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CVS WWW/International/multilingualweb/lt/drafts/its20

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<h1><a name="title" id="title" shape="rect"/>Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) Version 2.0</h1>
<h2><a name="w3c-doctype" id="w3c-doctype"/>Editor's Copy</h2><p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Copyright" shape="rect">Copyright</a> © 2012 <a href="http://www.w3.org/" shape="rect"><acronym title="World Wide Web Consortium">W3C</acronym></a><sup>®</sup> (<a href="http://www.csail.mit.edu/" shape="rect"><acronym title="Massachusetts Institute of Technology">MIT</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.ercim.eu/" shape="rect"><acronym title="European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics">ERCIM</acronym></a>, <a href="http://www.keio.ac.jp/" shape="rect">Keio</a>), All Rights Reserved. W3C <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#Legal_Disclaimer" shape="rect">liability</a>, <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notice#W3C_Trademarks" shape="rect">trademark</a> and <a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/copyright-documents" shape="rect">document use</a> rules apply.</p></div><hr/><div>
<h2><a name="abstract" id="abstract" shape="rect"/>Abstract</h2><p>This document defines data categories and their implementation as a set of elements and
        attributes called the <em>Internationalization Tag Set (ITS)</em> 2.0. ITS 2.0 is the
        successor of <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/REC-its-20070403/" shape="rect">ITS 1.0</a>; it is
        designed to foster the creation of multilingual Web content, focusing on HTML, XML based
        formats in general, and to leverage localization workflows based on the XML Localization
        Interchange File Format (XLIFF).</p></div><div>
<h2><a name="status" shape="rect">Status of this Document</a></h2><p><strong>This document is an editors' copy that has no official
                        standing.</strong></p></div><div class="toc">
<h2><a name="contents" id="contents" shape="rect"/>Table of Contents</h2><div class="toc"><div class="toc1">1 <a href="#introduction" shape="rect">Introduction</a><div class="toc2">1.1 <a href="#relation-to-its10-and-new-principles" shape="rect">Relation to ITS 1.0 and New Principles</a><div class="toc3">1.1.1 <a href="#relation-to-its10" shape="rect">Relation to ITS 1.0</a></div>
<div class="toc3">1.1.2 <a href="#new-principles" shape="rect">New Principles</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">1.2 <a href="#motivation-its" shape="rect">Motivation for ITS</a><div class="toc3">1.2.1 <a href="#motivation-its-issues" shape="rect">Typical Problems</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">1.3 <a href="#users-usage" shape="rect">Users and Usages of ITS</a><div class="toc3">1.3.1 <a href="#potential-users" shape="rect">Potential Users of ITS</a></div>
<div class="toc3">1.3.2 <a href="#ways-to-use-its" shape="rect">Ways to Use ITS</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">1.4 <a href="#usage-in-html5" shape="rect">Usage in HTML</a><div class="toc3">1.4.1 <a href="#usage-in-legacy-html" shape="rect">Support for legacy HTML content</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">1.5 <a href="#out-of-scope" shape="rect">Out of Scope</a></div>
<div class="toc2">1.6 <a href="#design-decisions" shape="rect">Important Design Principles</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">2 <a href="#basic-concepts" shape="rect">Basic Concepts</a><div class="toc2">2.1 <a href="#basic-concepts-selection" shape="rect">Selection</a><div class="toc3">2.1.1 <a href="#basic-concepts-selection-local" shape="rect">Local Approach</a></div>
<div class="toc3">2.1.2 <a href="#basic-concepts-selection-global" shape="rect">Global Approach</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">2.2 <a href="#basic-concepts-overinher" shape="rect">Overriding and Inheritance</a></div>
<div class="toc2">2.3 <a href="#basic-concepts-addingpointing" shape="rect">Adding Information or Pointing to Existing Information</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">3 <a href="#notation-terminology" shape="rect">Notation and Terminology</a><div class="toc2">3.1 <a href="#notation" shape="rect">Notation</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.2 <a href="#def-datacat" shape="rect">Data category</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.3 <a href="#def-selection" shape="rect">Selection</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.4 <a href="#def-local-attributes" shape="rect">ITS Local Attributes</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.5 <a href="#def-rule-elements" shape="rect">Rule Elements</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.6 <a href="#iri-usage" shape="rect">Usage of Internationalized Resource Identifiers in ITS</a></div>
<div class="toc2">3.7 <a href="#def-html" shape="rect">The Term HTML</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">4 <a href="#conformance" shape="rect">Conformance</a><div class="toc2">4.1 <a href="#conformance-product-schema" shape="rect">Conformance Type 1: ITS Markup Declarations</a></div>
<div class="toc2">4.2 <a href="#conformance-product-processing-expectations" shape="rect">Conformance Type 2: The Processing Expectations for ITS Markup</a></div>
<div class="toc2">4.3 <a href="#conformance-product-html-processing-expectations" shape="rect">Conformance Type 3: Processing Expectations for ITS Markup in HTML</a></div>
<div class="toc2">4.4 <a href="#conformance-class-html5-its" shape="rect">Conformance Class for HTML5+ITS documents</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">5 <a href="#its-processing" shape="rect">Processing of ITS information</a><div class="toc2">5.1 <a href="#its-version-attribute" shape="rect">Indicating the Version of ITS</a></div>
