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NISO/DAISY on Document Navigation

From: Harvey Bingham <hbingham@acm.org>
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2000 01:49:22 -0500
Message-Id: <5.0.0.25.2.20001130014423.00a39b10@pop.rcn.com>
To: <w3c-wai-ua@w3.org>
Summary:

[HB comments by Harvey Bingham.
UAAG1.0 does address some of the navigation issues.
Many other issues, specific to digital talking books, go beyond what
UAAG addresses. The intent for playback devices is that these
capabilities are appropriate for some classes of players, noted by the
digit-letter codes. Players: 1=basic, 2=advanced, 3=computer-based;
feature: A=essential, B=highly desirable, C=useful.]

Reference:

Playback Device Guidelines for Digital Talking Books
Prioritized List of Features for Digital Talking Book Playback Devices
      http://www.loc.gov/nls/niso/features.htm
Version Date: December 30,1999

[HB The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) is allowed to make
standards, at least in USA. The international Digital Audio Information
SYstems (DAISY) Consortium of libraries for the blind and visually
impaired is developing this as a NISO "standard."]

7. Document Navigation

7.1 Start and stop (1A, 2A, 3A)
The machine/output can be started/stopped easily.
[HB 4.6 ?easily?, 4.9, 9.8]

7.2 Instant stop/start (1A, 2A, 3A)
Playback can be stopped/started instantly by the user. The device can be 
stopped and then restarted and no audio material will be missed.
[HB 4.6, 4.9, implicitly instant?]

7.3 Multiple levels of granularity -- document accessible at fine level of 
detail (2A, 3A)
Document can be accessed at various levels of definition such as by 
paragraph, by sentence, or by word, depending upon user needs.
[HB 7.3, 7.4 on active elements, 7.6 on structural elements .. but only those
identified by author, 7.7, user choice of structural element.]

7.4 Useable table of contents/index (1A, 2A, 3A)
User can access the table of contents/index from any point in the book and 
select an entry for immediate access. Links from table of contents lead to 
the item selected. Links from index lead to the top of the page selected.
[HB 7.6, 7.7, 8.4 -- generate outline view.]

7.5 Easy skips (defined by document) (1A, 2A, 3A)
User can skip through the document by segments defined by document elements 
such as chapters, pages, paragraphs, etc. In this mode, the user moves 
through the elements sequentially, rather than jumping directly to a 
specific target.
[HB 7.6, 7.7, 8.4]

7.6 Ability to move directly to a specific target

7.6.1 User can easily jump directly to a specific point in the document 
such as page 56 or chapter 12. The user selects or enters the name of the 
target and then initiates the jump. (2B, 3A)
[HB UAAG doesn't address "page numbers", though if they are marked up
as targets, then they can be reached.]

7.6.2 User can jump directly to a location identified in the document as a 
target (for example a cross-reference). The user encounters a 
cross-reference, for example, "See Appendix 5," and activates the link to 
that location. When a user prompts the device to follow a link, the device 
launches the nearest previous link. This allows a user to activate a link 
even if he has not reacted immediately after being notified of the link. 
See section 7 of Text Navigation Features List (1A, 2A, 3A)
[HB 7.6]

7.7 Cross-Reference notification
7.7.1 The user has the option of being notified via an audible signal when 
a cross-reference is encountered. Default for device 1 is to disable the 
audio signal; for devices 2 and 3 default is to enable it. (1C, 2A, 3A)
[HB No consistent means to do this.]

7.7.2 User may choose among several audible indicators. (2A, 3A)
[HB 5. narrative refers to audio cues. 9.1 hints user preferences
for voice bindings.]

7.8 Internal and external cross-reference targets

7.8.1 The user can query the player as to whether a link leads to an 
internal or external target, since the decision to follow a link may depend 
on the target's location. (2A, 3A)
[HB 1.4 We leaves this distinction implicit, possibly in the name
of the URL.]

