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RE: Urdu IDNs: Characters in domain names

From: Debbie Garside <md@ictenterprise.co.uk>
Date: Thu, 2 Aug 2007 13:53:21 +0100
To: "'Richard Ishida'" <ishida@w3.org>, <www-international@w3.org>, <public-iri@w3.org>
Cc: "'Sarmad Hussain'" <sarmad.hussain@nu.edu.pk>
Message-ID: <E1IGaBY-0000do-Qb@maggie.w3.org>

Richard wrote:

> I’m inclined to think that creating a plug-in might 
> create more trouble than benefit, by replacing the problems 
> of errors and ambiguities with the problems of uninteroperable IDNs.

I agree.  There is a current problem with plug-ins and IE6/IE7 for the Hangul IDN user community. 

http://public.icann.org/forums/public-forum#comment-321

Debbie Garside
 

> -----Original Message-----
> From: www-international-request@w3.org 
> [mailto:www-international-request@w3.org] On Behalf Of Richard Ishida
> Sent: 30 July 2007 21:11
> To: www-international@w3.org; public-iri@w3.org
> Cc: 'Sarmad Hussain'
> Subject: Urdu IDNs: Characters in domain names
> 
> Sarmad Hussain, at the Center for Research in Urdu Language 
> Processing FAST National University, Pakistan, is looking at 
> enabling Urdu IDNs based on ICANN recommendations, but this 
> may lead to similar approaches in a number of other countries.
> 
> There are some aspects to Sarmad’s proposal, arising from the 
> nature of the Arabic script used for Urdu, that raise some 
> interesting questions about the way IDN works for this kind 
> of language. These have to do with the choice of characters 
> allowed in a domain name. 
> 
> For example, there is a suggestion that users should be able 
> to use certain characters when writing a URI in Urdu which 
> are then either removed (eg. vowel diacritics) or converted 
> to other characters (eg. Arabic characters) during the 
> conversion to punycode by a user agent plug-in.
> 
> This is not something that is normally relevant for 
> English-only URIs, because of the relative simplicity of our 
> alphabet. There is much more potential ambiguity in Urdu for 
> use of characters. Note, however, that the proposals Sarmad 
> is making are language-specific, not script-specific, ie. 
> Arabic or Persian (also written with the Arabic script) would 
> need some slightly different rules.
> 
> I find myself wondering whether you could use a plug-in to 
> strip out or convert the characters while converting to 
> punycode. People typing IDNs in Urdu would need to be aware 
> of the need for a plug-in, and would still need to know how 
> to type in IDNs if they found themselves using a browser that 
> didn’t have the plug-in (eg. the businessman who is visiting 
> a corporation in the US that prevents ad hoc downloads of 
> software). On the one hand, I wonder whether we can expect a 
> user who sees a URI on a hard copy brochure containing vowel 
> diacritics to know what to do if their browser or mail client 
> doesn’t support the plug-in. On the other hand, a person 
> writing a clickable URI in HTML or an email would not be able 
> to guarantee that users would have access to the plug-in. In 
> that case, they would be unwise to use things like short 
> vowel diacritics, since the user cannot easily change the 
> link if they don’t have a plug-in. Imagine a vowelled IDN 
> coming through in a plain text email, for example: the reader 
> may need to edit the email text to get to the resource rather 
> than just click on it. Not likely to be popular.
> 
> Another alternative is to do such removal and conversion of 
> characters as part of the standard punycode conversion 
> process. This, I suspect, would necessitate every browser to 
> have access to standardised tables of characters that should 
> be ignored or converted for any language. But there is an 
> additional problem in that the language would need to be 
> determined correctly before such rules were applied - that 
> is, the language of the original URI. That too seems a bit difficult.
> 
> So I can see the need, but I’m not sure what the solution 
> would be. I’m inclined to think that creating a plug-in might 
> create more trouble than benefit, by replacing the problems 
> of errors and ambiguities with the problems of uninteroperable IDNs.
> 
> There is an Excel file attached that lists which characters 
> in the Arabic block would be appropriate for Urdu IDNs.  I 
> will also list the characters below in a slightly different order.
> 
> ALLOWED
> 
> The following characters will allowed in the IRI but removed 
> before conversion to punycode.
