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[EMOXG] xml spec subgroup: emotion-related phenomena / complex emotions

From: Schuller, Björn <schuller@tum.de>
Date: Thu, 31 Jul 2008 00:52:10 +0200
To: EMOXG-public <public-xg-emotion@w3.org>
Message-Id: <0DB8EE9C0C66044DA36C325A9242AC109798D8C6A0@BALZ00SW-MBX.ads.mwn.de>

Dear all,

here is my part for discussion in today's phone conference: core 1 and core 6 examples (see below). As with Marc's mail today this has not been discussed, yet.

Best,

Bjoern

Core 1:
Type of Emotion related phenomena:
==================================

[Variation 1]

To adress emotion related phenomena, the most straightforward approach is to extend the <emotion> tag by adding an <emotion-related-state> tag:

what was before (example 3b for core 2, as agreed upon as future model):

<emotion>
  <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
</emotion>

will then become:

<emotion-related-state>
  <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <emotion>
    <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
  </emotion>
</emotion-related-state>

or to e.g. specify a mood:

<emotion-related-state>
  <category set="Scherer" name="mood" />
  <emotion>
    <category set="everyday" name="relaxed" confidence="0.8" />
  </emotion>
</emotion-related-state>

Examples of sets as named in the requirements:

Scherer set:
# Emotions
# Moods
# Interpersonal stances
# Preferences/Attitudes
# Affect dispositions

HUMAINE set:

# Attitudes
# Established emotion
# Emergent emotion (full-blown)
# Emergent emotion (suppressed)
# Moods
# Partial emotion (topic shifting)
# Partial emotion (simmering)
# Stance towards person
# Stance towards object/situation
# Interpersonal bonds
# Altered state of arousal
# Altered state of control
# Altered state of seriousness
# Emotionless

The category specified below <emotion-related-state> indicates the category of emotion related state, i.e. whether the described event is an emotion, mood, interpersonal stance, etc. The set refers to the set of possible states, e.g. the HUMAINE set or the one by Scherer (see above, and 2.1. of http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/emotion/XGR-emotion/).

[Variant 2]

The name of the following <emotion> tag can now be confusing, since the contents of the tag now describe mood instead of emotion.
A solution, that further yields the possibility of tree-like hierarchical categorization of emotions or emotion related states, is to use one tag for all levels of the hierarchy. This can however only be done if the xml parsers used for emotionML allow nesting of tags with the same name. Such a common tag could be called <affect> for example:

<affect>
  <category set="Scherer" name="mood" />
  <affect>
    <category set="everyday" name="relaxed" confidence="0.8" />
  </affect>
</affect>

or for an emotion:

<affect>
  <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <affect>
    <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
  </affect>
</affect>

This approach does not require an extra "emotion-related-state" tag. Further, it allows to specify a tree-like categorization hierarchy in deep structure. For example the first level is used to distinguish which type of emotion related phenomenon is specified (mood, emotion, etc.), the second level - instead of specifying the category of emotion, etc. directly, can specify on a general level whether the emotion is positive or negative to further extend. Example:

<affect>
  <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <affect>
    <category set="posneg" name="positive" />
    <affect>
      <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
    </affect>
  </affect>
</affect>


An advantage of this extended hierarchy is, that if an application is only interested in a general idea whether the person is conveying a positive or negative emotion, the information is easily accessible. Another advantage is that an application reading the <affect> tags must not know all category sets, especially the more detailed ones and can still interpret parts of the information.

[Variant 3a]

A more simple variation of Variant 2 is to avoid the nesting and specify multiple categories and add a level attribute:

<affect>
  <category level=0 set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <category level=1 set="posneg" name="positive" />
  <category level=2 set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
  <modality name="voice" />
  ...
</affect>

or introduce the tags <category0> to <category9>, which makes things simpler but limits the number of levels to 10:

<affect>
  <category0 set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <category1 set="posneg" name="positive" />
  <category2 set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
  <modality name="voice" />
  ...
</affect>

[Variant 3b]

A suggestion on how to specify the tree-like categories more compact is to
use a certain style for the category names, i.e. where the categories are separated by (:)

  <category0 set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
  <category1 set="posneg" name="positive" />
  <category2 set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />

would be combined to one line:

  <category set="Scherer:posneg:everday" name="emotion:positive:pleasure" />

In order to avoid great overhead of having to specify the full set each time an emotion is to be specified,
meta-sets (like variables) could be defined at the beginning:
  <meta-set name="spe" value="Scherer:posneg:everday">
the above category line then would become:
  <category meta-set="spe" name="emotion:positive:pleasure" />

Disadvantage of Variant 3 is the lack of generality. Variant 2 would theoretically allow for specification of multiple <affect> elements below a <category> tag on the same level indicating different sub-categories for different modalities, for example. Therefore Variant 2 is the favored if hierarchical emotion tagging is of interest. Other than that variant 1 is the most "straight-forward".

However, at the same time, in a final standard both variants could co-exist and maybe should? If the user requires compact representation, and is fine with the restrictions, then she should be free to use variant 3a or even variant 3b. Variant 2 could be supported because it provides greater flexibility.

Core 6:
Multiple and/or complex emotions:
=================================

Due to the complexity of this subject it is too restrictive to use tags to combine emotions (as is done in EARL with the <complex-emotion> tag) as only mechanism to deal with complex emotions.
For a general and very flexible specification to deal with complex emotions, the most simple method from the language specification point of view is to add a timestamp and duration attribute to every <affect> or <emotion-related-state> tag (whatever it will be called, see draft for emotion related phenomena). For a complex emotion multiple <affect> tags with the same time attributes can be specified. Of course, this sets higher demands for the parsing application. It must internally align all parsed emotion/affect events on a timeline and then combine events that occur simultaneously. However, the flexibility of this approach is enormous. Complex emotions, where one part begins earlier than the other or one emotion is suppressed only at certain times, can be annotated without hassle.

To make parsing and processing of complex emotions easier it might, however, be necessary to add a <complex-emotion> or <complex-affect> container that can group together multiple emotion related phenomena occurring in parallel. Example:

[Variant 1]

<complex-affect>
  <affect>
    <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
    <affect>
      <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
    </affect>
  </affect>
  <affect>
    <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
    <affect>
      <category set="everyday" name="anger" confidence="0.9" />
    </affect>
  </affect>
</complex-affect>

[Variant 2]

Another possibility is to link one affect tag to another, not using a container tag. Let us use a <related link="#id to link to" /> tag here to illustrate the concept but not propose this as a good solution. Probably the tag should be changed to something more meaningful or existing ways of linking should be used here to ensure easier compatibility.

  <affect id=1>
    <related link="#2" />
    <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
    <affect>
      <category set="everyday" name="pleasure" confidence="0.9" />
    </affect>
  </affect>
  <affect id=2>
    <related link="#1" />
    <category set="Scherer" name="emotion" />
    <affect>
      <category set="everyday" name="anger" confidence="0.9" />
    </affect>
  </affect>

All of the above methods could be supported in parallel in the standard, because they might all have advantages for specific applications/parsers.



-------------------------------------------
Dr. Björn Schuller
Lecturer
Technische Universität München
Institute for Human-Machine Communication
Theresienstraße 90
Building N1, ground level
Room N0135
D-80333 München
Germany
Fax: ++49 (0)89 289-28535
Phone: ++49 (0)89 289-28548
schuller@tum.de
www.mmk.ei.tum.de/~sch
-------------------------------------------
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Received on Wednesday, 30 July 2008 22:55:12 GMT

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