7.8.2 The user can ask for the current state of the player, so if the 
device is sitting quietly after an external link has been activated, the 
user can determine what action to take, if any. (2A, 3A)
[HB Only mentions of "state": 7.2, dealing with viewport's browsing
history. Do we stretch the "frame" model to an audio listening state?
Also 9.8 dealing with input configuration history state.]

7.8.3 If the user feels too much time has elapsed after activating a link 
to an external target, he or she can cancel the request without causing the 
system to crash. If the user needs to take some action, the player will 
prompt him or her. (2A, 3A)
[HB Silent on this.]

7.8.4 The device can continue to play while retrieving external resources. 
(2B, 3B)
[HB Silent on this.]

7.9 Navigation Control Center (1A, 2A, 3A)
Device includes a Navigation Control Center which allows the user to easily 
obtain an overview of the structure of the book and provides a convenient 
means for navigating through it. See sections 5 and 5.1 of the Text 
Navigation Features List.
[HB 8.4, "outline" view of the content. though it needn't be navigable.]

7.10 Ability to retrace steps (1A, 2A, 3A)
Device maintains a "history" file of the locations the user has passed 
through when moving through the document in discrete steps (e.g., as 
described in 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6 above). The user can move backwards and 
forwards through that list of locations.
[HB 8.5 implies this.]

7.11 Easy repeats, skips (user-defined, time-based) (2C, 3C)
User can skip through the document by time intervals set by the user.
[HB Silent on this.]

7.12 Ability to skip over user-selected text elements (2B, 3B)
Various elements of the document such as page numbers, footnotes, picture 
captions, tables, sidebars, and production notes (material added by the 
talking book producer) can be skipped by the user. For example, the 
configuration profile can be set to specify that optional production notes 
should be skipped (required production notes cannot be skipped).
[HB Partially addressed by 7.6 and 7.7, dealing with author and user selection
of "important structural elements."]

7.13 Ability to manage notes (2A, 3A)
Footnotes can be managed in a variety of ways. The user can set her 
configuration profile so that:
footnote references and the footnotes themselves are automatically played 
in full,
footnote references are played but the footnotes are not unless the user 
chooses to hear one, or
footnote references and footnotes are skipped.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.14 Reading of notes (1A, 2A, 3A)
At any time during the reading of a note, the user shall be able to 
interrupt the reading and return to the point in the text immediately 
following the note reference.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.15 Setting and Labeling Bookmarks
7.15.1 User can set one or more bookmarks for later access. Bookmarks are 
saved even when machine is turned off and are deleted only upon user 
initiation. The device accommodates at least 100 simple bookmarks (those 
that simply mark a point but do not label it). (This limit does not apply 
to the type 3 device, where the capacity of the hard drive would set the 
limit.) (1A, 2A)
[HB 9.8 refers to bookmarked resources, not necessarily the same, as the
above within a document may not have URLs.]

7.15.2 User can tag bookmarks with text or voice labels. The same label can 
be assigned to multiple bookmarks to create a set of related bookmarks. The 
user can browse through all existing bookmarks. (See section 9 of Text 
Navigation Features List.)
The device has sufficient capacity to store the following volume of 
voice-labeled bookmarks at telephone quality (8KHz sample rate, 8-bit 
samples):
15 minutes (2A)
30 minutes (2B)
60 minutes (2C)
(This limit does not apply to the type 3 device, where the capacity of the 
hard drive would set the limit.)
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.16 Automatic bookmark at stop - ability to bypass (1A, 2A, 3A)
If selected by the user, the software will automatically place a bookmark 
at the point in the playback where the user stops. The user can choose to 
bypass this feature.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.17 Separate sets of bookmarks stored for each book (1A, 2A, 3A)
For example, if the user has four different books in process, the device 
maintains four separate sets of bookmarks.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.18 Ability to name and export bookmarks (2B, 3B)
A user may need to move bookmarks from one machine to another if one is 
being returned for maintenance, or may wish to share his list of bookmarks 
with others reading the same book. Bookmarks shall follow NISO standard X?X 
to unsure interoperability among playback devices.
[HB Unaddressed. Editorial: "unsure" above should be "ensure."]