> 
> These characters are optional in Arabic script, though they 
> can sometimes be useful for disambiguating pronunciation and 
> meaning - particularly useful for Urdu, which has more vowel 
> sounds than Arabic.‎
> 
> 064B:‎‎   ً  ARABIC FATHATAN
> 064C:‎‎   ٌ  ARABIC DAMMATAN
> 064D:‎‎   ٍ  ARABIC KASRATAN
> 064E:‎‎   َ  ARABIC FATHA
> 064F:‎‎   ُ  ARABIC DAMMA
> 0650:‎‎   ِ  ARABIC KASRA
> 0651:‎‎   ّ  ARABIC SHADDA
> 0652:‎‎   ْ  ARABIC SUKUN
> 0655:‎‎   ٕ  ARABIC HAMZA BELOW
> 0656:‎‎   ٖ  ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF
> 0658:‎‎   ٘  ARABIC MARK NOON GHUNNA
> 0670:‎‎   ٰ  ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF
> 0612:‎   ؒ  ARABIC SIGN RAHMATULLAH ALAYHE
> 0614:‎   ؔ  ARABIC SIGN TAKHALLUS
> 
> Space and zero-width non-joiner characters will also be 
> allowed, but removed during the conversion to punycode.
> 
> Some other characters used in Arabic but not Urdu will be 
> allowed but will be converted to a character used in Urdu 
> during conversion to punycode. They are included in the set 
> of allowed characters, however, to avoid confusion when they 
> are used incorrectly.
> 
> 0629:‎   ة  ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA
> 0643:‎   ك  ARABIC LETTER KAF
> 0649:‎   ى  ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA
> 064A:‎   ي  ARABIC LETTER YEH
> 0660:‎   ٠  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO
> 0661:‎   ١  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ONE
> 0662:‎   ٢  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT TWO
> 0663:‎   ٣  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT THREE
> 0664:‎   ٤  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FOUR
> 0665:‎   ٥  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FIVE
> 0666:‎   ٦  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SIX
> 0667:‎   ٧  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SEVEN
> 0668:‎   ٨  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT EIGHT
> 0669:‎   ٩  ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT NINE
> 06C0:‎   ۀ  ARABIC LETTER HEH WITH YEH ABOVE
> 0625:‎   إ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW
> 
> European digits are also mapped to the Urdu digits.
> 
> The following will be permitted in the IRI, but decomposed 
> before conversion to punycode:‎
> 
> FDF2:‎   ﷲ  ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM
> FDF3:‎   ﷳ  ARABIC LIGATURE AKBAR ISOLATED FORM
> FDF4:‎   ﷴ  ARABIC LIGATURE MOHAMMAD ISOLATED FORM
> FDF5:‎   ﷵ  ARABIC LIGATURE SALAM ISOLATED FORM
> FDF6:‎   ﷶ  ARABIC LIGATURE RASOUL ISOLATED FORM
> FDF7:‎   ﷷ  ARABIC LIGATURE ALAYHE ISOLATED FORM
> FDF8:‎   ﷸ  ARABIC LIGATURE WASALLAM ISOLATED FORM
> FDF9:‎   ﷹ  ARABIC LIGATURE SALLA ISOLATED FORM
> FDFA:‎   ﷺ  ARABIC LIGATURE SALLALLAHOU ALAYHE WASALLAM
> FDFB:‎   ﷻ  ARABIC LIGATURE JALLAJALALOUHOU
> 
> Some combinations of diacritic and base character will be allowed:‎
> 
> 0622:‎   آ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOVE
> 0623:‎   أ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 0624:‎   ؤ  ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 06C2:‎   ۂ  ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 06D3:‎   ۓ  ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 
> The following mandatory honorific marks will be allowed:‎
> 
> ‭0610:‎   ؐ  ARABIC SIGN SALLALLAHOU ALAYHE WASSALLAM‬
> 0611:‎   ؑ  ARABIC SIGN ALAYHE ASSALLAM
> 0613:‎   ؓ  ARABIC SIGN RADI ALLAHOU ANHU
> 
> The following are basic alphabetic characters for Urdu, and 
> will therefore be allowed:‎
> 
> 0621:‎   ء  ARABIC LETTER HAMZA
> 0627:‎   ا  ARABIC LETTER ALEF
> 0628:‎   ب  ARABIC LETTER BEH
> 062A:‎   ت  ARABIC LETTER TEH
> 062B:‎   ث  ARABIC LETTER THEH
> 062C:‎   ج  ARABIC LETTER JEEM
> 062D:‎   ح  ARABIC LETTER HAH
> 062E:‎   خ  ARABIC LETTER KHAH
> 062F:‎   د  ARABIC LETTER DAL
