W3C home > Mailing lists > Public > public-i18n-its@w3.org > October to December 2005

[ESW Wiki] Update of "its0908LinguisticMarkup" by GoutamSaha

From: <w3t-archive+esw-wiki@w3.org>
Date: Thu, 06 Oct 2005 02:03:16 -0000
To: w3t-archive+esw-wiki@w3.org
Message-ID: <20051006020316.9667.35537@localhost.localdomain>
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "ESW Wiki" for change notification.

The following page has been changed by GoutamSaha:
http://esw.w3.org/topic/its0908LinguisticMarkup


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  '''[YS- This is just a first try to get things rolling. Goutam, Andrzej, anyone, please, to comments/add/etc.]]'''
  
+ {{{
+ The proposed scheme is to demonstrate how to embed syntactic, semantic and computational linguistic related metadata information in the structure of an XML document towards better translation through 
-          {{{
-          The proposed scheme is to demonstrate how to embed syntactic, 
-          semantic and computational linguistic related metadata information
-          in the structure of an XML document towards better translation through 
-          useful markups meant for both the internationalization & 
+ useful markups meant for both the internationalization & localization processes.}}}
+              
-          localization processes.
-          }}}
-     
     [[GS- The 3-Tier XML Schema approach is useful for an XML content
           author to embed a source human language specific metadata
           information in an XML document. This is a significant step
@@ -41, +37 @@

           computational linguistic related metadata information in the
           structure of an XML document towards better translation.]] 
  
-           '''XML Schema authors should prefer to use attributes for 
+           '''XML Schema authors should prefer to use attributes for metadata information because of
+           their better flexibility and portability.''' XML content authors having school level
+           language grammar knowledge will not find any difficulty in marking up such language
-           metadata information because of their better flexibility and portability.'''
-           XML content authors having school level language grammar knowledge will 
-           not find any difficulty in marking up such language specific information.
-           It is not mendatory for an author to add finer classified metadata at all.
+           specific information. '''It is not mendatory for an author to add finer classified 
-           He/she has to add metadata at some parts of his/her content which are
+           metadata''' at all. He/she has to add metadata at some parts of his/her content which are
-           exceptionally special with respect to his/her source language aspects.
+           exceptionally special with respect to his/her source language aspects. 
- 
            For example: for the '''Phrases_Idioms "cats and dogs" in english''' we can markup as
  
   {{{ <sentence_cat name="phrases_idioms" meaning="heavily"> cats and dogs
@@ -83, +77 @@

  <pos_cat name="link"> __Here__ 
  </pos_cat> }}} 
  
+ For the following Bengali or Bangla ''dialect'' sentence "Kaam (Kaaj in Bangla or Work in english)  Saira Falo (Shesh Koro in Bangla or Complete in english)," we should markup the text with the ''three-layer metadata information'' in the following way:
+ 
- '''For the following Bengali or Bangla dialect sentence'''  
- "Kaam (Kaaj in Bangla or Work in english)  Saira Falo (Shesh Koro in
- Bangla or Complete in english)," 
- we should markup the text with the '''three-layer metadata information''' in the following way:
  {{{
  <text xml:lang="ben">
  <content_domain name="dialect">
@@ -104, +96 @@

  </text>
  }}}
     
- '''Metadata information about the domain, sentence type or specific words
+ ''''''Metadata information about the domain, sentence type or specific words
- will help translators to do better quality work or to do the work quickly.'''
+ will help translators to do better quality work or to do the work quickly'''. 
  If translators know that a word belongs to a specific domain then they can go to a 
  terminoloy data base and check the word,  thus, even for human translators this 
  3-Tier or 3-layer schema will be helpful. One cannot do an accurate translation
@@ -131, +123 @@

  </content_domain>
  }}}
  
- '''Background Knowledge for Word-Level Parts-of-Speech Markups:-'''
+ =='''Background Knowledge for Word-Level Parts-of-Speech Markups''':-==
  
