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Re: CORS security hole

From: Adam Barth <w3c@adambarth.com>
Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2012 08:56:10 -0700
Message-ID: <CAJE5ia_rOS2TkFUqQ6Ky+jnpQFEf=Oktq7K1nOdEeZY4=9Y2uQ@mail.gmail.com>
To: Henry Story <henry.story@bblfish.net>
Cc: public-webapps <public-webapps@w3.org>
I'm not sure I fully understand the issue you're worried about, but if I
understand it correctly, you've installed an HTTP proxy that forcibly adds
CORS headers to every response.  Such a proxy will indeed lead to security
problems.  You and I can debate whether the blame for those security
problem lies with the proxy or with CORS, but I think reasonable people
would agree that forcibly injecting a security policy into the responses of
other servers without their consent is a bad practice.

Adam


On Mon, Jul 16, 2012 at 8:13 AM, Henry Story <henry.story@bblfish.net>wrote:

> Hi,
>
>    Two things came together to make me notice the problem I want to
> discuss here:
>
>    1. On the read-write-web and WebID community groups we were discussion
> the possibility of delegated authorisation with WebID [1]
>    2. I was building a CORS proxy for linked data javascript agents (see
> the forwarded message )
>
> Doing this I ended up seeing some very strong parallels between CORS and
> WebID delegation. One could
> say that they are nearly the same protocol except that WebID delegation
> uses a WebID URL to identify an agent, rather than the CORS Origina
> protocol:hostname:port service id. The use case for WebID authorisation
> delegation is also different.
>
>   Having worked out the parallel I was able to start looking into the
> security reasoning between CORS. And this is where I found a huge security
> hole ( I think ). Essentially if you allow authenticated CORS requests,
> then any javascript agent can use a doggy CORS proxy, and use that to fool
> any browser into thinking the server was aware that it was not the user
> directly it was communicating with but the javascript agent.
>
>   This is possible because CORS authenticated delegation with cookies is
> hugely insecure. CORS authenticated delegation over TLS would not suffer
> from this problem, as the proxy could not pass itself off as the browser
> user.
>
>    Another reason to use TLS, another reason to use WebID.
>
>         Henry
>
>
> [1] http://www.w3.org/wiki/WebID/Authorization_Delegation using
> http://webid.info/
>
> Begin forwarded message:
> > From: Henry Story <henry.story@bblfish.net>
> > Subject: Re: CORS Proxy
> > Date: 7 July 2012 08:37:24 CEST
> > To: Read-Write-Web <public-rww@w3.org>
> > Cc: WebID <public-webid@w3.org>, Joe Presbrey <presbrey@gmail.com>,
> Mike Jones <mike.jones@manchester.ac.uk>, Romain BLIN <
> romain.blin@etu.univ-st-etienne.fr>, Julien Subercaze <
> julien.subercaze@univ-st-etienne.fr>
> >
> >
> > On 7 Jul 2012, at 07:35, Henry Story wrote:
> >
> >>
> >> On 6 Jul 2012, at 23:10, Henry Story wrote:
> >>
> >>> Hi,
> >>>
> >>> I just quickly put together a CORS Proxy [1], inspired by Joe
> Presbrey's data.fm CORS proxy [2].
> >>>
> >>> But first, what is a CORS proxy?
> >>> --------------------------------
> >>>
> >>> A CORS [3] proxy is needed in order to allow read-write-web pages
> containing javascript agents written with libraries such as rdflib [5] to
> fetch remote resources. Pages containing such javascript agents are able to
> fetch and parse RDF on the web, and thus crawl the web by following their
> robotic nose. A CORS Proxy is needed here because:
> >>>
> >>> 1- browsers restrict which sites javascript agents can fetch data from
> to those from which the javascript came from - the famous "same origin
> policy" ( javascript can only fetch resources from the same site it
> originated from)
> >>> 2- CORS allows an exception to the above restriction, if the resource
> has the proper headers. For a GET request this is the
> Access-Control-Allow-Origin header
> >>> 3- most RDF resources on the web are not served with such headers
> >>>
> >>> Hence javascript agents running inside web browsers that need to crawl
> the web, need a CORS proxy, so that libraries such as rdflib can go forward
> and make those requests through the proxy. In short: a CORS proxy is a
> service that can forward the request to the appropriate server and on
> receiving the answer add the correct headers, if none were found.
> >>>
> >>> Security
> >>> --------
> >>>
> >>> So is there a security problem having a CORS proxy make a GET request
> for some information on behalf of JS Agent? This is an important question,
> because otherwise we'd be introducing a security hole with such a proxy.
> >>>
> >>> In order to answer that question we need to explain why browsers have
> the same origin restriction.
> >>>
> >>> The answer is quite simple I think. A Javascript agent running in a
> browser is using the credentials of the user when it makes requests for