> 0630:‎   ذ  ARABIC LETTER THAL
> 0631:‎   ر  ARABIC LETTER REH
> 0632:‎   ز  ARABIC LETTER ZAIN
> 0633:‎   س  ARABIC LETTER SEEN
> 0634:‎   ش  ARABIC LETTER SHEEN
> 0635:‎   ص  ARABIC LETTER SAD
> 0636:‎   ض  ARABIC LETTER DAD
> 0637:‎   ط  ARABIC LETTER TAH
> 0638:‎   ظ  ARABIC LETTER ZAH
> 0639:‎   ع  ARABIC LETTER AIN
> 063A:‎   غ  ARABIC LETTER GHAIN
> 0641:‎   ف  ARABIC LETTER FEH
> 0642:‎   ق  ARABIC LETTER QAF
> 0644:‎   ل  ARABIC LETTER LAM
> 0645:‎   م  ARABIC LETTER MEEM
> 0646:‎   ن  ARABIC LETTER NOON
> 0647:‎   ه  ARABIC LETTER HEH
> 0648:‎   و  ARABIC LETTER WAW
> 0679:‎   ٹ  ARABIC LETTER TTEH
> 067A:‎   ٺ  ARABIC LETTER TTEHEH
> 067B:‎   ٻ  ARABIC LETTER BEEH
> 067C:‎   ټ  ARABIC LETTER TEH WITH RING
> 067D:‎   ٽ  ARABIC LETTER TEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE DOWNWARDS
> 067E:‎   پ  ARABIC LETTER PEH
> 067F:‎   ٿ  ARABIC LETTER TEHEH
> 0680:‎   ڀ  ARABIC LETTER BEHEH
> 0681:‎   ځ  ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 0682:‎   ڂ  ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH TWO DOTS VERTICAL ABOVE
> 0683:‎   ڃ  ARABIC LETTER NYEH
> 0684:‎   ڄ  ARABIC LETTER DYEH
> 0685:‎   څ  ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 0686:‎   چ  ARABIC LETTER TCHEH
> 0687:‎   ڇ  ARABIC LETTER TCHEHEH
> 0688:‎   ڈ  ARABIC LETTER DDAL
> 0689:‎   ډ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH RING
> 068A:‎   ڊ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH DOT BELOW
> 068B:‎   ڋ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH DOT BELOW AND SMALL TAH
> 068C:‎   ڌ  ARABIC LETTER DAHAL
> 068D:‎   ڍ  ARABIC LETTER DDAHAL
> 068E:‎   ڎ  ARABIC LETTER DUL
> 068F:‎   ڏ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE DOWNWARDS
> 0690:‎   ڐ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH FOUR DOTS ABOVE
> 0691:‎   ڑ  ARABIC LETTER RREH
> 0692:‎   ڒ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH SMALL V
> 0693:‎   ړ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH RING
> 0694:‎   ڔ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH DOT BELOW
> 0695:‎   ڕ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH SMALL V BELOW
> 0696:‎   ږ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE
> 0697:‎   ڗ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH TWO DOTS ABOVE
> 0698:‎   ژ  ARABIC LETTER JEH
> 0699:‎   ڙ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH FOUR DOTS ABOVE
> 069A:‎   ښ  ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE
> 069B:‎   ڛ  ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH THREE DOTS BELOW
> 069C:‎   ڜ  ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH THREE DOTS BELOW AND 
> THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 069D:‎   ڝ  ARABIC LETTER SAD WITH TWO DOTS BELOW
> 069E:‎   ڞ  ARABIC LETTER SAD WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 069F:‎   ڟ  ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06A0:‎   ڠ  ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06A1:‎   ڡ  ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS FEH
> 06A2:‎   ڢ  ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW
> 06A3:‎   ڣ  ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT BELOW
> 06A4:‎   ڤ  ARABIC LETTER VEH
> 06A5:‎   ڥ  ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW
> 06A6:‎   ڦ  ARABIC LETTER PEHEH
> 06A7:‎   ڧ  ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH DOT ABOVE
> 06A8:‎   ڨ  ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06A9:‎   ک  ARABIC LETTER KEHEH
> 06AA:‎   ڪ  ARABIC LETTER SWASH KAF
> 06AB:‎   ګ  ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH RING
> 06AC:‎   ڬ  ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH DOT ABOVE
> 06AD:‎   ڭ  ARABIC LETTER NG
> 06AE:‎   ڮ  ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH THREE DOTS BELOW
> 06AF:‎   گ  ARABIC LETTER GAF
> 06B0:‎   ڰ  ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH RING
