Re: questions about element declarations
On Mon, 23 Sep 1996 22:37:30 -0400 Eliot Kimber said:
>At 07:31 PM 9/23/96 CDT, Michael Sperberg-McQueen wrote:
>>* Should XML forbid use of the '&' connector in content models
>How much does AND complicate validation? I've seen some statements to
>the effect that it complicates it quite a bit, but I have no way to
>evaluate these claims.
>I think AND expresses a useful semantic, so I would say keep it
>unless the validation cost is too high.
These are the issues as I understand them; I hope those with better
training than mine will expand on this topic and correct my errors.
If AND is not allowed, then a validating parser can construct a
finite-state automaton for checking the input, using a very simple
method. If the content model is deterministic, the FSA will be
deterministic, and the checking can run very fast using very simple
code. (Full discussion of this process and the underlying math in some
technical reports by Anne Brueggemann-Klein, then of Freiburg, in 1991.)
If AND is allowed, there are essentially three implementation
- translate the AND group into an equivalent regular expression
- use a mechanism based on a finite-state automaton, but augmented
to handle certain simple operations when certain arcs are traversed
- use some other ad hoc technique
Translating the AND group into a regular expression is fine when the AND
group has only a few children. When there are five tokens in the group,
however, the corresponding regular expression will have 120 SEQ groups,
and 600 states; a ten-element AND group produces 3.6 million SEQ groups
and 36 million states. I doubt many implementors are willing to bet
that they'll never see a 10-element AND group.
It's possible to represent an AND group as a starred OR-group, if you
augment the FSA with simple actions, so that arcs leaving individual
items in the AND group set a bit saying their item has been visited, and
arcs leaving the AND group as a whole check to make sure that all
elements in the AND group have been visited; it gets slightly hairy when
you have star or plus operators on the AND group, but I think it's
possible -- but it's complicated enough to be significantly slower than
the simple FSA.
There are, I am sure, other ad hoc techniques people use. It's
possible, for example, to retain the parse tree for the content model
and interpret it directly as a way of handling validation; this takes
less analysis and setup while parsing the DTD, but looks to be much
slower in actual use (at least, the way I prototyped it).
Eliot is right that AND is a very concise way of specifying certain
requirements, where it applies. Since removing AND does not actually
change the expressive power of the DTD language, however, anyone who
urgently needs it can get the required effect without it.
It seems to me on the whole that removing AND makes it much simpler to
write validation code; some other people seem to agree. On the whole, I
lean toward removing it: big gain, very little loss in clarity or
flexibility, no loss at all in expressive power.
>>* Should XML allow nondeterministic content models (220.127.116.11)?
>Again, how much does this complicate validation? I'm not ambiguity
>expert, but could the problem be solved simply by stipulating that a
>token is always matched to the first place in the content model it
>can match, without lookahead?
The computer scientists should probably speak up on this one.
One reason for removing the restriction is not that it complicates
validation but that it needlessly restricts the languages that can be
defined by content models. As discussed this summer on c.t.s., the
determinism rules make it impossible to define a content model
equivalent to ((a, b)*, a?). But this regular expression is certainly
parseable without lookahead; as Arjun Ray pointed out on c.t.s., it's an
If the rules about determinism help make simpler implementations
possible, let's discuss the tradeoffs between that simplification and
the loss of expressive power they entail. But I confess that I don't
see that the restriction really simplifies implementation of a
validating parser that much -- or conversely that lifting the
restriction really makes life harder for validating parsers. I could be
wrong; it wouldn't be the first time. But I'd like to understand what
advantages are seen in the restriction.
One could also argue against lifting this restriction on the ground that
the restriction isn't hard to live with, and it's better to deviate from
8879 as little as possible. That's a fair political argument, and one
I'm amenable to. But evaluating it requires a dispassionate examination
of the technical issues first. This particular change does not, in any
case, have any effect whatever on our ability to generate, for any given
XML instance, a valid SGML prolog that will cause an SGML parser to
produce the same ESIS as an XML parser, which is, I think, the level of
compatibility that matters most.
-C. M. Sperberg-McQueen