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About whitespace in ds:SignedInfo

From: Cherian, Sanjay <Sanjay_Cherian@stercomm.com>
Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2001 10:32:54 -0600
Message-ID: <40AC2C8FB855D411AE0200D0B7458B2B04D636BD@scidalmsg01.csg.stercomm.com>
To: "'w3c-ietf-xmldsig@w3.org'" <w3c-ietf-xmldsig@w3.org>
Cc: "'galvin@eListX.com'" <galvin@eListX.com>, "'david@drummondgroup.com'" <david@drummondgroup.com>, "Damodaran, Suresh" <Suresh_Damodaran@stercomm.com>
Hi,

This could likely be a problem that has been debated a lot in the past but I
would appreciate if someone explained
(or pointed to a previous explanation on the mailing list or elsewhere) what
the current thinking is regarding this.

The ebXML Messaging Services Specification (
http://www.ebxml.org/specs/ebMS.pdf ) uses XMLDSIG to sign portions
of the ebXML message (an XML structure based on SOAP) and the ds:Signature
element is embedded into the signed
ebXML message.

The signed ebXML message is subject to modification, passing through a
sequence of intermediary SOAP and ebXML
processors before reaching the ultimate recipient, which also validates the
signature. One such modification that is difficult
to predict is change in whitespace (indentation, CRLF characters) in the
ebXML message. The ds:SignedInfo element
is itself subject to such modification (being part of the ebXML message).

A proposed modification to the ebXML Messaging Specification suggests this
XSL transform in the ds:Reference element:

    <Transform Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xslt-19991116">
      <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"
xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
        <xsl:strip-space elements='*'/>           <!-- Strip trivial
whitespace in all elements. -->
        <xsl:template match='node()|@*'>       <!-- Identity transform. -->
          <xsl:copy>
            <xsl:apply-templates select='@*'/>
            <xsl:apply-templates/>
          </xsl:copy>
        </xsl:template>
      </xsl:stylesheet>
    </Transform>

the signature has been made robust to changes in trivial whitespace in the
ebXML message but outside the embedded
ds:SignedInfo elements. However, because the ds:SignedInfo elements are not
processed by any XSL transform (but by
the algorithm specified in ds:CanonicalizationMethod, for which we are using
http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315 ), changes in trivial
whitespace in ds:SignedInfo invalidates the
signature.

To give some context on how ebXML Messaging uses XMLDSIG, I have included an
sample signature element (taken from
an ebXML example in the ebXML specification), later in this email.
 
The first guess would be that by using a 'smarter' canonicalization
algorithm for the ds:SignedInfo element, the ds:SignedInfo
element can also be made robust to changes in trivial whitespace.  Rather
than use the schema-unaware canonicalization
algorithm ( http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315 ), it would seem
that a different canonicalization algorithm
could be written which, being aware of the XMLDSIG schema, could do a better
job of eliminating trivial whitespace.

This 'smarter' CanonicalizationMethod algorithm might certainly not be smart
enough to always know whether a particular
whitespace character is significant or not. However, if such an algorithm
was created that simply removed all whitespace where
an element has textual content consisting entirely of whitespace (the kind
xsl:strip-space would remove), people that don't have
very sophisticated Transform elements (that could get mangled) would be able
to benefit from it.

In other words, a 'smarter' XMLDSIG schema-aware CanonicalizationMethod
algorithm could be published with the caveat that
changes in whitespace in descendants of ds:SignedInfo would become
irrelevant.  In situations where this might be a problem,
the earlier schema-unaware canonicalization algorithm could be used instead.

Just as an example, the stylesheet presented earlier, which is a parameter
to the ds:Transform element does not contain any
whitespace that needs to be preserved and so a CanonicalizationMethod
algorithm that removed all trivial whitespace would not
hurt us but actually benefit us a lot.

Here is a typical Signature element, as it is used by the ebXML Messaging
Specification.

		<Signature xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#">
			<SignedInfo>
				<CanonicalizationMethod
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
				<SignatureMethod
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#dsa-sha1"/>
				<Reference URI="">
					<Transforms>
						<Transform
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#enveloped-signature"/>
						<Transform
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116">
							<XPath>
not(ancestor-or-self::()[@SOAP:actor=
	
&quot;urn:oasis:names:tc:ebxml-msg:actor:nextMSH&quot;]
	
| ancestor-or-self::()[@SOAP:actor=
	
&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/actor/next&quot;])
							</XPath>
						</Transform>
						<Transform
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
					</Transforms>
					<DigestMethod
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
					<DigestValue>...</DigestValue>
				</Reference>
				<Reference URI="cid://blahblahblah/">
					<DigestMethod
Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
					<DigestValue>...</DigestValue>
				</Reference>
			</SignedInfo>
			<SignatureValue>...</SignatureValue>
			<KeyInfo>...</KeyInfo>
		</Signature>

I was just trying to convey my thoughts on this matter.  Thanks for taking
the time to read this email.

Regards,

Sanjay J. Cherian
Sterling Commerce
Irving, TX
Received on Thursday, 20 December 2001 11:33:25 GMT

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