> 06B1:‎   ڱ  ARABIC LETTER NGOEH
> 06B2:‎   ڲ  ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH TWO DOTS BELOW
> 06B3:‎   ڳ  ARABIC LETTER GUEH
> 06B4:‎   ڴ  ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06B5:‎   ڵ  ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL V
> 06B6:‎   ڶ  ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH DOT ABOVE
> 06B7:‎   ڷ  ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06B8:‎   ڸ  ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH THREE DOTS BELOW
> 06B9:‎   ڹ  ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH DOT BELOW
> 06BA:‎   ں  ARABIC LETTER NOON GHUNNA
> 06BB:‎   ڻ  ARABIC LETTER RNOON
> 06BC:‎   ڼ  ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH RING
> 06BD:‎   ڽ  ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE
> 06BE:‎   ھ  ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE
> 06C1:‎   ہ  ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL
> 06C3:‎   ۃ  ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA GOAL
> 06CC:‎   ی  ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH
> 06D2:‎   ے  ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE
> 
> The following combinations of base character and diacritic as 
> a single character will also be allowed:‎
> 
> 0622:‎   آ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOVE
> 0623:‎   أ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 0624:‎   ؤ  ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 06C2:‎   ۂ  ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 06D3:‎   ۓ  ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 
> The following Urdu digits are allowed:‎
> 
> 06F0:‎   ۰  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO
> 06F1:‎   ۱  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ONE
> 06F2:‎   ۲  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT TWO
> 06F3:‎   ۳  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT THREE
> 06F4:‎   ۴  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FOUR
> 06F5:‎   ۵  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FIVE
> 06F6:‎   ۶  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SIX
> 06F7:‎   ۷  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SEVEN
> 06F8:‎   ۸  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT EIGHT
> 06F9:‎   ۹  EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT NINE
> 
> 
> 
> 
> NOT ALLOWED
> 
> The following are disallowed because they don't appear in 
> plain text:‎ 
> 
> 0600:‎   ؀  ARABIC NUMBER SIGN
> 0601:‎   ؁  ARABIC SIGN SANAH
> 060E:‎   ؎  ARABIC POETIC VERSE SIGN
> 060F:‎   ؏  ARABIC SIGN MISRA
> 0602:‎   ؂  ARABIC FOOTNOTE MARKER
> 0603:‎   ؃  ARABIC SIGN SAFHA
> 066D:‎   ٭  ARABIC FIVE POINTED STAR
> 
> 
> The following are disallowed because they are mathematical 
> signs or, in the case of the tatweel, just stylistic:‎
> 
> 066A:‎   ٪  ARABIC PERCENT SIGN
> 066B:‎   ٫  ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR
> 066C:‎   ٬  ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR
> 0640:‎   ـ  ARABIC TATWEEL
> 
> The following combining characters are allowed, since their 
> absence or omission can change meaning:‎
> 
> 0653:‎   ٓ  ARABIC MADDAH ABOVE
> 0654:‎   ٔ  ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE
> 
> The following are disallowed because they are punctuation:‎
> 
> 061B:‎   ؛  ARABIC SEMICOLON
> 061F:‎   ؟  ARABIC QUESTION MARK
> 06D4:‎   ۔  ARABIC FULL STOP
> 060C:‎   ،  ARABIC COMMA
> 060D:‎   ؍  ARABIC DATE SEPARATOR
> 
> 
> The remaining characters are not used for Urdu:‎
> 
> 061E:‎   ؞  ARABIC TRIPLE DOT PUNCTUATION MARK
> 060B:‎   ؋  AFGHANI SIGN
> 0615:‎   ؕ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH TAH
> 0657:‎   ٗ  ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA
> 0659:‎   ٙ  ARABIC ZWARAKAY
> 065A:‎   ٚ  ARABIC VOWEL SIGN SMALL V ABOVE
