From: Assaf Arkin <arkin@intalio.com>

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2003 08:52:21 -0800

Message-ID: <3FB8FCC5.2080107@intalio.com>

To: Greg Meredith <gregmer@microsoft.com>

Cc: Andrew Berry <andyb@whyanbeel.net>, Howard N Smith <howard.smith@ontology.org>, public-ws-chor@w3.org, W.M.P.v.d.Aalst@tm.tue.nl

Date: Mon, 17 Nov 2003 08:52:21 -0800

Message-ID: <3FB8FCC5.2080107@intalio.com>

To: Greg Meredith <gregmer@microsoft.com>

Cc: Andrew Berry <andyb@whyanbeel.net>, Howard N Smith <howard.smith@ontology.org>, public-ws-chor@w3.org, W.M.P.v.d.Aalst@tm.tue.nl

Well said. arkin Greg Meredith wrote: >Andrew, > >You raise important concerns for workflow. i completely agree with you >that a decent account of workflow must address locality/distribution and >partial state. But, i must beg to differ on your analysis of the >pi-calculus with regards to partial state. > >First, the notion of state must be identified with process in the >pi-calculus. Intuitively, a state is represented by what the process can >do based on what it "knows", i.e. what actions it is willing to engage >in, given what names are in scope. A really good example to consider is >modeling a cell where you can store a value. (See, >http://www.lfcs.informatics.ed.ac.uk/reports/91/ECS-LFCS-91-180/ECS-LFCS >-91-180.ps, page 35.) > >Consider a collection, P_i, of processes. Since each process represents >a state, then an aggregate, or partitioned state may be represented by >the parallel composition of the P_i's, P = P_0 | P_1 | ... | P_N. > >Notice that in any standard reduction rules for pi-calculus, the rule >for reduction in the parallel composition context will allow these >processes to reduce independently. Thus, > >P_0 | P_1 | ... | P_N ->* P_0 | ... | P_j' | ... | P_k' | ... | P_N. > >State change has not happened all at once for all of P. Bit's and pieces >of it have updated, but not the whole thing. You would have to introduce >a protocol, e.g., 2PCPA, amongst the participants of P to get certain >kinds of atomicity and isolation guarantees regarding the visibility of >state change. Fortunately, 2PCPA *is* a protocol and as such can be well >described in pi (see Berger and Honda's paper for a treatment of this, >ftp://ftp.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/lfp/kohei/express00.ps.gz). Therefore, the >agents providing this protocol can be composed with the agents of P to >give the overall semantics desired. > >Note that, since this introduces a coding overhead, various researchers >in the process algebra community have added primitives to the calculus >to abstract this coding. This foreshadows a more general point i want to >make that can be illustrated by considering the issue of modeling >locality/distribution. > >i completely agree that locality and distribution are notions almost >completely lacking in plain vanilla pi-calculus. Unfortunately, i think >that a terrible type/token confusion takes over in these discussions. It >should be plainly obvious that barebones, plain pi-calculus cannot be >used for serious applications like workflow without considerable >enrichment. For example, > >1. real workflow applications will describe message flows branching on >numeric computation; the pi-calculus doesn't have a useable theory of >numeric computation; and the encodings of numbers to be found-- though >quite intriguing-- would simply be too arduous with which to code; >2. real workflow applications will describe message flows with complex >message structure, e.g. messages with structure like XML documents; >neither monadic nor polyadic pi-calculus is up to this task; >3. real workflow applications require that there is not a global name >manager; plain vanilla pi-calculus requires that there *is* one; >4. real workflow applications are probably not going to require a >heavy-weight protocol to ensure-- in a distributed setting-- the >summation semantics the pi-calculus delineates. > >That said, the pi-calculus provides a *framework* in which to develop >the appropriate formalism. This framework is objectively and >demonstrably different from the other models of computation put forward. >And, it is better suited to the modeling of domains like workflow than >any other model put forward so far. i will return to this point in a >moment. > >So, as long as we recognize that the pi-calculus is really a stand in >for the class of mobile process algebras, then we are much more likely >to achieve an understanding of how the pi-calculus can genuinely help >model scenarios in the workflow domain. With respect to distribution and >locality, there are several very variations of the pi-calculus that >provide very useful accounts of these notions. For example, Vasconselos, >et al, recently developed lsd-pi which addresses distribution in a typed >setting (http://www.di.fc.ul.pt/~vv/papers/02-4.pdf). Another approach >to these problems is found in the join-calculus of Fournet >(http://www.cs.unibo.it/~laneve/papers/bisim.ps), et al. Another >approach is found in the work of Wischik, et al, on explicit fusions >(http://www.cs.unibo.it/~laneve/papers/fm-eabs-concur02.ps). > >Just as you will have to adapt the framework to provide a variant that >deals with complex message structure, you will have to adapt the >framework to provide a variant that deals with distribution. There are >several flavors. Try a few on a few problems and see which one is better >suited. If none are suited, that's wonderful, we have discovered >something! > >Now, as for the suitability of the framework to this domain, it turns >out that the mobile process algebras are the first model of computation >to simultaneously enjoy four features > >1. completeness -- i.e. Turing complete >2. compositionality -- the model is an algebra, the practical advantage >of which is that large(r) programs are built from small(er) ones >3. concurrency -- the model has an explicit account of autonomous >execution >4. cost -- the model has an explicit account of resources like time and >space > >Turing machines, for example, fail on features 2 and 3. >Lambda calculus fails on 3 and 4. >Petri nets fail on 2. >CCS, CSP fail on 4. > >And, of course, each one of these also has the very same issue in that >they are abstractions, frameworks, not ready-made models, and will have >to be adapted to fit the domain. For