This document defines the format of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) as defined in [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.), for designating connections and destination addresses used in the Java(tm) Messaging Service (JMS) [REF‑JMS] (Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K. Stout, “Java Message Service (JMS),” April 2002.). It was originally designed for particular uses, but applies generally wherever a JMS URI is needed to describe the connection to a JMS provider, and access to a JMS destination. The syntax of this 'jms' URI is not compatible with any known current vendor implementation, but the expressivity of the format should permit all vendors to use it.
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1.1. Requirements notation
2. URI Scheme Name
3. Syntax of a jms URI
4. URI scheme semantics
4.1. Shared Parameters
4.2. JNDI Variant
4.3. Vendor Destination Names - Variants "queue" And "topic"
4.4. Custom parameters
5. Encoding considerations
6. Applications/protocols that use the JMS URI scheme name
7. Interoperability considerations
8. Security Considerations
8.1. Reliability and Consistency
8.2. Malicious Construction
8.3. Back-end Transcoding
8.4. Semantic Attacks
8.5. Other Security Concerns
9. IANA Considerations
9.1. URI Scheme Registration
9.2. JMS URI Scheme Registries
12.1. Normative References
12.2. Informative References
§ Authors' Addresses
The "jms" URI scheme is used to designate a javax.jms.Destination object and an associated javax.jms.ConnectionFactory object, and optionally provide additional information concerning the way that the Destination object is to be used. Probably the most common, and certainly the most compatible way in Java to retrieve such destinations, is via Java Naming and Directory Information (JNDI) [REF‑JNDI] (Sun Microsystems, Inc., “Java Naming and Directory Interface Application Programming Interface,” July 1999.) methods. So as to extend compatibility to existing vendor mechanisms beyond JNDI lookup, the "jms" URI syntax allows variants on the core syntax. The variant exists as an explicit part of the syntax so that tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with the variant can recognize the presence of a URI with an alternate interpretation.
In its simplest and most interoperable form, this URI scheme starts with "jms:jndi:" plus a JNDI name for a Destination. Since interaction with some resources might require JNDI contextual information or JMS header fields and properties to be specified as well, the "jndi" variant of the "jms" URI scheme includes support for supplying this additional JNDI information as query parameters.
While the "jndi" variant provides compatibility, vendors can define additional variants. This specification defines three variants, "jndi", "queue", and "topic".
While the "jms" URI scheme allows the location of network resources, it does not map to a single underlying protocol, unlike most other URI schemes that do so. Instead, it achieves interoperability through use of a common Java API for messaging. Because of this, interoperability is dependent upon the implementation of the API and its capabilities; two implementations of JMS may or may not interoperate in practice. Furthermore, it may be impractical to use "jms" URIs in non-Java environments.
As a consequence of building upon an API, rather than a protocol, the utility of a "jms" URI depends on the context in which it is used. That context includes agreement on the same JMS provider or underlying protocol, agreement on how to look up endpoints (JNDI), and when using serialized Java object messages, sufficiently similar Java Class environments that serialized objects can be appropriately read and written. Users of this scheme need to establish the necessary shared context parts as just enumerated - a context which can span the globe, or merely a small local network. With that shared context, this URI scheme enables endpoint identification in a uniform way, and the means to connect to those endpoints.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] (Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” March 1997.).
All syntax descriptions use the ABNF specified by [RFC5234] (Crocker, D. and P. Overell, “Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF,” January 2008.), Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF.
The name of the URI scheme is 'jms'.
The following ABNF describes the jms scheme URI syntax:
jms-uri = "jms:" jms-variant ":" jms-dest [ "?" param *( "&" param ) ] jms-variant = segment-nz-nc jms-dest = segment-nz ; specific meaning per variant param = param-name "=" param-value param-name = 1*(unreserved / pct-encoded) param-value = *(unreserved / pct-encoded) segment-nz-nc = <as defined in RFC 3986> path-rootless = <as defined in RFC 3986> unreserved = <as defined in RFC 3986> pct-encoded = <as defined in RFC 3986>
The URIs are percent-encoded UTF-8 [RFC3629] (Yergeau, F., “UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646,” November 2003.). Please see Section 5 (Encoding considerations) for encoding considerations.