> resources on the web. One can therefore think of the browser as acting as a
> secretary for the javascript agent: the JS agent makes a request, but does
> not log in to a web site, but instead asks the browser to fetch the
> information. The browser uses its authentication credentials - the user of
> the browser's credentials to be precise - to connect to remote sites and
> request resources. The remote site may be perfectly fine with the browser
> user/owner having access to the resource, but not like the idea of the
> agent in the browser doing so. (after all that could be some JS on some
> random site the user came across) In order to avoid this danger, the
> browser sends along with its requests an Origin: header and the URL of the
> host where the javascript was found. The service receiving such a request
> must respond with an Access-Control-Allow-Origin header to make clear that
> it is ok with the JS Agent receiving this information.
> >>> IF the browser finds out that the web site allows the JS Agent to
> receive the information too, then it will pass the information on to it.
> >>>
> >>> This is a bit like what we discussed about a secretary agent on a web
> site requesting a resource On-Behalf-Of a user in our WebID delegation [5]
> . Here the Browser is the secretary, and the JS agent is the user being
> acted on behalf of. The difference is that the Secretary/Browser in this
> case is well known, and the JS Agent is the unknown; or put another way in
> the CORS case the server's authorisation policies were geared towards
> giving the browser owner access and not for the JS it is acting on behalf
> of, whereas in our delegation use case we were imagining the remote
> resource not being initially authorised directly to the secretary, but
> rather for the agent she was acting on behalf of. (small shift in focus)
> >>>
> >>> Anonymous Proxy
> >>>
> >>> So now it should be clear why using the proxy is not creating a new
> security issue. This is because the Proxy is not the Browser and so has NOT
> authenticated as the user when it is making a request. The Proxy is making
> an anonymous request to a remote resource. This remote resource is
> therefore public. As such it is fine to allow any JS agent to read it. This
> is particularly true of GET requests. But it should even be true of POST,
> PUT and DELETE requests. If those are public and allow anonymous usage,
> then it should be possible for a CORS proxy to do that on behalf of a
> javascript. It is quite possible that the CORS proxy might want to
> authenticate the user in order to not become a vector for denial of service
> attacks, and it could even give users a history of requests it made. Unless
> perhaps some people are placing identification cookies in URLs! (But one
> could argue that's their problem?!)
> >>
> >> Ah, there is an issue here I just realised. Currently my proxy is
> passing along all the headers sent to
> >> it by the client.  Well all minus the "Accept" headers, because my
> Proxy only understands a subset of RDF
> >> serialisations. ( And the proxy has to interpret the rdf in the
> serialisation in order to transform relative
> >> URIs into full URIs.  The proxy we are building is not a real HTTP
> Proxy, because those would require a browser to be set up correctly and
> doing that would probably not be possible on a case by case basis )
> >>
> >>
> >>   case CORSFetch(url, headers) => {
> >>     val hdrs = for (key <- (headers - "Accept").keys;
> >>                    value <- (headers(key))) yield (key,value)
> >>     val promiseIteratee: Promise[Iteratee[Array[Byte],
> Either[CORSException, CORSResponse[Rdf]]]] =
> >>       WS.url(url.toExternalForm).
> >>         withHeaders(hdrs.toSeq:_*).
> >>         withHeaders("Accept" ->
> "application/rdf+xml,text/turtle,application/xhtml+xml;q=0.8,text/html;q=0.7,text/n3;q=0.2").
> >>         get {
> >>         response: ResponseHeaders =>
> >>                ....
> >>
> >> So here all the headers - "Accept" are passed along. But that means
> cookies are passed along too!
> >> And if cookies are passed along, then the user's identifications are
> passed along, and that would be
> >> problematic, for the reasons given above.
> >>
> >>  Luckily as explained by this CORS article
> >>
> https://developer.mozilla.org/en/http_access_control#Requests_with_credentials
> >>
> >>  unless the javascript makes the XMLHttpRequest with the
> withCredentials property set to true, cookies are not sent. Also - even
> then - unless the server in its response places the header
> >>
> >>       Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true
> >>
> >>  in the header the browser will not pass the credentials on to the
> javascript (and it also has to be explicitly about which origin it allows)
> >>
> >>  But this raises another issue: it would be extremely easy for me to
> change my proxy to add those headers to the response. If so this means that
> any evil script, can communicate with such a slightly enhanced proxy that
