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3.3 feedback

From: Lisa Seeman <seeman@netvision.net.il>
Date: Thu, 28 Feb 2002 10:29:47 -0800
To: "_W3C-WAI Web Content Access. Guidelines List" <w3c-wai-gl@w3.org>
Message-id: <006f01c1c086$7401a4e0$0a94003e@dev1>
I am resending these comments on checkpoint 3.3 as text for people with out MS word. Apologies for the first time around.

All the best,

Comments from David Brewer, ILR Extension Associate, Cornell University, ILR Program on Employment and Disability:


I'll look at this more in depth over the weekend.  However, my main comment is that for individuals with cognitive disabilities, content is accessed through good multi-media elements.  It must be clear that pushing such and such a button will lead to a movie about such and such a topic.  The guidelines below are just good writing elements, useful to help with my own cognitive disability.  However, if we are trying to convey content to people who may struggle with and hate the activity of reading, the alternative formats (movies, sound, graphics) must be clearly identified and presented in a non-cluttered manner, aligned with the writing to further encourage the person to want to read.  I see that she refers to this within some other document.  I simply don't see how the writing pieces can be carved out from the rest.  My only other thought is that some of the web access barriers for people with sensory impairments (frames, animations) seem helpful to people with cognitive impairments by making the site visually engaging and instructive.  It would appear that there will be a future battle between disability groups over this issue, resulting in a way for web access issues to be skirted by designers. DB



Comments from John Andrews, Director, Kessler Medical Rehabilitation Research & Educational Corporation:


The text thus far seems to address reading comprehension, but not the impact of layout on readability. Much of this is good user interface design anyway.


Initial page layout for a website/section of a website should establish a design "template" on the first page, where location of information and process of information flow (such as navigation, act of review and/or submission, act of drilling down for further info, use of hyperlinks, use of images or image maps, etc are DEFINED and established as standards for the subsequent pages of the site.


For example, in one website design:

            user feedback facility is behind the "feedback" hyperlink and envelope icon always placed lower right for all pages within the site

            form buttons for for SUBMIT and CANCEL are used consistently, in same side-by-side order every time, at bottom every time, same functionality every time

            where-you-are-sent-to-next is consistent throughout the site (if it's back to home, it's always back to home, with the same name and icon)

            major page sections are consistent throughout site (info in masthead, info in bottom navigation, info in left sidebar, etc)


Hyperlinks which leave the subsite or section(defined by it's use of a user interface standard defined above) should be clearly indicated as such, much like existing recommendations for leaving a website ("you are about to leave..."), of course using a consistent interface. This allows obvious and ready recognition of the screen as a "leaving" screen.


Help facilities should be consistent, proximal, and context-specific throughout the site. Never send the user to navigate a separate help system which uses a different user interface.

Comments from Mike Barcus, Virginia Commonwealth University:
Success criteria 

Provide overview
For flow: look at overview ( summary, diagram, heading outline or page map)- It is possible to map the document to pieces that are in the summary   
Highlight key information  using markup ( eg headings and emphasis  Not underlined -which can be confused as a hyperlink) -  when the highlighted text
stands alone does it summarize the key ideas.
Short paragraphs - Paragraphs should have with fewer than five sentences . Use lists to break up long paragraphs.
can sentences be replaceds by bulleted points? If so markup sentence as a list 
First sentence summarizes the point of each subsequent sentence - does each sentence in the paragraph directly relate to the first sentence?
one idea per sentence- Test: replace each paragraph with a one idea sentence. Does the document
STILL make sense?
 Use short sentences - Write sentences with 20 (20seems to be rather lengthy  -- consider short maximum)or fewer words and .
 Use lists to break up long sentences -can comas be replaced by bulleted points? if so markup sentence as a list 
Sentence   -Headings
Should be meaningful out of context
Headings should be unique
Sentence - Instructional
It should be possible to identify a graphic representation of an
 instruction. I.e. you can draw the picture.
Each step is clearly stated. You  Ccould you represent the flow  chart and successfully perform a dry
Pictorial representation should be provided of each instruction
Use active rather than passive expressions 
Sentences contain no more than one relative clause
Use goal/action structure for menu prompts.
???Is this necessary???Non-literal text is identified and a literal translation is identified - 
test by literal translating to another language and re- literal translating back. Does it make
Jargon that is expected should be linked to a glossary / explanation.
Use simple words: Substitute common words for uncommon words
(without significantly expanding the size) does not change the meaning. Note 
that this requires a dictionary that marks the "difficulty" of a word.

Words - anchors (links)
hypertext anchors should be meaningful out of context
hyperlinks --- visited links should be well contrasted (i.e.different color) from non-visited links 
All form elements should have a default or example provided
calculations should be performed automatically (eg severside)
Provide definite feedback cues
Use a two-step "select and confirm" to reduce accidental selections. (IE nothing happens when an option is selected until a confirm/go/OK button is clicked)

Comments from John Corrigan, Ph.D., ABPP, Professor, The Ohio State University


Printing documents or pages easily is a concern for people with cognitive impairments.  It is important to make sure that is it easy to see how to print, that the print command is explicit, and that pages are in a readily printable format.  
All the best,

Lisa Seeman

Widen the World Web
Received on Thursday, 28 February 2002 03:41:34 UTC

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