JMS URI schemes are used to locate JMS [REF‑JMS] (Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K. Stout, “Java Message Service (JMS),” April 2002.) Destination resources and do not specify actions to be taken on those resources. Operations available on JMS destinations are fully and normatively defined by the JMS specification and as such, are out of scope for this URI specification.
The required particles in the JMS URI are the scheme name ("jms"), the variant identifier, and the <jms-dest> portions. The three recognized variants (<jms-variant> above) are "jndi", "queue", and "topic". The <jms-dest> portion identifies the JMS destination object in a way that is determined by the particular variant. Both the variant, and the jms-dest portions of the URI are case-sensitive.
Parameters further refine how to locate and use the Destination. The parameter names and values are case-sensitive. They can occur in any order, and each parameter name SHOULD NOT appear more than once. In the event that a parameter appears multiple times, all but the last instance of the parameter MUST be ignored. For comparison purposes, the absence of a parameter does not mean the same thing as a URI with a parameter set to a default value, due to the potential variation in default values as determined by the context of a specific use.
Each variant can have query parameters specific to that variation. All such variant-specific parameters SHOULD use the name of the variant as the prefix to the parameters. Parameters that apply across multiple variants, perhaps because they are generally applicable, such as JMS settings, MUST NOT have a name that starts with the name of any known variant. This pattern enables tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with a particular variant to distinguish those parameters that are specific to a variant from those that are more generally applicable.
Examples of the URI scheme include:
jms:jndi:SomeJndiNameForDestination?jndiInitialContextFactory= com.example.jndi.JndiFactory&priority=3 jms:queue:ExampleQueueName?timeToLive=1000
In addition to the required particles, the jms URI scheme supports the following shared parameters For the parameters deliveryMode, timeToLive, and priority, the default values might be specified in the context of a specific use, for example by environment variables, or in the configuration of a particular network application. JMS also defines default values for these properties. The context default is hereby defined as the default value in the context of a specific use, or the JMS default for a particular property if the context does not define a default.
Indicates whether the request message is persistent or not. This property corresponds to the JMS message header field "JMSDeliveryMode" defined in section 3.4.2. of the JMS 1.1 specification. This MUST be "PERSISTENT" or "NON_PERSISTENT". If this parameter is not specified then the context default MUST be used
The lifetime, in milliseconds, of the request message. This property corresponds to the JMS Time-To-Live value defined in section 4.8 of the JMS 1.1 specification. If this parameter is not specified then the context default MUST be used.
The JMS priority associated with the request message. As per section 3.4.10 of the JMS 1.1 specification this MUST be a number between 0 and 9, inclusive, and corresponds to the JMS message header field "JMSPriority". If this parameter is not specified then the context default MUST be used.
This property corresponds to the JMS message header field "JMSReplyTo" defined in section 3.4.6 of the JMS 1.1 specification. As interpreted by the particular variant, this property value specifies the JMS destination object to which a response message ought to be sent.
The "jndi" variant implies the use of JNDI for discovering the Destination object. When this is specified as the variant, the <jms-dest> portion of the syntax is the name for JNDI lookup purposes. Additional JNDI specific parameters can be specified. The JNDI specific parameters SHOULD only be processed when the URI variant is "jndi".
Specifies the JNDI name of the Java class providing the connection factory.
Specifies the fully qualified Java class name of the "InitialContextFactory" implementation class to use.
Specifies the JNDI provider URL, in a form consistent with javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getURLContext(String scheme, Hashtable environment) as defined in the JNDI specification.
It is possible that connecting to a JNDI provider requires additional parameters. These parameters can be passed in as custom parameters (see Section 4.4). To identify a custom parameter as JNDI specific, the parameter name needs to start with the prefix "jndi-".