7.19 Ability to add information (highlighting and notes) (2B, 3A)
User can highlight portions of text, assigning text or voice labels, or 
more lengthy notes, to each marked section. The user can browse through a 
list of the full set of highlighted sections and then jump directly to a 
chosen portion. When the user is re-reading the document, an audible 
indicator should identify highlighted portions. As with cross-references, 
user options include enable (default), disable, and a choice among several 
audible indicators. The user should also be able to learn what label, if 
any, was attached to the highlighted section. (See section 10 or Text 
Navigation Features List.)
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.20 Ability to mark text for later access or export (2C, 3A)
Text can be marked/exported for later use (scrapbook, citations; i.e., a 
clipboard function that can be appended or overwritten). Limitations on the 
amount of text that may be exported will be set to meet copyright requirements.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.21 Current location (possibly including time remaining to end of book 
(1B, 2B, 3B)
User can obtain information about current location in book relative to the 
entire book such as "n% read, n% remaining" or "n hours remaining," and 
logical location such as "chapter 5, page 129, paragraph 3".
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.22 Spell words (2A, 3A)
Words can be spelled upon user request; spelling can also be done by 
phonetic alphabet (alpha, bravo, Charlie, etc.).
[HB Unaddressed.]


7.23 Search by words, groupings of words (3B)
Text file can be searched by word/groups of words as input by the user.
[HB 7.5 is much more detailed.]

7.24 Quick and easy access to multiple books (1A, 2A, 3A)
The interface allows the user to quickly access other documents, e.g., the 
user should be able to switch from one book to another quickly whether the 
book is a physical medium or has been/is being retrieved electronically. 
Documents can be switched easily with all user settings for the new 
document intact.
[HB 7.3 and 7.4 allow navigation of active elements, These needn't be local.]

7.25 Multiple source capability (2C,3C)
A variety of media/data sources can be accessed such as different physical 
media, a network stream, cable, and satellite.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.26 Multiple users on 1 book simultaneously (2A/B, 3A/B)
Playback medium can be configured so that more than one user can access the 
book without disrupting settings set by previous users.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.27 Automatic threading (follow story or article to completion) (1A, 2B, 3B)
Complicated document format can be followed in a logical order.
[HB Unaddressed. Alternative reading orders can be described using the OeBook
methodology.]

7.28 Multiple modes for accessing tables (2A, 3A)
The user can choose among a variety of ways in which a table can be read -- 
for example, by row, by column, or by specific cell. (See section 15 of 
Text Navigation Features List.)
[HB 8 guideline discussion, 8.1 is less-specific.]

7.29 Reading nested lists (???)
The user can invoke a function that assists with the comprehension of the 
layout of nested lists, specifically, the level at which a given items 
falls within the list. (See section 16 of Text Navigation Features List.)
[HB Unaddressed. An audio stylesheet issue.]

7.30 Ability to identify text attributes (subscript, superscript, 
underlined, bold, etc.) (ASTER-like) (3A)
Text attributes can be easily accessed and displayed upon user request. The 
function can be enable/disabled by the user.
[HB Detail control of markup-caused rendering/styling becomes a stylesheet
issue. The use of attributes in that discussion is in contrast to elements
that achieve those style effects. An HTML approach might use class 
attribute to make the distinction, rather than explicit <sub>, <sup>, <u>, 
<b>, etc.]

7.31 Key information software -- searches document for key features (2C, 3C)
Software such as "Speech Skimmer" identifies most important elements in a 
document.
[HB Unaddressed.]

7.32 Fast forward and fast reverse (1A, 2A, 3A)
Controls allow user to move forwards or backwards through the text at 5 to 
20 times normal speed, with audible feedback ("chatter," tones, or spoken 
cues) providing information on the structure of the document. See section 2 
of Text Navigation Features List.
[HB Unaddressed for that kind of audio output that doesn't have pitch rate
stabilization, though not excluded from 4.5, 4.6, 4.8, and 4.9. See separate
email message.]

Regards/Harvey Bingham
Received on Thursday, 30 November 2000 01:52:49 GMT

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