Guideline 2.4 Provide mechanisms to help users find content, orient themselves within it, and navigate through it.
Level 1 Success Criteria for Guideline 2.4
features can be programmatically determined. [I]
This success criterion assumes that the fact that this has to be done in a
standard and supported fashion for the technology will be covered by the definition
of programmatically determined.
Level 2 Success Criteria for Guideline 2.4
ways to locate specific content within a set of delivery units are available.[V]
Editorial Note: "Locate" is intended to mean both finding
the content and being able to get to it. The working group would like to
receive input on whether both intended meanings are clear to the users
of the guidelines.
of material that are repeated on multiple perceivable units are implemented
so that they can be bypassed.
General Techniques might include something about satisfying this criterion through metadata, use of a future role attribute, etc.
units have descriptive titles [I]
- For each programmatic reference to another delivery
unit, a title or description of that delivery unit can be programatically
Level 3 Success Criteria for Guideline 2.4
- When a page or other delivery unit is navigated sequentially, elements receive focus in an order that follows relationships and sequences in the content. [I]
Changes and rationale
This section discusses the changes between the current working draft (November
19, 2004 version) and this proposal. Several changes are the result of
us striving to clarify the distinction between 2.4 and 1.3. In the new proposal
we focus on what's necessary to support navigation, orientation and finding
New success criteria
- Added new level 2 success criterion: "For each reference to another
delivery unit, a title or description of that delivery unit can
be programatically determined". This would apply to links (either by
using clear link text and/or using the title-attribute),
title-attributes for frames, etc. This new SC is at level 2 because it is
related to the 3.2 SC about clear link text.
Deleted success criteria
- Deleted level 3 SC 1 about reading order because that has to do with understanding
and belongs in principle 3.
- Deleted level 2 SC 1 about requiring tables of content because that's more
a technique than a criterion and is more and more a user agent issue because
if structure is marked up as required by 1.3, the user agent can allow the
user to navigate between sections.
- Deleted level 3 SC 3 about images having structure, level 3 SC 5 about
dividing text into paragraphs and level 3 SC 6 about dividing documents
into hierarchical sections and subsections because they are all techniques
for the same thing: splitting up complex content into more manageable pieces.
We propose to add advise about that to the guide, but not require it in the
guidelines because whether something is so complex it needs to be split up
is a judgement call and not testable.
- Moved level 3 SC 3 that requires delivery units to have descriptive titles
to level 2 to tie in with the requirement to give a title or description
for each programmatic reference to a delivery unit.
- Level 1 SC 1 used to be the same as 1.3: "Structures and relationships
within the content can be programmatically determined.". We found that for
2.4, we should only focus on the functional requirements necessary to facilitate
finding, orienting in and navigating through content. That's why we changed
the wording into: "Navigational features can be programatically determined".
- Level 2 SC 2 used to be "There is more than one way to locate the content
of each delivery unit, including but not limited to link groups, a site map,
site search or other navigation mechanism. " We changed this into "Multiple
ways to locate specific content within a set of delivery units are available"
because it's easier to understand. The examples will be covered in the techniques.
- Level 3 SC 3 used to read "Blocks of repeated material, such as navigation
menus and document headers, are marked up so that they can be bypassed by
people who use assistive technology or who navigate via keyboard or keyboard
interface." We changed that into "Blocks of material that are repeated on multiple
perceivable units are implemented so that they can be bypassed.". We added
'on multiple perceivable units" to make it clearer which repitition we were
talking about. We deleted the reference to keyboard operation because that's
covered by 2.1 and deleted the reference to assistive technology because
in practice skipping using assistive technology means by using a keyboard
and authors don't need to know how assistive technology works. The new wording
is shorter and easier to understand.