For example, if the JNDI provider requires a parameter named com.example.jndi.someParameter, you can supply the parameter in the URI as: jndi-com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue
To perform a look-up based on a JNDI variant URI an application needs to create a JNDI InitialContext object. The InitialContext object can then be used to look up the JMS ConnectionFactory object (using the "jndiConnectionFactoryName" URI parameter); the target JMS Destination object (using the <jms-dest> portion of the JMS URI); and the "replyToName" JMS Destination object (if the "replyToName" parameter is specified on the URI).
The application creates the InitialContext object by first setting up two properties: "Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY", with the value of the jndiInitialContextFactory JMS URI parameter; and "Context.PROVIDER_URL", with the value of the jndiURL URI parameter, and then passing the two properties to the InitialContext constructor.
To locate a connection factory or destination object, the application passes the name of the object into the InitialContext.lookup() method.
For example, the JMS URI...
jms:jndi:REQ_QUEUE?jndiURL=file:/C:/JMSAdmin &jndiInitialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory &jndiConnectionFactoryName=CONNFACT &replyToName=RESP_QUEUE
...would be used by the following (non-normative) code sample to locate and retrieve a JMS ConnectionFactory called "CONNFACT", and JMS Destinations called "REQ_QUEUE" and "RESP_QUEUE", from a file system JNDI context called "c:/JMSAdmin".
/* * Preconditions on URI: * - portion <jms-dest> has been parsed into variable "jms_dest" * - parameters "jndiConnectionFactoryName", * "jndiInitialContextFactory", "replyToName" and "jndiURL" have * been parsed into variables of the same name */ Hashtable environment = new Hashtable(); environment.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, jndiInitialContextFactory); environment.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, jndiURL); /* * Create File System Initial Context */ Context ctx = new InitialContext(environment); /* * Now get the JMS ConnectionFactory and Destination. These will be * used later on in the application to create the JMS Connection and * send / receive messages */ ConnectionFactory jmsConnFact = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.lookup(jndiConnectionFactoryName); Destination requestDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(jms_dest); Destination replyDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(replyToName);
The ConnectionFactory is used to create a Connection, which itself is used to create a Session. The session can then be used to create the MessageProducer - which sends messages to the target destination, and the MessageConsumer which receives messages from the replyToName destination (as shown in the following code extract)
/* * Create a producer to send a message to the request destination * that was specified in the URI, then create the message, setting * the replyToName destination in the message to the one specified * in the URI, and send it. */ MessageProducer producer = sess.createProducer(requestDest); BytesMessage reqMsg = sess.createBytesMessage(); reqMsg.setJMSReplyTo(replyDest); producer.send(reqMsg); /* * Create a consumer to get a message from the replyToName * destination using a selector to get the specific response to this * request. The responder sets the correlation ID of the response * to the message ID of the request message */ MessageConsumer consumer = sess.createConsumer(replyDest, "JMSCorrelationID = '" + reqMsg.getJMSMessageID() + "'"); Message respMsg = (Message) consumer.receive(300000);
Any parameters with a prefix of "jndi-" MUST be used to set custom properties when establishing a connection to the JNDI provider. The name of the custom property is derived by removing the "jndi-" prefix from the URI parameter name, and the value of the property is the value of the parameter.
For example, the JMS URI...
jms:jndi:REQ_QUEUE?jndiURL=file:/C:/JMSAdmin &jndiInitialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory &jndiConnectionFactoryName=CONNFACT &jndi-com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue
...instructs the consumer to use the following properties to connect to the JNDI provider:
java.naming.provider.url=file:/C:/JMSAdmin java.naming.factory.initial= com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue
The JMS Session object provides a means to directly access queues and topics. Specifically, it has the methods Session.createQueue(String name), and Session.createTopic(String name). These methods can be used to "create" the Java representation of an existing JMS Topic or Queue.
