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From: Dave Pawson <dave.pawson@virgin.net>
Date: Wed, 16 Jun 1999 18:14:52 +0100
Message-ID: <001f01beb81b$bfee3600$c77aa8c2@home>
To: <w3c-wai-ig@w3.org>
Just to quote some references on
the visual aspect, together with sources
(marked src:)

If adding graphics, which should we choose?

regards, DaveP


Classifying Signs
Peirce[86] classified signs into three groups:
icons, indexes, and symbols.
Uzilevsky and Andreev describe the classifications by
stating that
"[s]igns were related to objects by resembling them
being causally connected to them ('indexes') or being
tied to them ('symbols')." [107] By these definitions, an
representing fire might be a picture of flame, an index for
fire might be
smoke or heat, and a symbol for fire might be the color red.
Signs that are created using sounds to represent a visual
would generally fall into the latter two classifications, so
for example, the sound of paper rustling would be an index
for a document,
while an earcon that is devised and taught to the user
would be a symbol for the document.
While sound icons (under Peirce's definition) can exist,
by the strict definition they may only be used to represent
other sounds,
such as when a movie sound effects designer uses the sound
of coconut shells pounding on a table to simulate horse

[107] Uzilevsky, G. and V. Andreev.
Iconic signs and languages in user interface development.
In L.J. Bass et al., editors, Human-Computer Interaction.
Third International Conference, EWHCI '93, pages 115-24,
Berlin, Germany, August 1993. Springer-Verlag.

[86] Peirce, C.S. Collected papers. Volumes 1-2. Cambridge,
MA, 1960.
Received on Wednesday, 16 June 1999 13:13:36 UTC

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