- ''Verb:-''
- A ''verb'' plays an important role for a word level markup or parts-of-speech.
+ '''Verb''' :- A ''verb'' plays an important role for a word level markup or parts-of-speech.
- __A verb is a doing word.__ Joining verb is a combination of noun followed by verb.
+ __A verb is a doing word.__ ''Joining verb'' is a combination of noun followed by verb.
- Compound verb is a combination of two verbs. Primary verb can express complete meaning
+ ''Compound verb'' is a combination of two verbs. ''Primary verb'' can express complete meaning
- without the need of any other verb. Auxiliary verb helps to express tense, mood and voice. 
+ without the need of any other verb. ''Auxiliary verb'' helps to express tense, mood and voice. 
- A verb that has an object is called transitive verb. Intransitive verb has no object. Noun
+ A verb that has an object is called ''transitive verb'' . ''Intransitive verb'' has no object. 
- verb is derived from a noun. Imperative verb is to denote an order, request or command.
+ ''Noun verb'' is derived from a noun. ''Imperative verb'' is to denote an order, request or command.
- __Non-Finite Verb or Verbal__ (think "unfinished") cannot, by themselves be 
+ ''Non-Finite Verb or Verbal'' (think "unfinished") cannot, by themselves be 
  main verbs. For example, the verb "broken" in  "The broken window fell down."
- __Causative Verbs__ designate the action necessary to cause another action to 
+ ''Causative Verbs'' designate the action necessary to cause another action to 
  happen. For example, the verb "made" in "He made me do it." The verb "made" causes the
  "do" to happen. Other causative verbs are say, help, allow, motivate, make, force
- etc. __Phrasal / Group Verbs__ consist of a verb and a preposition. The resulting 
+ etc. ''Phrasal/Group Verbs'' consist of a verb and a preposition. The resulting 
  combination creates a new verb. For example,  the "called off" in 
- "The Chairman called off the meeting." is a group or phrasal verb. Other
+ "The Chairman ''called off'' the meeting." is a group or phrasal verb. Other
- examples are: turn up, put on, put off, get down, called on etc. 
+ examples of ''group verbs'' are: turn up, put on, put off, get down, called on etc. 
  
- ''Noun:-''
+ '''Noun:-'''
  ''A noun is a naming word.''
- __Proper Noun__ names a specific people or place or thing (e.g. Goutam, Kolkata, India).
+ ''Proper Noun'' names a specific people or place or thing (e.g. Goutam, Kolkata, India).
+ ''Common Noun'' refers to a class of objects or a concept as opposed to a particular individual (e.g. boy, cow). ''Collective Noun'' is a  noun that denotes a group of individuals (e.g. army, assembly, family). ''Abstract Noun'' is a noun that denotes an abstract or intangible concept, such as happiness, envy or joy. ''Material Noun'' denotes the matter from which something is
- __Common Noun__ refers to a class of objects or a concept as opposed to a particular individual (e.g. boy, cow).
-  __Collective Noun__ is a  noun that denotes a group of individuals (e.g. army, assembly, family). 
- __Abstract Noun__ is a noun that denotes an abstract or intangible concept, such as 
- happiness, envy or joy. 
- __Material Noun__ denotes the matter from which something is
- or can be made (e.g. cloth, oil).
-  __Compound Noun__ is a noun made up of two or more lexemes, such as flowerpot, southeast. Here, nouns  are combined into compound structures. 
+ or can be made (e.g. cloth, oil). ''Compound Noun'' is a noun made up of two or more lexemes, such as flowerpot, southeast. Here, nouns  are combined into compound structures. 
+ ''Verbal Noun'' is a noun which is formed as an inflection of a verb and partly sharing its constructions, such as smoking in "Smoking is injurious to health". ''Numerals''include all numbers, whether as words or as digits. They may be divided into two major types.
- __Verbal Noun__ is a noun which is formed as an inflection of a verb and partly sharing its constructions, such as smoking in "Smoking is injurious to health". 
- __Numerals__ include all numbers, whether as words or as digits. They may 
- be divided into two major types.
  __CARDINAL__ Nouns include words like: nought, zero, one, two,fifty-six, a thousand. 
  __ORDINAL Numbers__ include  first, 2nd, third, fourth, 500th.  
  __Numbers Noun__: 20, 567.  We classify numerals as a subclass of nouns because in certain circumstances they can take plurals: five twos are ten ;  he's in his forties; 
@@ -172, +156 @@

  __Noun - Unit of Measurement__:- K.M., K.G.
  __Negative Noun__:- He says "no".
  __Hyphenated Numbers__:- 30-40, 1990-2005.
- __Following Noun__ of Title: M.B.A., B.S., M.S., Ph.D.   
+ ''Following Noun of Title:''  M.B.A., B.S., M.S., Ph.D.   
  
