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RE: action item: 3.1 Ls SC1 proposal

From: John M Slatin <john_slatin@austin.utexas.edu>
Date: Tue, 1 Nov 2005 11:42:37 -0600
Message-ID: <6EED8F7006A883459D4818686BCE3B3B02505996@MAIL01.austin.utexas.edu>
To: "Lisa Seeman" <lisa@ubaccess.com>, "W3c-Wai-Gl" <w3c-wai-gl@w3.org>
Lisa and Bengt have proposed a change to GL 3.1 L3 SC1. Lisa writes:
<blockquote>
change: A mechanism is available for finding definitions for all words
in text content.
 
to: A mechanism is available to determine the meaning of each word or
phrase in the content
The difference is that the user can pinpoint the intended definition,
and not just point to a set of possible definitions. Ambiguous words are
a big problem
for people with cognitive disabilities, pointing them to a set of
definitions doesn't help them and only puts more of a burden on the
author.
If we do want to include a SC about finding definitions of words, it
should be about the exact definition and not a set of definitions.

</blockquote>
Thanks for putting this forward.
 
I'm concerned about requring a mechanism to "determine the meaning" of
words or phrases in the content.  I don't think it's testable,
especially with respect to phrases. My training is in literary studies.
There are certain phrases whose meaning literary scholars and critics
have been arguing about for centuries. Those arguments will go on
forever because the phrases in question are metaphorical-- the metaphor
*is* the meaning.
 
As recently as the 19 November 2004 working draft
(http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-WCAG20-20041119/), GL 3.1 talked about
determining meaning, both in the Guideline itself and in at least two L2
success criteria. We adopted new wording for the 30 June 2005 draft,
based on discussion at the Brussels face to face, where I argued that
requirements about determining meaning are untestable whereas
requirements about definitions can be tested.
So I think it would be a bad idea to revert to an untestable
requirement.
 
Lisa says that there should be a requirement about finding "intended
definitions" rather than merely presenting users with a list of
available definitions.  There is such a requirement at GL 3.1 L3 SC2 in
the 30 June 2005 draft. However, it applies only to words used in an
unusual or restricted way. It uses the phrase "specific definitions"
instead of "intended definitions" because authorial intent is not
testable.
 
I'm prepared to agree that the wording of GL 3.1 L3 SC1 that appears in
the 30 June draft is both too demanding (for authors) and not helpful
enough (for the users we're aiming at), so it should go. But I don't
think the proposed wording quite works.
 
JOhn
 
 
 

"Good design is accessible design."

Dr. John M. Slatin, Director 
Accessibility Institute
University of Texas at Austin 
FAC 248C 
1 University Station G9600 
Austin, TX 78712 
ph 512-495-4288, fax 512-495-4524 
email jslatin@mail.utexas.edu 
Web  <http://www.ital.utexas.edu/>
http://www.utexas.edu/research/accessibility 

-----Original Message-----
From: w3c-wai-gl-request@w3.org [mailto:w3c-wai-gl-request@w3.org] On
Behalf Of Lisa Seeman
Sent: Tuesday, November 01, 2005 3:32 AM
To: W3c-Wai-Gl
Subject: action item: 3.1 Ls SC1 proposal


This is a proposal from Yvette Bengt and  myself with some help from
Gregg
 
change: A mechanism is available for finding definitions for all words
in text content. 

to: A mechanism is available to determine the meaning of each word or
phrase in the content

 
The difference is that the user can pinpoint the intended definition,
and not just point to a set of possible definitions. Ambiguous words are
a big problem for people with cognitive disabilities, pointing them to a
set of definitions doesn't help them and only puts more of a burden on
the author. 
 
If we do want to include a SC about finding definitions of words, it
should be about the exact definition and not a set of definitions.

Guide information

Ambiguous use of language creates problems with translation,
misunderstandings and accessibility for cognitive
disabilities.Translation to symbolic languages or simpler language for
cognitive disabilities can not be automated. 

Use of a  controlled language solves this problem but restricts author's
ability to stylize and express them-selves. Referencing textual content,
it's meaning becomes unambiguous, translatable and machine-readable
without restricting the author's use of language.

 

 


Techniques:

(Note I need to double check the techniques. I they are not edited until
the group approve the SC, In general they need more full examples - I
volunteer to do that if the SC is approved)
 
Also  -- if the group like this then I can also add more techniques on
how to use cascaded dictionaries, which speeds it up)

 

1:

The total text is based on a controlled vocabulary such as VOA's or
BLISS(for cognitively disabled) in which case that the complete text can


be marked with which dictionary it is based on.

