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Re: Issues about the semantics of the ontology-lexicon interface [was: Re: Why not to shortcut the "sense" object]

From: John McCrae <jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>
Date: Wed, 17 Oct 2012 11:18:57 +0200
Message-ID: <CAC5njqqaZUV4sicpHbGoZW1=Cj3ecG5giGwiep2EA7r4659u9w@mail.gmail.com>
To: Guido Vetere <gvetere@it.ibm.com>
Cc: public-ontolex@w3.org
Hi all,

I have attempted to collect the main points of the discussion in the Wiki,
could you look over the summary and add future points directly in the Wiki

http://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Specification_of_Requirements/Lexicon-Ontology-Mapping

Regards,
John

On Wed, Oct 17, 2012 at 10:33 AM, Guido Vetere <gvetere@it.ibm.com> wrote:

> Aldo,
> you are right, we cannot discuss philosophical matters here, but on the
> other hand I see basic questions that may have a deep impact on the
> technical soundness of the proposal. For instance, it looks like you see
> ontologies as 'constants from a vocabulary' while I think that vocabularies
> are made of lexical entries + senses, while ontologies are theories of what
> exists. I don't want to start a discussion on constructivism vs critical
> realism here, but for sure we have to choose one of the three options: 1)
> implement a vision like yours, 2) implement a vision like mine, 3)
> implement something that accommodates both.
>
> Philipp,
> if the final decision is to have signs referring to class names that's
> fine, but still I think that we need to explicit different possible formal
> semantics that people (e.g. resource developers and users) can attach to
> the relation in question, e.g. to support scenarios in which reasoning on
> the correspondence between ontological disjunctions and antonymy of senses
> is needed.
>
> Cheers,
>
> Guido Vetere
> Manager, Center for Advanced Studies IBM Italia
> _________________________________________________
> Rome                                     Trento
> Via Sciangai 53                       Via Sommarive 18
> 00144 Roma, Italy                   38123 Povo in Trento, Italy
> +39 (0)6 59662137                 +39 (0)461 312312
>
> Mobile: +39 3357454658
> _________________________________________________
>
>
>  *Philipp Cimiano <cimiano@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>*
>
> 15/10/2012 18:58
>   To
> public-ontolex@w3.org
> cc
>   Subject
> Re: Issues about the semantics of the ontology-lexicon interface  [was:
> Re: Why not to shortcut the "sense" object]
>
>
>
>
> Dear all,
>
>  my understanding is completely in line with what Aldo is saying here. The
> "OntologyEntity" should be seen as a plain constant that "represents" the
> intension in question.
>
> The nice thing is that one can manipulate this constant independent of its
> ontological commitment. This is in line with what Aldo is saying below. So
> punning is not only a syntactic trick, but a principled strategy to refer
> to the symbol that represents a certain ontological commitment.
>
> I attach a short document that I have just created. I am not sure this
> will introduce more confusion. I hope not. I will elaborate this in more
> detail later, but I wanted to provide this for the current thread of
> discussion as quickly as possible.
>
> I think it is in line with Aldo's position. Aldo?
>
> Philipp.
>
> Am 15.10.12 18:28, schrieb Aldo Gangemi:
> Thx Guido, this discussion is very useful (provided that we do not get
> into the infamous "sumo-threads" where each discussion used to get
> eventually to discussing the nature of matter and life :)).
>
> On Oct 15, 2012, at 2:37 PM, Guido Vetere <*gvetere@it.ibm.com*<gvetere@it.ibm.com>>
> wrote:
>
> Aldo, Armando,
>
> A couple of things about what you said (on the rest, I generally agree).
>
> As for the name of the arrow (property?) linking senses and concepts, Aldo
> is right, maybe 'characterize' is not appropriate in this context (indeed,
> the notion comes from mathematics) and is not likely to be accepted by the
> community. But 'representedBy', if read from left to right (a sense is
> represented by a concept), could be even worse, since, in the mainstream of
> western semiotics, signs represent things and stand for them (aliquid pro
> aliquo), and not the other way around. Maybe we could adopt the classic
> (e.g. Odgen-Richard) 'refers to', even if the binding with the 'referential
> function' may be inappropriate. It looks like a trivial naming detail, but
> it may have an impact on the way people grasp the intended meaning of the
> model.