Since the Session interface requires external knowledge about whether a given name relates to a queue or topic, rather than introducing one new variant, this section defines two variants. A JMS URI can indicate which of these methods to use by specifying the appropriate variant - either "queue" or "topic". For example:
to identify a JMS queue Destination, and
to identify a JMS topic Destination.
JMS only specifies one way to obtain the names used by these APIs. With a JMS Queue or Topic available, an implementation can call Queue.getQueueName(), or Topic.getTopicName(), respectively, both of which return a String object. To create a correct corresponding URI, the resulting string MUST use standard URI escape mechanisms so that the resulting characters conform to the production <jms-dest>.
When used with the "queue" and "topic" variants, the replyToName parameter, specified in section 4.1.4, always refers to a name of a JMS queue to look up via the Session.createQueue() method. For either variant, if a JMS topic is instead required as a response destination, a JMS URI can employ the "topicReplyToName" parameter. This parameter defines a name to look up with the Session.createTopic() method.
A JMS URI MUST NOT specify both a "topicReplyToName" and a "replyToName" parameter.
Using the Session.createQueue(), and Session.createTopic() methods assumes that a client program has already obtained a Session object. Where does that Session object come from - how does a client get it? One way to get a Session is simply to access vendor specific APIs.
Another way to get a Session object is to simply revert to using JNDI. That is, if a Session is not available to the client from some other context, the "queue" and "topic" variants MAY reuse the URL parameters specified in section 4.2.1, JNDI Parameters. Via JNDI, those parameters will identify a ConnectionFactory, which can then be used to obtain a Session object.
Combining the "queue" and "topic" variants with JNDI lookup for an implementation of ConnectionFactory raises an important consideration for JMS URI clients. Once clients employ JNDI for one part of discovering a Destination, they almost certainly could use a vendor-neutral JNDI lookup for a Destination object itself, rather than using vendor-specific means. As a result, clients need to carefully consider whether it makes sense to use JNDI for one part of this problem, without using it for the other.
The JMS specification clearly identifies the two methods on the Session interface as returning vendor specific names for destinations. Consequently, users of the JMS URI scheme ought to carefully consider when these two variants might be employed. If users plan switching between JMS vendors, they might also need to plan on regenerating resources that contain URIs in this vendor specific form.
A JMS vendor can provide alternate ways to obtain the names that can be passed to Session.createQueue(), and Session.createTopic(). When using names derived from those alternate means, users of this URI specification are encouraged to verify that the obtained names work as expected in all circumstances.
The set of parameters is extensible. Any other vendor- or application-defined parameter can be supplied, in the URI, by passing it as <param-name>=<param-value> just like the set of well-known parameters.
Warning: Vendors and applications MUST NOT include sensitive information (such as authorization tokens) in a URI. Other means of authorization, authentication, and identification ought to be used. Also see the security discussion below about properties that might be duplicated as JMS message properties.
The jms URI scheme distinguishes between <unreserved> characters and <pct-encoded> characters, as defined in [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.). Apart from these encoding considerations, the characters '?' and '&' MUST be encoded when they appear within the <jms-dest> particle (for example, a JNDI name) or in query parameters. The character ':' SHOULD be escaped, when appearing in the <jms-dest> portion of the syntax.
Conversions to and from IRIs follow the rules of RFC 3987, sections 3.1 and 3.2. As per sections 1.2c and 6.4 of [RFC3987] (Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, “Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs),” January 2005.), all parts of the jms URI MUST use the UTF-8 encoding when converting to and from IRI format.
A variety of vendors provide implementations of the JMS Service Provider Interface. These products interoperate at the API level, in the Java programming language.
Some vendors have provided additional products which interoperate with their own SPI implementations. These extensions might also be able to make use of this URI scheme.
