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Re: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]

From: Harry Loots <harry.loots@ieee.org>
Date: Thu, 6 Dec 2012 10:56:54 +0100
Message-ID: <CA++-QFd2V6UW1J4H=_MR_=NBA7CCWL9678n4G02ESH9cUBMcag@mail.gmail.com>
To: Adam Cooper <cooperad@bigpond.com>
Cc: Vivienne CONWAY <v.conway@ecu.edu.au>, "Arch, Andrew" <Andrew.Arch@finance.gov.au>, Gregg Vanderheiden <gv@trace.wisc.edu>, W3C WAI ig <w3c-wai-ig@w3.org>
Hi Vivienne
Skip links are not the only way by which keyboard users can bypass blocks
of content. Shortcut keys can also provide a means to jump to
content/navigation/search, etc.


Onto the practical however. Lloydstsb.co.uk used to have a skip link that
appeared when you tabbed through the page - it no longer seems to; but
hsbc.co.uk still uses this technique of displaying the skip link when it
receives focus. So did http://www.highland.gov.uk/ (I was involved in it's
design; c.2006). It originally had a hidden skip link, which has since
become a permanently visible link.

I'd be happy to explain how the hsbc achieves this technique and equally
how I used to keep the Highland skip link hidden. (The two techniques are
slightly different, but both rely on the user tabbing and the element
receiving focus.)

Kind regards
Harry



On 6 December 2012 04:05, Adam Cooper <cooperad@bigpond.com> wrote:

> Hi Vivienne, ****
>
> ** **
>
> With regards to 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, it might be argued that a lack of
> visibility on focus does not constitute functionality as defined as
> ďprocesses and outcomes achievable through user action.Ē  (being
> different from the non-visibility of focus rectangle etc.)****
>
> ** **
>
> Yes, becoming visible is an outcome achieved by user action, but can it be
> said to be the function of a skip link? ****
>
> ** **
>
> In which case, visibility would have no impact on conformance. ****
>
> ** **
>
> However, having said this, I am yet to hear a convincing, so-called
> aesthetic argument for making skip links invisible either permanently or
> without focus. ****
>
> ** **
>
> Always visible skip links are a useful tool for many users, not just
> (some) screen reader users, despite user agent peculiarities and the
> sometimes poor placement of destination anchors Ö ****
>
> ** **
>
> My two cents worth Ö****
>
> Adam ****
>
> ** **
>
> ** **
>
> ** **
>
> *From:* Vivienne CONWAY [mailto:v.conway@ecu.edu.au]
> *Sent:* Thursday, December 06, 2012 1:01 PM
> *To:* Arch, Andrew; Gregg Vanderheiden
> *Cc:* w3c-wai-ig@w3.org
>
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
> ** **
>
> Thanks Andrew.  Yet more to think about.****
>
>  ****
>
> What are your thoughts about the non-visible under focus skip links
> failing 2.1.1 and/or 2.1.3?****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards****
>
>  ****
>
> Vivienne L. Conway, B.IT(Hons), MACS CT, AALIA(cs)****
>
> PhD Candidate & Sessional Lecturer, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A.***
> *
>
> Director, Web Key IT Pty Ltd.****
>
> v.conway@ecu.edu.au****
>
> v.conway@webkeyit.com****
>
> Mob: 0415 383 673****
>
>  ****
>
> This email is confidential and intended only for the use of the individual
> or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are
> notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this email is
> strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error, please
> notify me immediately by return email or telephone and destroy the original
> message.****
>
>  ****
> ------------------------------
>
> *From:* Arch, Andrew [Andrew.Arch@finance.gov.au]
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 10:59 AM
> *To:* Gregg Vanderheiden
> *Cc:* Vivienne CONWAY; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
> *UNCLASSIFIED*****
>
>  ****
>
> While test step 3 for G1 says ďCheck that the link is either always
> visible or visible when it has keyboard focus.Ē this  is not applicable
> on touch-screen devices where there is no keyboard. With the proliferation
> of tablets, smart-phones and other touch-screen devices, it makes more
> sense to have them always visible now.****
>
>  ****
>
> Andrew****
>
>  ****
>
> ---****
>
> Andrew Arch****
>
> Australian Government Information Management Office****
>
> Dept. Finance and Deregulation****
>
> www.finance.gov.au/agimo/****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> *UNCLASSIFIED*****
>
>  ****
>
> *From:* gcvander@wisc.edu [mailto:gcvander@wisc.edu] *On Behalf Of *Gregg
> Vanderheiden
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 12:11 PM
> *To:* Roger Hudson
> *Cc:* 'Vivienne CONWAY'; 'THOMAS,Danny'; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org
> *Subject:* Re: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> On Dec 5, 2012, at 6:42 PM, Roger Hudson <rhudson@usability.com.au> wrote:
> ****
>
>  ****
>
> While fully agreeing skips links should be visible, strictly speaking I
> donít think there is a requirement for them to be always visible.****
>
>  ****
>
> *GV: that is correct.  In fact, there isn't even a requirement that there
> be skip links.   Just a mechanism to get past repeated content.   I expect
> that within a decade we will have some new techniques that may require
> little or no effort on the part of authors.  But for now skip links are a
> common technique.    And having them visible is good because people who
> navigate by keyboard need them too.   But they are not required
> specifically and visibility is also not required.  Best thing to do is just
> read the SC carefully.  If it doesnít specifically require something -- it
> isn't required.    Almost always the SC requires that something be possible
> but does not require a specific way to achieve it.  *****
>
>  ****
>
> I am pretty sure this issue was extensively canvassed at the various
> stages for comments during the preparation of WCAG 2 and many argued for
> visibility to be a requirement, but without success.****
>
>  ****
>
> *GV:  correct.    and many argued both for and against visibility. *****
>
>  ****
>
> The use of skip links is covered in 2.4.1 Bypass blocks. And advisory
> technique G1 ďAdding a link at top of each page that goes directly to the
> content area.Ē It is worth noting, this technique contains the following
> comment: *** quote *******
>
> However, Success Criterion 2.4.1 does not require that they be visible
> when they do not have focus, and links that are visible only when they have
> focus can meet this success criterion.****
>
> *** end quote*******
>
>  ****
>
> *GV:  yep.  it also doesnít require skip links at all.  It is just that
> today -- it is the most universally supported technique.  *****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> *From:* Vivienne CONWAY [mailto:v.conway@ecu.edu.au]
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 11:07 AM
> *To:* THOMAS,Danny; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org list
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
>  ****
>
> I agree in the technicality of the issue, but how does the keyboard user
> have access?  Isn't that the intent of the guideline at 2.1.1 and 2.1.3 -
> to make sure that the keyboard user has access to all functionality?****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards****
>
>  ****
>
> Vivienne L. Conway, B.IT(Hons), MACS CT, AALIA(cs)****
>
> PhD Candidate & Sessional Lecturer, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A.***
> *
>
> Director, Web Key IT Pty Ltd.****
>
> v.conway@ecu.edu.au****
>
> v.conway@webkeyit.com****
>
> Mob: 0415 383 673****
>
>  ****
>
> This email is confidential and intended only for the use of the individual