>
> The reason why I like "representedBy", despite its generic ambiguity, is
> that I see ontology entities firstly as constants from a vocabulary. As
> constants, they can perfectly "represent" senses. Indeed, this is quite
> inline even with formal ontology and logic (cf. Nicola Guarino's 2003 paper
> on conceptualizations).
> Of course, constants of a vocabulary get a *formal* meaning/interpretation
> that is based on model theory, but this is another story, which gives us
> room to claim that lexical entries can have a (formal) semantics with
> ontology entities.
> In other words, the way the ontology-lexicon interface works seems to be
> the following:
>
> - a lexical entry has some sense (either local or general/conventional),
> which we can call "lexical meaning"
> - a sense can get ("be represented by", or "be expressed by") a constant
> (ontology entity) in a formal vocabulary
> - that constant has a formal interpretation provided by logical and domain
> axioms: this is a "formal meaning"
>
> Unfortunately, logicians have substantially identified intension (which is
> the closest relative to lexical meaning) with the constants of a
> vocabulary. Therefore, the only original, operational, and useful semantic
> stuff that we have from logical models is extensional meaning. But we are
> not going to talk about that as well, right? ;). Since we are not doing
> that, ontology entities from OWL/RDF will be inevitably ambiguous, and
> depending on context, sometimes they can be considered as constants, and
> sometimes as meanings.
>
>
> This leads to the more basic question about the logic nature of this
> relation, i.e. of what kind of logical things fill the pattern: Lexical
> unit --meaning--> Sense --refers to--> Ontological concept. If we give this
> graph a DL interpretation, as I tried to do, nodes could be first order
> unary predicates and arrows (restricted) first order binary predicates. In
> this reading, instances of Sense (e.g. cat#1) would be related to instances
> of Concepts (e.g. my cat). Aldo suggests that this model would be in
> conflict with the intuition that cat#1 may in many cases refer to cats in
> general, i.e. the whole class of cats. However, 'class vs instance'
> ('intensional' vs 'extensional', if you whish) is part of the systematic
> polysemy for many senses, if not for senses in general. Dictionary
> developers might want to use the same sense of 'cat' both for 'the cat is
> on the mat' and 'the cat is a feline'. Now, it is true that an axiom of the
> form cat#1 TYPE (Sense AND refersTo ONLY Cat) would not capture the
> intensional reading of the sense, but, conversely, setting 'refers to' to
> range on class names, as Aldo suggests, would not capture the extensional
> one.
>
> Maybe there is a misunderstanding here. When I read your "cat#1" I'm
> interpreting it as a sense of the word "cat", not as a particular cat.
> Now, if I interpret you right, cat#1 would be a Sense that is represented
> by some OntologyEntity.
> On the contrary, if you mean a particular cat, I'm not following you
> anymore: why a cat should be a Sense?
>
>
> In general, using class names as values for the property in question, e.g.
> by using OWL 2 punning, raises the question of providing the property with
> some extra formal semantics, since punning, as you know, is just a
> syntactic trick. As Aldo says, problems like this have been tackled by
> other specifications already, such as SKOS.  However, we here face the
> problem of dealing with any legacy ontology, which rely on standard
> set-theoretic semantics, instead of 'ad hoc' conceptual frameworks. Thus,
> we should come up with a model that preserves both the intended formal
> meaning of standard ontologies and the complexity of linguistic
> signification, which is not an easy task, and cannot be pursued just by
> naming conventions.
>
> You're right in general, but I think that this is too much for this
> Community Group: after all, we do not want to solve the harsh problems of
> higher-order logics applied to natural language semantics.
> Anyway, punning is not much a trick (despite its name), but a regular
> logical way of interpreting constants in a theory by partitioning their
> interpretations. The fact that those interpretations do not interact as in
> a rocketing HOL is simply due to the limitations we accept for having a Web
> Ontology Language, which is in addition considered way too expressive …
>
>
> In my opinion, much depends on what 'Sense' represents in our basic
> pattern. I understand well, this concept is currently associated to either
> definitions in dictionaries or synsets in wordnets, thus being a mostly
> lexicographic notion. A different ontology could model Sense as a class of
> socially constructed abstractions evoked in linguistic acts, independent
> from dictionaries and wordnets. In the former case, Sense could be a leaf
> class, and what we link through arrows are instances. In latter case, I
> think that 'Sense' should rather be the root of a class hierarchy, and what
> we link to lexemes should be Sense's subclasses, whose instances, in turn,
> represent meanings in their textual occurrences.  By the way, Senso Comune
> embraces an ontology like this.  So a good question to start with would be:
> what do we mean when we say 'Sense'?