> does the transformation described. And so CORS is protecting nothing
> seriously here.
> >
> > An evil proxy could also - come to think of it - change the headers for
> the Origin of the request to one that any bank would feel comfortable with,
> so that with this system in place a service that would allow access to some
> Origin, would allow access to all of them (via evil proxies).
> >
> > Interestingly enough, this attack does not work with WebID over TLS
> authentication. The Proxy cannot know the browser's private key, and so
> cannot authenticate to the remote service other than by using its own
> certificate and WebID. Identity here is not passed by a spoofable cookie,
> but as a cryptographically verified TLS session.
> >
> > In a secure WebID world one may still want the proxy to act on behalf of
> the browser owner. This could be done if the Proxy specified that it was
> acting on behalf of the user of the browser using WebID Authorization
> Delegation [5]. This would be something that the resource serving service
> could both verify and evaluate.
> >
> >
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>>
> >>> Authenticated Proxies
> >>>
> >>> Now let us assume we have CORS proxies that can also authenticate with
> WebID. If they did so, then they would have to follow the same rules as the
> Browser: they should not pass on the information unless the server had
> allowed them to by setting the correct Access-Control-Allow-Origin headers,
> and allowing the javascript access, since the information they were given
> was not meant for this other JS agent.
> >>>
> >>> But things could get a little more advanced yet: Imagine that the
> proxy authenticated itself on behalf of the user who made the request. The
> server serving the resource could then verify that the proxy was allowed to
> do act on behalf of the user using the procedure outlined in WebID
> delegation [5]. Then we would have to deal with WebID delegation plus CORS
> delegation. The server would know that the proxy was acting on behalf of
> the user, and that the user was acting on behalf of the JS Agent... This
> may be the use case we had trouble putting our finger on at this weeks
> WebID teleconf...
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> Improving CORS with LinkedData
> >>> ------------------------------
> >>>
> >>> Here is an idea to improve CORS: In WebID delegation we found a way to
> let the server know what relation the secretary had to the agent she acted
> on behalf of. That Agent she was acting on behalf of could add a
> >>>
> >>> :me cert:secretaty myprofile:secr .
> >>>
> >>> relation to his profile. This would help the server know what relation
> the secretary had to the agent she claimed to be working for.
> >>>
> >>> With CORS this relationship is nowhere made explicit (as far as I can
> see): there is no way for me to tell a web site that the javascript I am
> using ( and that is hosted on my freedom box) is something I would like the
> server I am connecting to trust, as opposed to some javascript that just
> started executing itself on some server I came across. This makes me thing
> that
> >>> 1. it would be useful if JS could be signed so as to have a better
> identity than just the identity of a whole site
> >>> 2. we could create a relation such as the cert:secretary one that
> would allow me in my profile to say for example
> >>>
> >>> :me cert:trustedJS <https://bblfish.net> .
> >>>
> >>> IT's really much to vague, but it would make it easier for people to
> trust my JS.
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> OTHER TODOS
> >>> -----------
> >>>
> >>> There are really quite a lot of details questions left open for CORS
> proxies. Should a CORS proxy return a 203? When? Who should it deal with
> error messages? .... I think we should organise those on a wiki page, and
> keep the discussion alive. My code at present was put together really
> quickly, but it made me ask a lot of questions whilst writing it.
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>     Henry
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> [1] the code is here
> https://github.com/bblfish/Play20/blob/webid/framework/src/webid/src/main/scala/org/w3/readwriteweb/play/CORSProxy.scala
> >>> But I have not placed it online yet.
> >>> [2] Joe's proxy is online and available by sending GET requests here:
> http://data.fm/proxy?uri={uri}
> >>>  and the code is somewhere here: https://github.com/linkeddata/data.fm
> >>> [3] http://www.w3.org/TR/cors/
> >>> [4] https://github.com/linkeddata/rdflib.js
> >>> [5] http://www.w3.org/wiki/WebID/Delegation
> >>>
> >>> Social Web Architect
> >>> http://bblfish.net/
> >>>
> >>
> >> Social Web Architect
> >> http://bblfish.net/
> >>
> >
> > Social Web Architect
> > http://bblfish.net/
> >
>
> Social Web Architect
> http://bblfish.net/
>
>
>
Received on Monday, 16 July 2012 15:57:18 GMT

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