(This is regularly done with translation services and their TM
(translation memories). 

 

2, 

CCF is a technique to access the meaning and also to access alternative 

vocabularies that may be languages or symbols sets. 

See  www. <http://www.conceptcoding.org> conceptcoding.org 

 

3

HTML

<link rel="definitions" scr="mysite.com/my-prefered-usages.html">

<link rel="definitions" scr="mysite.com/my-page-usages.html">

<link rel="definitions" scr="dictionary.com/dictionay1.html">

You can then add an inline link to any usages that change the rules.
With Css classes these links need not be rendered unless requested by
the user

4
XHTML 2.0 technique usage examples
<span role="_:Jon">He</span> has brown eyes.
 
5, XML technique usage examples
 
 Any word or phrase or even a part of a word in the content can be 

pointed to by an xpointer and a reference to the meaning or the 

dictionary where it is defined in can be given.

6,
RDF  technique usage examples

In the following examples rdf is used to provide a link a phrase or word
to a definition. This makes the text unambiguous. 


<rdf:Description rdf:about="xpointer to text"type
=ub:accessibilityAnnotation> 

< ub:lexicon >wordnet/~wn/consept#10293829</ ub:lexicon > 

</rdf:Description > 

In the following examples rdf is used to provide a link a phrase or word
to a summary and picture. This makes the text understandable.

<rdf:Description rdf:about="some xpointer to obtuse legal paragraph"
type ="ub:accessibilityAnnotation"> 

<ub:AlternativeContent > 

<ub:profile>simplified</ub:profile> 

<bag> 

"x"> <rdf:li><ub:summary value="we own you from now on"></rdf: li> 

"x"><rdf:li><ub:nonTextvalue="picture_of_ slave_in_chains.gif"></rdf:li>


"x"></bag> 

</ub:AlternativeContent > 

</rdf:Description > 


   

 

 

 


Language specific notes:

The Dutch language has two features that make it potentially more
complex than English:

 1 There are a lot of foreign (English) words and phrases. Not all of
these will be in the Dutch dictionary but you could point to both a
Dutch and English dictionary or other method to determine the meaning.
This would not be a problem for 3.1 L3 SC 1. 

2  The Dutch glue words together to form new ones (we  can create words
like 'swordmakersworkshopdoorhandle'). These words will not be in a
dictionary and their meaning cannot be programatically determined unless
you hand-code every instance. I don't think we want to require that so
that is a problem with your proposals. Their  meaning can be determined
manually using a dictionary though. You just try to look up the whole
word and if you don't find it, look for the longest bit that is in the
dictionary (swordmaker), and then look up the rest the same way. You
have to know the rules about glueing them together (adding the extra
's') but people who know Dutch know that.

Pointing to a dictionary that has the 'base' words would conform to this
SC. Even though the meaning of combined words is not programmatically
determinable, the user will have a mechanism to find out their meaning. 
 

Swedish, is similar, but any new combination that does not exist is not
valid  until listed in SAOL (Swedish Academy wordlist). Any new compound

word in Swedish is easily recognized, due to the strict rules of their
making.  A new Swedish Associative Lexicon has been made (by a
researcher) and it

resembles wordnets where the different meaning carrying part has typed
relations such as hypernyms with different weights depending on the

major/minor meaning carrying part. This is only about compound words.

In  Hebrew there are seven diactric marks that alter the vowel sound of
a character and also its meening. Hebrew sites can point to on online
decode to determine the diactric marks. In cases where the automated
guess is incorrect enough diactric marks need to be added to enable the
correct automated decoding of the word.


Examples:

This example is a CMS ( content management system) that has been
expanded with conceptcoding:

http://www.symbolnet.org/symbered-demo/stories/my_first/

click on user preference in the bottom and check any language and a
symbol set.

This only works on browsers that implements Ruby Annotations correctly
sofar in IE some info is placed in the wrong places.

Firefox works with the following plugin:

http://piro.sakura.ne.jp/xul/_rubysupport.html.en#download  enabled.

.

 

 
All the best
 
Lisa Seeman
 
www.ubaccess.com <http://www.ubaccess.com/> 
 
Received on Tuesday, 1 November 2005 17:43:04 GMT

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