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Re: LANG: frame paradigm

From: Frank van Harmelen <Frank.van.Harmelen@cs.vu.nl>
Date: Sun, 10 Mar 2002 17:50:23 +0100
Message-ID: <3C8B8ECF.C4755408@cs.vu.nl>
To: www-webont-wg@w3.org
Ora Lassila wrote:
> 
> Relating to our discussion on the frame paradigm and languages, this
> document, albeit old (1992), provides some historical background to
> frame systems:
> 
> Peter D. Karp, "The design space of frame knowledge representation
> systems", Technical Report 520, SRI International AI Center;
> available on line as ftp://ftp.ai.sri.com/pub/papers/karp-freview.ps.Z

Very interesting, recommended reading indeed.
(in particular, I guess that section 9.2 of the paper characterises some of the idealogical split inside the WG rather nicely...)

As part of my homework exercise (collect frame idiom), I went through a bunch of AI text books, and wrote down what they said about frame systems. The result is below. (The order of the entries is not significant, it's just the order in which the books fell out of my book case).

Frank.
   ----


LUGER & STUBBLEFIELD, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, SEC. 6.1.5:
- frame name
- subclass relation to other frames
- requirements for a frame (when does a new object fit in the frame)
- procedural info on how to use the information in the frame
- default information
- range of slots

INTRODUCTION TO AI, CHARNIAK & MCDERMOTT, SEC. 1.7.4:
- slot-and-filler notation
- "rather than creating separate assertions for slot-assertions,
   we combine them into one larger statement".

EXPERT SYSTEMS, PETER JACKSON, SECTION 6.3.1
- "frame is a way of bundling knowledge about a stereotypical entity"
- slots & fillers
- name
- subclass relationsship with inheritance
- default values
- multiple inheritanc

MICHAEL NEGNEVITSKY, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, SECTION 5.2
- name
- subclass, aggregation and association
- slots + values
- default values
- range of slots (numeric, string, enumerated
- procedural information (if-changed, if-needed daemons)
- multiple inheritance

INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM, MARK STEFIK, SECTION 1.3:
- "all of the symbols that make up the definition of a class are
   clustered together in a unit"
- inference = inheritance, subsumption, mutual exclusion

ESSENTIALS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, MATT GINSBERG (SECTION 13.1.1)
- "A frame system consists of a collection of objects, each of which
  consists of slots and values for these slots."
- subclass inheritance
- multiple inheritance
- default values

INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS, R. FROST, CH. 9
- "in frames, all assertions about a particular entity are held
  together" ("clustering of properties relating to an entity or
  class of entities")
- slots + fillers
- inheritance
- default values
- multiple inheritance
- generic properties (= "property associated with a class such that
  every member of that class displays that property")
- slot range
- procedural attachment / demons
- disjointness of frames
- inference = inferred existence,
              inferred values from generic properties,
	      inferred values from default properties
- procedural attachment / demons

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, RUSSEL & NORVIG
- "a frame collects facts about a particular object type, and arranges
  the types into a taxonomic hierarchy"
- inheritance
- default value
- multiple inheritance

LOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, GENESERETH & NILSSON
- frame = name + set of slot-value pairs
- don't contain negation or disjunction

EXPERT SYSTEMS, JOHN DURKIN
- name
- slots + range
- procedural attachment (if-needed/if-changed)
- subclass, aggregation and association
- inheritance
- default values
- multiple inheritance
- min/max cardinality

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, RICH & KNIGHT
- frame = slot+filler structure
- property inheritance over a generalisation hierarchy
- inverse relations
- property hierarchy
- default values
- slot range
- if-needed rules
- single-valued/multi-valued attributes
- metaclasses (= classes of classes)
- properties of the class (instead of properties of the elements of
  the class) (done through meta-classes)
- mutually disjoint classes
- a class covered by other classes
- slot domain
- multiple inheritance

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: A NEW SYNTHESIS: NILS NILSSON
- frame = name + set of attribute-value pairs
- don't contain negation or disjunction

AN INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING, PETER SMITH
- frame = name + slots
- default values
- inheritance
- slot range
- if-added/if-needed demons

THE ESSENCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, ALISON CAWSEY
- "all the information relevant to a particular concept is stored in a frame"
- subclass hierarchy
- inheritance
- slots + values
- default values
- multiple inheritance
- procedural attachment to slots
- don't contain negation or disjunction or quantification
Received on Tuesday, 12 March 2002 00:36:45 GMT

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