>
> My impression is that we cannot (and shouldn't in my opinion) attempt to
> solve that kind of issues; on the contrary, it's very useful to abstract
> out of them.
> A sense can be profitably (and yes, ambiguously) figured out as any
> conceptualization associated with a lexical entry, be it an entry, a
> definition/gloss, an ID, a paraphrase, a reference to some other
> disambiguating source, or even (please do not shoot me) formal meanings and
> cognitive objects studied by neurolinguistics.
> In the particular community of linked data and the semantic web, we can
> refrain from discussing too much what a sense is, and begin to see how
> interesting are the links emerging out of those apparently different
> creatures.
>
> Ciao
> Aldo
>
>
> Cheers,
>
> Guido Vetere
> Manager, Center for Advanced Studies IBM Italia
> _________________________________________________
> Rome                                     Trento
> Via Sciangai 53                       Via Sommarive 18
> 00144 Roma, Italy                   38123 Povo in Trento, Italy
> +39 (0)6 59662137                 +39 (0)461 312312
>
> Mobile: +39 3357454658
> _________________________________________________
>
>   *Aldo Gangemi <**aldo.gangemi@cnr.it* <aldo.gangemi@cnr.it>*>*
>
> 13/10/2012 14:40
>
>   To
> public-ontolex <*public-ontolex@w3.org* <public-ontolex@w3.org>>
> cc
> Aldo Gangemi <*aldo.gangemi@cnr.it* <aldo.gangemi@cnr.it>>, John McCrae <*
> jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de* <jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>>,
> Armando Stellato <*stellato@info.uniroma2.it* <stellato@info.uniroma2.it>>,
> Guido Vetere/Italy/IBM@IBMIT, Philipp Cimiano <*
> cimiano@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de* <cimiano@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>>
> Subject
> Issues about the semantics of the ontology-lexicon interface [was: Re: Why
> not to shortcut the "sense" object]
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Hi all, I lagged behind in the last month, because of my recent
> installation in Paris. Yesterday I was traveling back from Galway (EKAW)
> and couldn't attend, apologies for that.
> I have followed the recent discussion, and that's my contribution. I have
> renamed the thread, because it is now spanning over different topics
> related to the semantics ig the O-L interface.
>
> ---Senses---
> Concerning Philipp's summary, firstly I agree with the decision (?not yet
> approved, it seems?) of creating the intermediate Sense class: it's
> obviously needed, either for making room for lexical senses (definitely to
> be distinguished from ontology entities), or to be able to talk about
> senses (reifications of the meaning function).
> Concerning the name, I vote for "sense", because sememes, acceptations,
> and others, are either very technical for the layman, or even wrong, as
> Philipp reminds us about the original notion of sememe. The only real
> alternative would be "meaning", but I'd rather keep that term for the
> top-level class of a meaning taxonomy, as I suggest in the following.
>
> In a previous mail, I proposed to consider also an additional solution,
> i.e. to create a taxonomy of meanings, which has ontology entities (as
> formal semantic objects) and lexical senses as special subclasses. The two
> solutions are compatible, and if we realize that a meaning taxonomy might
> be useful, it can be introduced anyway.
> Think of the sense-synset issue raised by Philipp: I agree that synsets
> are not lexical senses, if we assume that a lexical sense should be
> expressed by only one lexical unit (cardinality exactly 1), but still they
> are senses, and it's completely reasonable to put synsets (as well as many
> other creatures of lexical semantics, including sememes, acceptations,
> frames, semantic verb classes, etc.) in a meaning taxonomy.
>
> Concerning the property names, I'm ok with both LexicalEntry – meaning –>
> Sense, and with Sense – representedBy –> OntologyEntity.