- ''__Pronouns__:-''
+ '''Pronouns:-'''
  Generally pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or 
  individuals or thing or things.
- __Personal Pronouns__ stand for persons or things e.g. I, me, my, you, he, they.
+ ''Personal Pronouns'' stand for persons or things e.g. I, me, my, you, he, they.
- The family of __Demonstrative Pronouns__ (who/which/that/this) behaves as 
+ The family of ''Demonstrative Pronouns'' (who/which/that/this) behaves as 
- pronouns. 
- __The Relative Pronouns__ (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words
+ pronouns. The ''Relative Pronouns'' (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words
  to nouns or other pronouns (The student who studies hardest usually does the
- best.). 
- __Indefinite Pronouns__ everybody/anybody/somebody/ all/each/every/some/
+ best.). ''Indefinite Pronouns'' everybody/anybody/somebody/ all/each/every/some/
  none/one) do not substitute for specific nouns but function themselves as nouns 
+ (Everyone is wondering if any is left.).  The ''Intensive Pronouns'' (such as myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves) consist of a personal pronoun plus self or selves and emphasize
+ a noun. (I myself don't know the answer.) The ''Reflexive Pronouns''(which have the same forms as the intensive pronouns)  indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb. 
+ (Students who cheat on this quiz are only hurting themselves.) The ''Interrogative Pronouns'' (''who/which/what'') introduce questions. (What is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) 
+ The ''Reciprocal Pronouns'' are ''each other'' and ''one another.'' They are convenient forms for combining ideas. (They gave books to ''each other''). 
- (Everyone is wondering if any is left.).  
- The __Intensive Pronouns__ (such as myself, yourself, herself, ourselves,
-  themselves) consist of a personal pronoun plus self or selves and emphasize
-  a noun. (I myself don't know the answer.) 
- The __Reflexive Pronouns__(which have the same forms as the intensive
- pronouns)  indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb. 
- (Students who cheat on this quiz are only hurting themselves.)  
- The __Interrogative Pronouns__ (who/which/what) introduce questions. 
- (What is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) 
- The __Reciprocal Pronouns__ are __each other__ and __one another__. They are
- convenient forms for combining ideas. (They gave books to each other). 
  
- ''__Adverbs__:-''
+ '''Adverbs:-'''
  ''Adverbs'' are words that modify a ''verb'' (He drives slowly. — How does he drive?),
  an ''adjective'' (He drives a very fast car. — How fast is his car?) and another 
  ''adverb'' (He moves quite slowly. — How slowly does he move?).
- Types of Adverbs:-
+ Types of ''Adverbs:-'' 
-  __Adverbs of Manner or Abstract Adverb__ :   He moves ''slowly'' and spoke
+ ''Adverbs of Manner or Abstract Adverb:''   He moves ''slowly'' and spoke ''quietly''.
-    ''quietly''.
-  __Adverbs of Place__ :  Go ''there''.  Come ''here''. 
+ ''Adverbs of Place:''  Go ''there''.  Come ''here''. 
-  __Adverbs of Frequency__ : He ''often'' acts. He comes ''every day''.
+ ''Adverbs of Frequency:''  He ''often'' acts. He comes ''every day''.
-  __Adverbs of Time__ :  ''Always'' tell the truth. ''When'' are you coming ? 
+ ''Adverbs of Time:''  ''Always'' tell the truth. ''When'' are you coming? 
-    He finished his tea ''first''. He left ''early''.
+ He finished his tea ''first''. He left ''early''.
-  __Adjective Adjective Adverbs_:  He is ''very'' intelligent. He is ''too'' good.
+ ''Adjective Adjective Adverbs:''  He is ''very'' intelligent. He is ''too'' good.
-  __Adjective Adverb__ :   Do not walk ''so'' fast.
+ ''Adjective Adverb:''   Do not walk ''so'' fast.
  
- ''Prepositions:-''  
+ '''Prepositions:-'''  
  A ''preposition'' describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. 
- You can sit __before__ the table (or __in front of__ the table). Other ''prepositions:'' 
+ You can sit ''before'' the table (or in front of the table). Other ''prepositions:'' 
  on, behind, under, beneath, beside, next to, before, between, into, to, 
  through, off, over, upon, across, of, about, in, for, without, toward, around, at, 
  against, during, until and throughout and after.
Received on Thursday, 6 October 2005 11:21:35 UTC

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.3.1 : Tuesday, 6 January 2015 20:43:06 UTC