The vendors working on this URI scheme are also working on a specification for carrying SOAP messages over their respective implementations of JMS [REF‑SOAPJMS] (Daniels, G., Easton, P., Frank, T., Johnson, E., Lewis, A., Merrick, R., Phillips, M., and D. Xiao, “SOAP over JMS,” October 2007.). In addition, the Service Component Architecture Bindings TC at OASIS will employ the jms URI scheme to identify JMS Destinations in appropriate circumstances.
This jms URI scheme focuses on identifying a JMS Destination object, and some characteristics of communication using that Destination, and specifically excludes any notion of describing how JMS itself is implemented and how it delivers messages. As a consequence of this focus, interoperability concerns are limited to how implementations obtain and use a Destination object.
This scheme definition describes three variants for obtaining a Destination. These variants achieve their aims with the use of JNDI and JMS APIs, with no new APIs or protocols defined here. As a consequence, interoperability concerns might arise as a result of implementations that do not conform to the specifications for those APIs. Further, the use of Java, and JNDI in particular, means that the configuration of the execution environment, and the use of Java ClassLoaders can affect the interpretation of any given URI. Consumers of these URIs are urged to consider the scope and consistency of the environment across which these URIs will be shared.
As described in Section 4 (URI scheme semantics), others can define additional variants, which provide the means to describe how to look up JMS Destination objects in a manner specific to some environment. For any new variant, the shared parameters defined in Section 4.1 (Shared Parameters) MUST have the same meaning in that variant as they do here. That way, tools and people can safely copy these parameters between environments. Note that while additional variants might seem more flexible, employing variants not defined here might make it more difficult to switch to an alternate JMS provider.
Section 7 of [RFC3986] (Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” January 2005.) identifies some of the security concerns that ought to be addressed by this specification.
This specification identifies only the variant (<jms-variant>) and variant specific details (<jms-dest>) as an essential part of the URI. For reliability and consistency purposes, these are the only part that can reasonably be expected to be stable. Other optional JMS configuration and message properties, indicated as URI parameters, like the "timeToLive", can reasonably be determined by the sender of a message, without affecting the recipient. Insofar as a recipient might wish to dictate certain parameters, such as the "jndiConnectionFactoryName", those parameters can be specified.
A malicious consumer of a service using a JMS URI could send, as part of a JMS message, a URI with a parameter such as "timeToLive" with a value specified in the URI that differs from the corresponding JMS message property ("JMSExpiration" header field, in this example). In the case of such messages with such URIs, recipients are strongly cautioned to avoid applying processing logic based on particular URI parameters. Discrepancies in the message could be used to exploit differences in behavior between the selectors that a JMS-based application might use to affect which messages it sees, and the processing of the rest of the application. As defined in this document, the parameters of concern include:
Message senders are strongly urged to remove from the URI extra parameters like the above in environments where the data will be redundant with information specified elsewhere in the JMS message.
Any use of additional parameters, either as a part of a definition of a new variant, or for more general use, SHOULD also specify whether those parameters ought to be removed by a sender as specified here. If a recipient is aware of the jms URI scheme, and it receives a message containing a JMS URI, it MUST ignore or discard parameters that it does not recognize.
A third party could intercept and replace a URI containing any of the JMS/JNDI configuration parameters, such as "jndiConnectionFactoryName", "jndiInitialContextFactory", "jndiURL". As these parameters can affect how an implementation establishes an initial connection, such parameters could be used as a means to subvert communications. This could possibly result in re-routing communications to third-parties, who could then monitor sent messages. Clients SHOULD NOT use these URI parameters unless assured of their validity in trusted environments.
This specification, in using the URI specification, and building around the JMS specification, has no particular transcoding issues. Any such issues are problems with the underlying implementation of Java and Java Messaging Service being employed.
A possible semantic attack on the "jndi" variant could be accomplished by replacing characters of the JMS URI from one language with equivalent looking characters from another language, known as an "IDN homograph attack" (IDN) (Unknown, “IDN Homograph attack,” any 2010.) [REF‑Homograph]. This kind of attack could occur in a variety of ways. For example, if an environment allows for the automatic registration of JNDI destination names, a malicious actor could register and then publicize an alternate of an existing destination name. Such an environment ought to prevent the use of homograph equivalents, perhaps by restricting allowed characters, so that clients do not accidentally send their requests to unintended destinations.
