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Re: About whitespace in ds:SignedInfo

From: Donald E. Eastlake 3rd <dee3@torque.pothole.com>
Date: Mon, 07 Jan 2002 00:03:50 -0500
Message-Id: <200201070503.AAA0000087765@torque.pothole.com>
To: "Cherian, Sanjay" <Sanjay_Cherian@stercomm.com>
cc: "'w3c-ietf-xmldsig@w3.org'" <w3c-ietf-xmldsig@w3.org>, "'galvin@eListX.com'" <galvin@eListX.com>, "'david@drummondgroup.com'" <david@drummondgroup.com>, "Damodaran, Suresh" <Suresh_Damodaran@stercomm.com>
Hi,

There are several questions here.

On Transforming SignedInfo:

We deliberately made a general transform chain unavailable on
SignedInfo, at least among the mandatory or recommended to implement
algorithms, because it is a geneal Artificial Intelligence problem to
figure out if such transforms are safe. Note that they could
completely screw around with all your References, Signature Algorithm,
and themsevles. So they can trivially arrange for the post-transform
version signature to always succeed or always fail and to look
generally secure. So, for any application allowing Transforms over
SignedIfno to be secure, you probably need a complete description of
all allowed sets of Transforms...

Anyway, to discourage this, we permitted only CanonnicalizationMethod.
But, of course, it is an algorithm so it can actually do
anything. (IE, you could define a CanonicalizationMethod that took a
Transforms as an explicit parameter.)

On WhiteSpace:

As I see it, if intermediaries are going to generally reformat things
to be pretty, then it is kind of hopeless to try to be secure.

I believe there are actually three types of white space. White space
inside tags is truly insignificant. It isn't even handed to
applications. Then there is white space in the content of something
with element only content that appears between content elements or
before the first or after the last content element. This is defined by
the XML spec as "insignificant", although only a validating parser can
tell that.  Nevertheless, such white space is required to be given to
the application.  Since the application can do anything with it, that
it is flagged as "insignificant" has no security meaning. And
if you have a non-valiating parser or if the element has mixed
content, then it doesn't even have this meaningless "insignificant"
flag affixed to it. Finally, there is actual content white space,
which can also be changed if some intermediate node pretty printed
<a>foo bar</a> as
<a>
    foo
    bar
</a>
for example.

Your suggestion:

If you guys want to define a canonicalization function that deletes
all pure white space text nodes and make support of it required for
your application, you can do so.  But I'm not sure of your logic in
doing so but not dropping leading and trailing white space and/or
changing internal runs of white space to one space or something else
canonical. And I don't see how this can be safe and secure. You may
know the schema for SignedInfo but it is harder to know the schema for
every parameter of every Transform someone might use.

Donald

From:  "Cherian, Sanjay" <Sanjay_Cherian@stercomm.com>
Message-ID:  <40AC2C8FB855D411AE0200D0B7458B2B04D636BD@scidalmsg01.csg.stercomm.com>
Date:  Thu, 20 Dec 2001 10:32:54 -0600