> or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are
> notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this email is
> strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error, please
> notify me immediately by return email or telephone and destroy the original
> message.****
>
>  ****
> ------------------------------
>
> *From:* THOMAS,Danny [Danny.Thomas@deewr.gov.au]
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 9:05 AM
> *To:* Vivienne CONWAY; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org list
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
> *UNCLASSIFIED*****
>
> Hi Vivienne,****
>
>  ****
>
> Then in this case Iíd say itís not a 2.1.1. If itís using a HTML anchor
> tag then it passes 2.1.1 by virtue of sufficient technique H91<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20120103/H91>
> .****
>
>  ****
>
> Since it uses H91, it *therefore* passes 2.1.1 because H91 is a
> standalone sufficient technique as per the how to meet 2.1.1 article<http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/#qr-keyboard-operation-keyboard-operable>
> .****
>
>  ****
>
> 2.4.7 would be an obvious fail though.****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards,****
>
>
> Danny.****
>
>  ****
>
> *Daniel Thomas
> *Assistant Director | Web Accessibility Policy Unit****
>
> Business Enabling Branch| Technology Solutions Group
> Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace
> Relations
> Phone (02) 6240 2533| Fax (02) 6257 3290 | Mobile 0448 472 240****
>
>  ****
>
> *From:* Vivienne CONWAY [mailto:v.conway@ecu.edu.au <v.conway@ecu.edu.au>]
>
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 10:50 AM
> *To:* THOMAS,Danny; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org list
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
>  ****
>
> HI Danny****
>
>  ****
>
> In this case, the keyboard user presses the tab key to start navigating
> through the page and the skip links don't show when they are tabbed over.
> Sometimes they show in the bottom left corner, but not always. ****
>
>  ****
>
> In other words, they are there but hidden, and the keyboard user doesn't
> know about them because they can't see them.  In this case, they would have
> to tab through the page to get to the main content for example. ****
>
>  ****
>
> 2.4.7. also applies as they don't show focus, but I'm wondering about the
> keyboard accessibility issue.****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards****
>
>  ****
>
> Vivienne L. Conway, B.IT(Hons), MACS CT, AALIA(cs)****
>
> PhD Candidate & Sessional Lecturer, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A.***
> *
>
> Director, Web Key IT Pty Ltd.****
>
> v.conway@ecu.edu.au****
>
> v.conway@webkeyit.com****
>
> Mob: 0415 383 673****
>
>  ****
>
> This email is confidential and intended only for the use of the individual
> or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, you are
> notified that any dissemination, distribution or copying of this email is
> strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error, please
> notify me immediately by return email or telephone and destroy the original
> message.****
>
>  ****
> ------------------------------
>
> *From:* THOMAS,Danny [Danny.Thomas@deewr.gov.au]
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 8:46 AM
> *To:* Vivienne CONWAY; w3c-wai-ig@w3.org list
> *Subject:* RE: Skip links and keyboard navigation [SEC=UNCLASSIFIED]****
>
> *UNCLASSIFIED*****
>
> Hi Vivienne,****
>
>  ****
>
> This needs a little more context. Can they not access the link or is it
> just not visible?****
>
>  ****
>
> If the link can technically receive focus and itís just not made obvious,
> then itís a 2.4.7 not a 2.1.1.****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards,****
>
>
> Danny.****
>
>  ****
>
> *Daniel Thomas
> *Assistant Director | Web Accessibility Policy Unit****
>
> Business Enabling Branch| Technology Solutions Group
> Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace
> Relations
> Phone (02) 6240 2533| Fax (02) 6257 3290 | Mobile 0448 472 240****
>
>  ****
>
> *From:* Vivienne CONWAY [mailto:v.conway@ecu.edu.au <v.conway@ecu.edu.au>]
>
> *Sent:* Thursday, 6 December 2012 10:29 AM
> *To:* w3c-wai-ig@w3.org list
> *Subject:* Skip links and keyboard navigation****
>
>  ****
>
> Hi all****
>
>  ****
>
> I thought I'd pass this issue past the experts in this group for your
> opinion.****
>
>  ****
>
> This issue involves skip links that do not appear with keyboard activation
> - in other words dont' show focus either all the time or with keyboard
> focus.****
>
>  ****
>
> Obviously if they are there and hidden, the screen reader user still hears
> them, but the keyboard only user does not receive that benefit and has to
> tab throughout the whole page to get to the main content.****
>
>  ****
>
> G202: Ensuring keyboard control for all functionality which covers 2.1.1
> and 2.1.3 says ďThe objective of this technique is to provide keyboard
> operation for all the functionality (defined as processes and outcomes
> achievable through user action) of the page.Ē  In this case (when the
> keyboarder canít access the skip links), it would appear they canít have
> keyboard operation for all the functionality of the page.  What keyboarders
> canít do is to access the skip links, which really benefits a keyboard only
> user as they canít skip the multitude of navigational links.****
>
>  ****
>
> Would you agree that this fails 2.1.1 when the keyboard operation doesnít
> activate the skip links, which means that it should also fail 2.1.3? ****
>
>  ****
>
>  ****
>
> Regards****
>
>  ****
>
> Vivienne L. Conway, B.IT(Hons), MACS CT, AALIA(cs)****
>
> PhD Candidate & Sessional Lecturer, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A.***
> *
>
> Director, Web Key IT Pty Ltd.****
>
> v.conway@ecu.edu.au****
>
> v.conway@webkeyit.com****
>
> Mob: 0415 383 673****
>
>  ****
>
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> notify me immediately by return email or telephone and destroy the original
> message.****
>
>  ****
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Received on Thursday, 6 December 2012 09:57:26 GMT

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