> Maybe we could get rid of multiple related uses of the "mean" notion,
> which can be somehow disturbing: Meaning as a class, meaning as a property
> between lexical entries and senses, means as a property between lexical
> entries and ontology entities … it may look like we are playing with words
> … what about following the conventional naming patterns that employs the
> name of the property range? E.g. LexicalEntry – sense –> Sense ;
> LexicalEntry – meansOntologyEntity –> OntologyEntity. The advantage of
> using this apparently redundant naming is that at the instance level, the
> triple become very clear, e.g. Saxophone – sense –> wordsense-saxophone-1 ;
> Saxophone – hasOntologyEntity –> music:Saxophone.
> I also prefer "representedBy" to "characterizes", because the second is
> very generic and not attested in any related literature.
>
> ---Property chaining over senses---
> Secondly, I agree with the decision to add a property chain in the model,
> which helps resolving the indirection produced by the Sense class: this is
> a good practice (a logical design pattern), used in many contexts. I do not
> see room for John's criticism about it: it does not increase the cognitive
> complexity (on the contrary, it facilitates the use of the model for those
> reluctant to catch on the sense-ontology-entity distinction), and the added
> computational complexity only holds when a DL reasoner materializes the
> ABox.
> One mild problem here might be that we are making slightly different
> assumptions when we name "representedBy" the property between senses and
> ontology entities, but "means" the property between lexical entries and
> ontology entities. Since we do not have a rich axiomatization behind these
> names, we might be pragmatic and ignore the problem, however I deem
> important to justify it a little bit in the documentation. In practice,
> this approach seems to suggest that senses are actually "represented" by
> ontology entities, and this is clear and intuitive. It also suggests that
> lexical entries actually "mean" ontology entities, but this is far less
> clear and intuitive, since in no obvious way words mean stuff in ontologies
> … it's much better to say that words have conceptualizations that are
> represented in ontologies. Indeed this is the way we talk of lexical senses
> :). That's why my above suggestion was "hasOntologyEntity", which however I
> admit ti be too generic. In principle, the compositional name that best
> fits the property chain would be "hasSenseRepresentedByOntologyEntity", but
> it's way too long, specially for those willing to use that property as a
> shortcut. Other suggestions?
>
> ---GCIs on ontology hierarchies---
> Finally, a comment about Guido's observation that "cat#1 INSTANCEOF
> (Sense AND characterizes ONLY Animal)" is the right formalization for an
> example of the representedBy object property values. If I understand well,
> here we have two important issues. The first one can be solved by using
> OWL2, the second poses a more difficult challenge.
> For the first issue, I think that Guido talks about OWL1, but anyway that
> axiom would give us a misinterpretation, because it would tell us that
> cat#1 is a sense that can only be represented by *individuals* from the
> class Animal, which is not what Guido wants I guess. This problem was
> described in detail by W3C SWBPD committee in 2004, and eventually some
> OWL1 solutions were recommended in the "Classes as values" design pattern.
> However, in OWL2 (lucky us) punning makes our lives easier, and a simple
> (partial!) solution is (in Manchester syntax) "cat#1 TYPES (Sense AND
> representedBy VALUE Animal)".
> For the second issue, Guido points out that there are cases in which we
> need to refer to generic subclasses of an ontology entity (if it's a
> class): this cannot be expressed in OWL at all, since we cannot use the OWL
> vocabulary in the position for the domain vocabulary, In other words, the
> following is a wrong axiom even in OWL2: "cat#1 TYPES (Sense AND
> representedBy (subClassOf VALUE Animal)".
> A viable design pattern is to create a property for meaning hierarchies,
> in the vein of skos:broader or wordnet:hypernym, so that we could declare
> e.g.: "cat#1 TYPES (Sense AND representedBy ([skos:broader] VALUE Animal)".
>
> However, a property like skos:broader typically applies to concepts, and
> senses would probably be compatible. Much less are ontology entities
> compatible, even though SKOS seems to suggest a loose correspondence
> between concepts and rdfs/owl classes. In particular, we should materialize
> ontology class hierarchies as skos:broader hierarchies in order to reason
> over these constructs.