> 065B:‎   ٛ  ARABIC VOWEL SIGN INVERTED SMALL V ABOVE
> 065C:‎   ٜ  ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW
> 065D:‎   ٝ  ARABIC REVERSED DAMMA
> 065E:‎   ٞ  ARABIC FATHA WITH TWO DOTS
> 066E:‎   ٮ  ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS BEH
> 066F:‎   ٯ  ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS QAF
> 0671:‎   ٱ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WASLA
> 0672:‎   ٲ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA ABOVE
> 0673:‎   ٳ  ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW
> 0674:‎   ٴ  ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA
> 0675:‎   ٵ  ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA ALEF
> 0676:‎   ٶ  ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA WAW
> 0677:‎   ٷ  ARABIC LETTER U WITH HAMZA ABOVE
> 0678:‎   ٸ  ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA YEH
> 06BF:‎   ڿ  ARABIC LETTER TCHEH WITH DOT ABOVE
> 06C4:‎   ۄ  ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING
> 06C5:‎   ۅ  ARABIC LETTER KIRGHIZ OE
> 06C6:‎   ۆ  ARABIC LETTER OE
> 06C7:‎   ۇ  ARABIC LETTER U
> 06C8:‎   ۈ  ARABIC LETTER YU
> 06C9:‎   ۉ  ARABIC LETTER KIRGHIZ YU
> 06CA:‎   ۊ  ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH TWO DOTS ABOVE
> 06CB:‎   ۋ  ARABIC LETTER VE
> 06CD:‎   ۍ  ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TAIL
> 06CE:‎   ێ  ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH SMALL V
> 06CF:‎   ۏ  ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH DOT ABOVE
> 06D0:‎   ې  ARABIC LETTER E
> 06D1:‎   ۑ  ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW
> 06D5:‎   ە  ARABIC LETTER AE
> 06D6:‎   ۖ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH LIGATURE SAD WITH LAM WITH ALEF MAKSURA
> 06D7:‎   ۗ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH LIGATURE QAF WITH LAM WITH ALEF MAKSURA
> 06D8:‎   ۘ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH MEEM INITIAL FORM
> 06D9:‎   ۙ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH LAM ALEF
> 06DA:‎   ۚ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH JEEM
> 06DB:‎   ۛ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH THREE DOTS
> 06DC:‎   ۜ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH SEEN
> 06DD:‎   ۝  ARABIC END OF AYAH
> 06DE:‎   ۞  ARABIC START OF RUB EL HIZB
> 06DF:‎   ۟  ARABIC SMALL HIGH ROUNDED ZERO
> 06E0:‎   ۠  ARABIC SMALL HIGH UPRIGHT RECTANGULAR ZERO
> 06E1:‎   ۡ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH DOTLESS HEAD OF KHAH
> 06E2:‎   ۢ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH MEEM ISOLATED FORM
> 06E3:‎   ۣ  ARABIC SMALL LOW SEEN
> 06E4:‎   ۤ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH MADDA
> 06E5:‎   ۥ  ARABIC SMALL WAW
> 06E6:‎   ۦ  ARABIC SMALL YEH
> 06E7:‎   ۧ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH YEH
> 06E8:‎   ۨ  ARABIC SMALL HIGH NOON
> 06E9:‎   ۩  ARABIC PLACE OF SAJDAH
> 06EA:‎   ۪  ARABIC EMPTY CENTRE LOW STOP
> 06EB:‎   ۫  ARABIC EMPTY CENTRE HIGH STOP
> 06EC:‎   ۬  ARABIC ROUNDED HIGH STOP WITH FILLED CENTRE
> 06ED:‎   ۭ  ARABIC SMALL LOW MEEM
> 06EE:‎   ۮ  ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH INVERTED V
> 06EF:‎   ۯ  ARABIC LETTER REH WITH INVERTED V
> 06FA:‎   ۺ  ARABIC LETTER SHEEN WITH DOT BELOW
> 06FB:‎   ۻ  ARABIC LETTER DAD WITH DOT BELOW
> 06FC:‎   ۼ  ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH DOT BELOW
> 06FD:‎   ۽  ARABIC SIGN SINDHI AMPERSAND
> 06FE:‎   ۾  ARABIC SIGN SINDHI POSTPOSITION MEN
> 
> 
> 
> ‬
> ============
> Richard Ishida
> Internationalization Lead
> W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
>  
> http://www.w3.org/People/Ishida/
> http://www.w3.org/International/
> http://people.w3.org/rishida/blog/
> http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/
>  
> 
Received on Thursday, 2 August 2007 12:53:50 GMT

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