The "queue" and "topic" variants are subject to the same concerns as the JNDI variant. In addition, because the destination names are vendor defined, URIs employing these two variants might employ special characters that significantly change the meaning of the URI. It is possible that the introduction of a single character - difficult for a human to notice - might dramatically change the intended meaning of a URI. In situations where this might be an issue, users of this URI are urged to strongly consider the "jndi" variant instead.
This specification does not define or anticipate any use for IP addresses as part of the URI, so no issues around IP addresses, rare or otherwise, are raised by this specification.
This specification does not define any characteristics of a jms scheme URI that contain sensitive information.
The IANA is asked to register the Java Message Service URI scheme described in this document, according to the following scheme registration request, using the template from [RFC4395] (Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, “Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes,” February 2006.):
This URI scheme requires only one IANA registry for possible "variants." IANA can reject obviously bogus registrations.
This registry provides a listing of JMS URI scheme variants. Variant names beginning with "vnd." are reserved for vendor extensions. Such variants should follow a pattern of vnd.vendorname.variant. IANA should use its judgment to assess whether the registering party has a reasonable claim to the "vendorname" portion of the pattern, and if not, reject the registration. All variant names are to be registered on a First Come, First Served basis.
Variants must conform to the "jms-variant" production above. Since variants occur in URIs, they ought to be short, and MUST NOT be more than thirty characters in length.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:
Phil Adams - International Business Machines Corporation - email@example.com
Glen Daniels - WSO2 - firstname.lastname@example.org
Peter Easton - Progress Software - email@example.com
Tim Frank - Software AG. - firstname.lastname@example.org
Lei Jin - BEA Systems, Inc. until March 2007
Eric Johnson - TIBCO Software Inc. - email@example.com
Vinod Kumar - BEA Systems, Inc. until May 2007
Amelia A. Lewis - TIBCO Software Inc. - firstname.lastname@example.org
Roland Merrick - International Business Machines Corporation until June 2009
Mark Phillips - International Business Machines Corporation - email@example.com
Derek Rokicki - Software AG. - firstname.lastname@example.org
Stephen Todd - International Business Machines Corporation until April 2007
Dongbo Xiao - Oracle Corp. - email@example.com
Prasad Yendluri - Software AG - firstname.lastname@example.org
Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.
|[REF-JMS]||Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K. Stout, “Java Message Service (JMS),” April 2002.|
|[REF-JNDI]||Sun Microsystems, Inc., “Java Naming and Directory Interface Application Programming Interface,” July 1999.|
|[RFC2119]||Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels,” BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC3629]||Yergeau, F., “UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646,” STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003 (TXT).|
|[RFC3986]||Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax,” STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005 (TXT, HTML, XML).|
|[RFC3987]||Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, “Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs),” RFC 3987, January 2005 (TXT).|
|[RFC4395]||Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, “Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes,” BCP 35, RFC 4395, February 2006 (TXT).|
|[RFC5234]||Crocker, D. and P. Overell, “Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF,” STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008 (TXT).|
|[REF-Homograph]||Unknown, “IDN Homograph attack,” any 2010.|
|[REF-SOAPJMS]||Daniels, G., Easton, P., Frank, T., Johnson, E., Lewis, A., Merrick, R., Phillips, M., and D. Xiao, “SOAP over JMS,” October 2007.|
|International Business Machines Corporation|
|Hursley House, Hursley Park|
|Winchester, Hampshire SO21 2JN|
|Progress Software Corporation|
|14 Oak Park Drive|
|Bedford, MA 01730|
|11700 Plaza America Drive|
|Reston VA 20190|
|TIBCO Software Inc.|
|3303 Hillview Avenue|
|Palo Alto CA 94304|