> Another design pattern might resort to a specialized property, such as
> "broadlyRepresentedBy", e.g.: "cat#1 TYPES (Sense AND broadlyRepresentedBy
> VALUE Animal)". "broadlyRepresentedBy" can be a super property of
> representedBy. Of course, with this second pattern, we would lose the
> sophisticated DL reasoning that one can get with the first. Nonetheless,
> the second seems more practical and simple to apply for different levels of
> expertise.
>
> Ciao
> Aldo
>
> _____________________________________
>
> Aldo Gangemi
> Senior Researcher
> Semantic Technology Lab (STLab)
> Institute for Cognitive Science and Technology,
> National Research Council (ISTC-CNR)
> Via Nomentana 56, 00161, Roma, Italy
> Tel: +390644161535
> Fax: +390644161513 *
> **aldo.gangemi@cnr.it* <aldo.gangemi@cnr.it> *
> **http://www.stlab.istc.cnr.it* <http://www.stlab.istc.cnr.it/> *
> **http://www.istc.cnr.it/people/aldo-gangemi*<http://www.istc.cnr.it/people/aldo-gangemi>
> skype aldogangemi
> okkam ID: *http://www.okkam.org/entity/ok200707031186131660596*<http://www.okkam.org/entity/ok200707031186131660596>
>
> On Oct 12, 2012, at 6:55 PM, John McCrae <*jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de
> * <jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>> wrote:
>
> On Fri, Oct 12, 2012 at 6:35 PM, Armando Stellato <*
> stellato@info.uniroma2.it* <stellato@info.uniroma2.it>> wrote:
>
> From what I got, and hope not to be wrong (it’s useful also for me to
> clarify as I missed a couple of calls on September), OntologyEntity is a
> generic rdf:Resource of one of the main entities in the main vocabularies
> (aka: OWL and SKOS, thus: property, class, individual, skos concept…).
>
> Another question to John from my side: from your email it seemed to be
> against stating the propertyChain axiom on (means, <meaning,representedBy>)
> implying that the direct Entry ---means--> OntologyEntity from "Lexical
> Entry -> meaning -> Sense -> representedBy -> OntologyEntity"  but then
> the sentence: “Here the difference is 1 named elements vs. 3 named
> elements, but as stated above, at least half of users (data consumers) will
> have to understand all 4 names...” instilled some doubt in my
> interpretation…
>
>
>
> Are you voting against the larger structure as a whole (thus keeping only
> the Entry ---means--> OntologyEntity structure), or against the
> propertyChain axiom? I really got the second, though I’m not even sure how
> adding the p.chain axiom (or not doing it) would change anything for the
> user or consumer. I’m sure I’m missing something, so sorry in advance for
> my potential misinterpretation.
>
> Sorry it isn't clear: the long chain is TBMK agreed upon (Lexical Entry
> -> meaning -> Sense -> representedBy -> OntologyEntity)*... we are
> questioning whether we need the short chain (Entry ---means-->
> OntologyEntity) as well. I say it is not worth it.
>
> Regards,
> John
>
> * or (Word -> sense -> Sememe/Acceptation -> characterizes ->
> rdf:Resource/skos:Concept/owl:Entity) or some combination of these terms.
>
>
>
> Have a nice we!
>
>
>
> Armando
>
>
>
>
> *From:* Guido Vetere [mailto:*gvetere@it.ibm.com* <gvetere@it.ibm.com>] *
> Sent:* Friday, October 12, 2012 6:08 PM*
> To:* public-ontolex*
> Subject:* Re: Why not to shortcut the "sense" object
>
>
>
> All,
>
> I apologize for missing the call today. Here just some short remark.
>
> "Entry ---means--> OntologyEntity" means that if you want to predicate on
> the meaning relationship (e.g. to associate some grammatical constraint)
> you have to resort on a meta predicates (e.g. OWL Annotations).
>
> "Lexical Entry -> meaning -> Sense -> representedBy -> OntologyEntity"
> sounds good, but instead of 'representedBy' I would say 'characterizes' or
> something alike, meaning that a linguistic sense gives a (cultural) shape
> to an entity. Moreover, it is not clear to me (maybe you discussed about
> that) whether OntologyEntity is a first order TOP concept (e.g. equivalent
> to OWL Thing). In this case, note that in order to tell that the instance
> of Sense 'cat#1' (i.e. the first sense of the lemma 'cat') represents an
> Animal, you have to write something like:
>
> cat#1 INSTANCEOF (Sense AND characterizes ONLY Animal).
