>> </snip>
>> So Techniques are not required but if you fail a Failure Technique 
>> that means you always fail, even though it's a technique, which is not 
>> required? I'm confused.
>> Thanks!
>> Paul J. Adam
>> Accessibility Evangelist
>> _www.deque.com_ <http://www.deque.com/>
> _______________________________________________________________________
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> Richard Warren
> Technical Manager
> Website Auditing Limited (Userite)
> http://www.userite.com

Ramón Corominas
Accessibility specialist
Technosite - Fundación ONCE
E: rcorominas@technosite.es
T: @ramoncorominas
P: +34 91 121 0330
W: http://technosite.es
Received on Sunday, 27 July 2014 16:34:19 UTC

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