>Hi,
>
>This could likely be a problem that has been debated a lot in the past but I
>would appreciate if someone explained
>(or pointed to a previous explanation on the mailing list or elsewhere) what
>the current thinking is regarding this.
>
>The ebXML Messaging Services Specification (
>http://www.ebxml.org/specs/ebMS.pdf ) uses XMLDSIG to sign portions
>of the ebXML message (an XML structure based on SOAP) and the ds:Signature
>element is embedded into the signed
>ebXML message.
>
>The signed ebXML message is subject to modification, passing through a
>sequence of intermediary SOAP and ebXML
>processors before reaching the ultimate recipient, which also validates the
>signature. One such modification that is difficult
>to predict is change in whitespace (indentation, CRLF characters) in the
>ebXML message. The ds:SignedInfo element
>is itself subject to such modification (being part of the ebXML message).
>
>A proposed modification to the ebXML Messaging Specification suggests this
>XSL transform in the ds:Reference element:
>
>    <Transform Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xslt-19991116">
>      <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"
>xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
>        <xsl:strip-space elements='*'/>           <!-- Strip trivial
>whitespace in all elements. -->
>        <xsl:template match='node()|@*'>       <!-- Identity transform. -->
>          <xsl:copy>
>            <xsl:apply-templates select='@*'/>
>            <xsl:apply-templates/>
>          </xsl:copy>
>        </xsl:template>
>      </xsl:stylesheet>
>    </Transform>
>
>the signature has been made robust to changes in trivial whitespace in the
>ebXML message but outside the embedded
>ds:SignedInfo elements. However, because the ds:SignedInfo elements are not
>processed by any XSL transform (but by
>the algorithm specified in ds:CanonicalizationMethod, for which we are using
>http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315 ), changes in trivial
>whitespace in ds:SignedInfo invalidates the
>signature.
>
>To give some context on how ebXML Messaging uses XMLDSIG, I have included an
>sample signature element (taken from
>an ebXML example in the ebXML specification), later in this email.
> 
>The first guess would be that by using a 'smarter' canonicalization
>algorithm for the ds:SignedInfo element, the ds:SignedInfo
>element can also be made robust to changes in trivial whitespace.  Rather
>than use the schema-unaware canonicalization
>algorithm ( http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315 ), it would seem
>that a different canonicalization algorithm
>could be written which, being aware of the XMLDSIG schema, could do a better
>job of eliminating trivial whitespace.
>
>This 'smarter' CanonicalizationMethod algorithm might certainly not be smart
>enough to always know whether a particular
>whitespace character is significant or not. However, if such an algorithm
>was created that simply removed all whitespace where
>an element has textual content consisting entirely of whitespace (the kind
>xsl:strip-space would remove), people that don't have
>very sophisticated Transform elements (that could get mangled) would be able
>to benefit from it.
>
>In other words, a 'smarter' XMLDSIG schema-aware CanonicalizationMethod
>algorithm could be published with the caveat that
>changes in whitespace in descendants of ds:SignedInfo would become
>irrelevant.  In situations where this might be a problem,
>the earlier schema-unaware canonicalization algorithm could be used instead.
>
>Just as an example, the stylesheet presented earlier, which is a parameter
>to the ds:Transform element does not contain any
>whitespace that needs to be preserved and so a CanonicalizationMethod
>algorithm that removed all trivial whitespace would not
>hurt us but actually benefit us a lot.
>
>Here is a typical Signature element, as it is used by the ebXML Messaging
>Specification.
>
>		<Signature xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#">
>			<SignedInfo>
>				<CanonicalizationMethod
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
>				<SignatureMethod
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#dsa-sha1"/>
>				<Reference URI="">
>					<Transforms>
>						<Transform
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#enveloped-signature"/>
>						<Transform
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116">
>							<XPath>
>not(ancestor-or-self::()[@SOAP:actor=
>	
>&quot;urn:oasis:names:tc:ebxml-msg:actor:nextMSH&quot;]
>	
>| ancestor-or-self::()[@SOAP:actor=
>	
>&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/actor/next&quot;])
>							</XPath>
>						</Transform>
>						<Transform
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
>					</Transforms>
>					<DigestMethod
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
>					<DigestValue>...</DigestValue>
>				</Reference>
>				<Reference URI="cid://blahblahblah/">
>					<DigestMethod
>Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
>					<DigestValue>...</DigestValue>
>				</Reference>
>			</SignedInfo>
>			<SignatureValue>...</SignatureValue>
>			<KeyInfo>...</KeyInfo>
>		</Signature>
>
>I was just trying to convey my thoughts on this matter.  Thanks for taking
>the time to read this email.
>
>Regards,
>
>Sanjay J. Cherian
>Sterling Commerce
>Irving, TX
>
Received on Monday, 7 January 2002 00:06:44 GMT

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