>
> Is it correct?
>
> If there is something that I can do, please let me know.
>
> Regards,
>
> Guido Vetere
> Manager, Center for Advanced Studies IBM Italia
> _________________________________________________
> Rome                                     Trento
> Via Sciangai 53                       Via Sommarive 18
> 00144 Roma, Italy                   38123 Povo in Trento, Italy*
> **+39 (0)6 59662137* <%2B39%20%280%296%2059662137>                 *+39
> (0)461 312312* <%2B39%20%280%29461%20312312>
>
> Mobile: *+39 3357454658* <%2B39%203357454658>
> _________________________________________________
>
>  *John McCrae <**jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de*<jmccrae@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>
> *>*
> Sent by: *johnmccrae@gmail.com* <johnmccrae@gmail.com>
>
> 12/10/2012 16:35
>
>   To
> public-ontolex <*public-ontolex@w3.org* <public-ontolex@w3.org>>
> cc
>   Subject
> Why not to shortcut the "sense" object
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> Hi all,
>
> As discussed today in the telco there is a proposal to introduce a
> shortcut replacing "Entry ---sense--> Sense ---representedBy-->
> OntologyEntity" with "Entry ---means--> OntologyEntity", while this is
> theory sounds good, I contend that in practice it is not worth the effort.
> (This is based on practical experience with the *lemon* model).
>
>    - *It does not make the model easier to use*: It is clear that for
>    data producers this proposal simplifies the matter (as less links and URIs
>    are required), however for data consumers it complicates the models (as
>    they need to understand both methods of linking and be able to infer
>    equivalence between the two methods). Thus, if EaseOfUse = (% of Consumers)
>    × EaseOfUse(Consumer) + (% of Producers) × EaseOfUse(Producer), hence if we
>    assume there will be approx. as many producers as consumer then we need
>    only ask is it worth "is the extra effort for the producer less than that
>    for the consumer", i.e., "would you rather implement a system that infers
>    similarity across multiple representations, or use extra links and URIs"?
>    - *It does not make the model easier to understand*: While, I
>    understand that the sense object is nebulous and difficult per se to
>    understand, I would still argue that the clearest measure of how easy to
>    understand a model is, is the number of named elements it has (as many
>    users may not need to deeply understand the meaning of a sense, but be
>    happy to know that "translation", "antonymy" and "register" go there). Here
>    the difference is 1 named elements vs. 3 named elements, but as stated
>    above, at least half of users (data consumers) will have to understand all
>    4 names... if we assume out of the producers 70% do not need to represent
>    senses (and thus any associated properties, "translation", "antonymy",
>    "register") then the average number of links a user will need to understand
>    is 4 × 0.5 + 3 × 0.5 × 0.3 + 1 × 0.5 × 0.7 = 2.8... so it makes the model
>    all of 7% easier to understand! Worse, this figure is overgenerous as: I
>    expect there to more data consumers than producers and I expect at least
>    50% of users to require sense modelling.
>
> Regards,
> John
>
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>
>
>
> IBM Italia S.p.A.
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>
>
>
> --
> Prof. Dr. Philipp Cimiano
> Semantic Computing Group
> Excellence Cluster - Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC)
> University of Bielefeld
>
> Phone: +49 521 106 12249
> Fax: +49 521 106 12412
> Mail: *cimiano@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de* <cimiano@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.de>
>
>
> Room H-127
> Morgenbreede 39
> 33615 Bielefeld[attachment "senses.pdf" deleted by Guido Vetere/Italy/IBM]
>
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> Sede Legale: Circonvallazione Idroscalo - 20090 Segrate (MI)
> Cap. Soc. euro 347.256.998,80
> C. F. e Reg. Imprese MI 01442240030 - Partita IVA 10914660153
> Società con unico azionista
> Società soggetta all’attività di direzione e coordinamento di
> International Business Machines Corporation
>
> (Salvo che sia diversamente indicato sopra / Unless stated otherwise above)
>
>
Received on Wednesday, 17 October 2012 09:19:32 UTC

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