example, it would be much too >onerous to use Church numerals (ala lambda calculus) to do the >arithmetic calculations on which to make workflow decisions. > >Noting that the pre-mobile process algebras only lack a notion of cost, >it is most instructive to see how the introduction of mobility >simultaneously provides many important features of both practical and >theoretical import. For example, an account of space consumption of a >program is available in pi (and its variants): count the fresh names >generated by a computation. It is also quite necessary as a practical >feature in workflow. Consider the following scenario. > >Consumer goes to a well known port of Provider (www.amazon.com) and >emits a message containing a port (consumer@msn.com) at which she would >like to be contacted for further interaction. Provider processes >consumers message, contacts Shipper and emits a messages to Consumer >with, among other things, the port (www.ups.com/tracking) where Consumer >may see the status of her purchase. > >It is very difficult to model this without mobility. But, this scenario >is all over the place in workflow. It is especially prevalent in >situations involving a broker-- which is one of the most dominant >patterns to be found in the domain. > >In my brief experience with the domain i have found that the four >features outlined above constitute a bare minimum of requirements of the >computational model necessary to model workflow without imposing undue >labor on the part of the modeler. The mobile process algebras are >objectively, the first models of computation to enjoy these properties >simultaneously. > >Very likely, now that we have examples of models that enjoy these >properties together we will come up with new and better ones. But, the >only way i know how to do that is to go about the job of modeling real >application scenarios with the best technology available and seeing >where the technology falls short, and then, seeing what it takes (from >minor tweak to paradigm shift) to account for what's actually happening >or needs to happen in the application. > >Best wishes, > >L.G. Meredith > >P.S. There is a coda to this discussion regarding the difference between >modeling workflow and providing *public descriptions* of a flow. A model >may be quite detailed and provide information about implementation and >strategy that a business is not interested in revealing to its customers >or competitors. A public description has one primary function -- to >facilitate search and discovery. Given this distinction, the language in >which public descriptions are expressed should *not* be complete. > >Fortunately, in this connection, the mobile process algebras present >another distinguishing characteristic. Over the past decade, a notion of >behavioral typing has emerged and been effected in the mobile process >algebra setting. The languages for these types have exactly the right >properties to be used as the basis for public descriptions of processes. >See my recent paper in the ACM for a more detailed discussion of these >points. >(http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=944217.944236&coll=portal&dl=ACM& >idx=J79&part=magazine&WantType=Magazines&title=CACM) > >-----Original Message----- >From: public-ws-chor-request@w3.org >[mailto:public-ws-chor-request@w3.org] On Behalf Of Andrew Berry >Sent: Monday, November 17, 2003 2:57 AM >To: Howard N Smith >Cc: public-ws-chor@w3.org; W.M.P.v.d.Aalst@tm.tue.nl >Subject: Re: New Paper available for PDF download: Workflow is just a Pi >process (or WFM is not BPM) > > >Howard, > >You have a fundamental problem with the choice of Pi Calculus: there is >no concept of locality or partial state. In choreography and web >services in general, you can guarantee that participants (processes) >are physically distributed and need to make choices based on a partial >view of state. To successfully model, program and reason about these >processes, you need to be able to identify and reason about partial >states. > >Consider your deferred choice semantics. If the processes identified >as choices are physically distributed, you *cannot* make a choice >without synchronisation of processes because distinct choices can be >made in a truly concurrent fashion. Pi Calculus has no way of >identifying this issue, let alone reasoning about it. Explicit >synchronisation processes, while solving the problem for a given >process, require that the programmer reason about distribution and >locality outside the bounds of the Pi Calculus semantics. I would >therefore argue that a worflow and in particular a choreography is not >a Pi Process. > >Ciao, > >AndyB > > >On Wednesday, November 12, 2003, at 03:00 AM, Howard N Smith wrote: > > > >>Choreography pioneers, >> >>Following a short conversation with Steve R-T, he agreed for me to >>send you this paper. >>It is intended as a draft for discussion. >> >>The paper is new information. It shows how, based on BPML, it is >>possible to model all >>of the advanced workflow patterns identified by workflow theorists, >>whereas most workflow >>engines only support approx 50% of patterns directly and very few of >>the advanced patterns. >>In addition, it gives insights into the BPML implementation inherent >>to a BPMS, and how a >>BPMS is able to support many process models not supported by workflow >>technology. >>Screenshots from Intalio|n3 BPMS are given as examples. Further, the >>workflow engine itself can >>be modelled in BPML, as reusable processes for use in end-to-end >>processes. The paper was >>written to more fully explain the work of BPMI.org and its direction >>in creating BPMS foundation >>technologies. >> >>Peter Fingar and I have taken great care with this paper, and do hope >>it adds to the >>understanding of BPML/BPMI/BPMS direction. While the paper cannot >>present proof of >>these claims, you can consider it a report on the work so far. >> >>The paper can be downloaded from: >> >>http://www.bpm3.com/picalculus/workflow-is-just-a-pi-process.pdf >> >>Regards, >> >>Howard >> >> >>--- >> >>New Book - Business Process Management: The Third Wave >>www.bpm3.com >> >>Howard Smith/CSC/BPMI.org >>cell +44 7711 594 494 (worldwide) >>home office +44 20 8660 1963 >> >> >>Received on Monday, 17 November 2003 12:03:19 GMT

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