<div class="toc2">5.2 <a href="#datacategory-locations" shape="rect">Locations of Data Categories</a><div class="toc3">5.2.1 <a href="#selection-global" shape="rect">Global, Rule-based Selection</a></div>
<div class="toc3">5.2.2 <a href="#selection-local" shape="rect">Local Selection in an XML Document</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">5.3 <a href="#selectors" shape="rect">Query Language of Selectors</a><div class="toc3">5.3.1 <a href="#queryLanguage" shape="rect">Choosing Query Language</a></div>
<div class="toc3">5.3.2 <a href="#d0e2071" shape="rect">XPath 1.0</a></div>
<div class="toc3">5.3.3 <a href="#d0e2265" shape="rect">CSS Selectors</a></div>
<div class="toc3">5.3.4 <a href="#d0e2304" shape="rect">Additional query languages</a></div>
<div class="toc3">5.3.5 <a href="#its-param" shape="rect">Variables in selectors</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">5.4 <a href="#link-external-rules" shape="rect">Link to External Rules</a></div>
<div class="toc2">5.5 <a href="#selection-precedence" shape="rect">Precedence between Selections</a></div>
<div class="toc2">5.6 <a href="#associating-its-with-existing-markup" shape="rect">Associating ITS Data Categories with Existing Markup</a></div>
<div class="toc2">5.7 <a href="#conversion-to-nif" shape="rect">Conversion to NIF</a></div>
<div class="toc2">5.8 <a href="#its-tool-annotation" shape="rect">ITS Tools Annotation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">6 <a href="#html5-markup" shape="rect">Using ITS Markup in HTML</a><div class="toc2">6.1 <a href="#html5-local-attributes" shape="rect">Mapping of Local Data Categories to HTML</a></div>
<div class="toc2">6.2 <a href="#html5-global-rules" shape="rect">Global rules</a></div>
<div class="toc2">6.3 <a href="#html5-standoff-markup" shape="rect">Standoff Markup in HTML</a></div>
<div class="toc2">6.4 <a href="#html5-selection-precedence" shape="rect">Precedence between Selections</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc1">7 <a href="#xhtml5-markup" shape="rect">Using ITS Markup in XHTML</a></div>
<div class="toc1">8 <a href="#datacategory-description" shape="rect">Description of Data Categories</a><div class="toc2">8.1 <a href="#datacategories-defaults-etc" shape="rect">Position, Defaults, Inheritance and Overriding of Data Categories</a></div>
<div class="toc2">8.2 <a href="#trans-datacat" shape="rect">Translate</a><div class="toc3">8.2.1 <a href="#translatability-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.2.2 <a href="#translatability-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.3 <a href="#locNote-datacat" shape="rect">Localization Note</a><div class="toc3">8.3.1 <a href="#locNote-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.3.2 <a href="#locNote-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.4 <a href="#terminology" shape="rect">Terminology</a><div class="toc3">8.4.1 <a href="#terminology-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.4.2 <a href="#terminology-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.5 <a href="#directionality" shape="rect">Directionality</a><div class="toc3">8.5.1 <a href="#directionality-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.5.2 <a href="#directionality-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.6 <a href="#ruby-annotation" shape="rect">Ruby</a><div class="toc3">8.6.1 <a href="#ruby-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.6.2 <a href="#ruby-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.7 <a href="#language-information" shape="rect">Language Information</a><div class="toc3">8.7.1 <a href="#langinfo-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.7.2 <a href="#langinfo-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.8 <a href="#elements-within-text" shape="rect">Elements Within Text</a><div class="toc3">8.8.1 <a href="#within-text-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.8.2 <a href="#within-text-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.9 <a href="#domain" shape="rect">Domain</a><div class="toc3">8.9.1 <a href="#domain-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.9.2 <a href="#domain-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.10 <a href="#Disambiguation" shape="rect">Disambiguation</a><div class="toc3">8.10.1 <a href="#Disambiguation-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.10.2 <a href="#Disambiguation-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.11 <a href="#LocaleFilter" shape="rect">Locale Filter</a><div class="toc3">8.11.1 <a href="#LocaleFilter-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.11.2 <a href="#LocaleFilter-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.12 <a href="#provenance" shape="rect">Provenance</a><div class="toc3">8.12.1 <a href="#provenance-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.12.2 <a href="#provenance-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.13 <a href="#externalresource" shape="rect">External Resource</a><div class="toc3">8.13.1 <a href="#externalresource-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.13.2 <a href="#externalresource-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.14 <a href="#target-pointer" shape="rect">Target Pointer</a><div class="toc3">8.14.1 <a href="#target-pointer-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.14.2 <a href="#target-pointer-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.15 <a href="#idvalue" shape="rect">Id Value</a><div class="toc3">8.15.1 <a href="#idvalue-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.15.2 <a href="#idvalue-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.16 <a href="#preservespace" shape="rect">Preserve Space</a><div class="toc3">8.16.1 <a href="#preservespace-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.16.2 <a href="#preservespace-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.17 <a href="#lqissue" shape="rect">Localization Quality Issue</a><div class="toc3">8.17.1 <a href="#lqissue-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.17.2 <a href="#lqissue-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.18 <a href="#lqrating" shape="rect">Localization Quality Rating</a><div class="toc3">8.18.1 <a href="#lqrating-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.18.2 <a href="#lqrating-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.19 <a href="#mtconfidence" shape="rect">MT Confidence</a><div class="toc3">8.19.1 <a href="#mtconfidence-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.19.2 <a href="#mtconfidence-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.20 <a href="#allowedchars" shape="rect">Allowed Characters</a><div class="toc3">8.20.1 <a href="#allowedchars-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.20.2 <a href="#allowedchars-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
<div class="toc2">8.21 <a href="#storagesize" shape="rect">Storage Size</a><div class="toc3">8.21.1 <a href="#storagesize-definition" shape="rect">Definition</a></div>
<div class="toc3">8.21.2 <a href="#storagesize-implementation" shape="rect">Implementation</a></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<h3><a name="appendices" id="appendices" shape="rect"/>Appendices</h3><div class="toc1">A <a href="#normative-references" shape="rect">References</a></div>
<div class="toc1">B <a href="#its-mime-type" shape="rect">Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) MIME Type</a></div>
<div class="toc1">C <a href="#lqissue-typevalues" shape="rect">Values for the Localization Quality Issue Type</a></div>
<div class="toc1">D <a href="#its-schemas" shape="rect">Schemas for ITS</a></div>
<div class="toc1">E <a href="#informative-references" shape="rect">References</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
<div class="toc1">F <a href="#its-schematron-constraints" shape="rect">Checking ITS Markup Constraints With Schematron</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
<div class="toc1">G <a href="#nif-backconversion" shape="rect">Conversion NIF2ITS</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
<div class="toc1">H <a href="#list-of-elements-and-attributes" shape="rect">List of ITS 2.0 Global Elements and Local Attributes</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
<div class="toc1">I <a href="#revisionlog" shape="rect">Revision Log</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
<div class="toc1">J <a href="#acknowledgements" shape="rect">Acknowledgements</a> (Non-Normative)</div>
</div><hr/><div class="body"><div class="div1">
<h2><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="introduction" id="introduction" shape="rect"/>1 Introduction</h2><p>
            <em>This section is informative.</em>
         </p><p>ITS 2.0 is a technology to add metadata to Web content, for the benefit of localization,
          language technologies, and internationalization. The ITS 2.0 specification both identifies
          concepts (such as “Translate”) that are important for internationalization and
          localization, and defines implementations of these concepts (termed “ITS data categories”)
          as a set of elements and attributes called the <em>Internationalization Tag Set
            (ITS)</em>. The document provides implementations for HTML, serializations in <a href="http://nlp2rdf.org/nif-1-0" shape="rect">NIF</a>, and provides definitions of ITS elements
          and attributes in the form of XML Schema <a title="XML Schema Part 1:&#xA;                Structures Second Edition" href="#xmlschema1" shape="rect">[XML Schema]</a> and
          RELAX NG <a title="Regular-grammar-based validation -- RELAX NG" href="#relaxng" shape="rect">[RELAX NG]</a>.</p><p>This document aims to realize many of the ideas formulated in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-its2req-20120524/" shape="rect">ITS 2.0 Requirements
            document</a>, in <a title="Internationalization and&#xA;                Localization Markup Requirements" href="#itsreq" shape="rect">[ITS REQ]</a> and <a title="Requirements for Localizable&#xA;                DTD Design" href="#reqlocdtd" shape="rect">[Localizable DTDs]</a>.</p><p>Not all requirements listed there are addressed in this document. Those which are not
          addressed here are either covered in <a title="Best&#xA;                Practices for XML Internationalization" href="#xml-i18n-bp" shape="rect">[XML i18n BP]</a>
          (potentially in an as yet unwritten best practice document on multilingual Web content),
          or may be addressed in a future version of this specification.</p><div class="div2">
<h3><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="relation-to-its10-and-new-principles" id="relation-to-its10-and-new-principles" shape="rect"/>1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0 and New Principles</h3><div class="div3">
<h4><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="relation-to-its10" id="relation-to-its10" shape="rect"/>1.1.1 Relation to ITS 1.0</h4><p>ITS 2.0 has the following relations to ITS 1.0:</p><ul><li><p>It adopts and maintains the following principles from ITS 1.0: </p><ul><li><p>It adopts the use of data categories to define discrete units of
                    functionality</p></li><li><p>It adopts the separation of data category definition from the mapping of the
                    data category to a given content format</p></li><li><p>It adopts the conformance principle of ITS1.0 that an implementation only
                    needs to implement one data category to claim conformance to ITS 2.0</p></li></ul></li><li><p>ITS 2.0 supports all ITS 1.0 data category definitions and adds new definitions,
                with the exceptions of <a href="#directionality" shape="rect">Directionality</a> and <a href="#ruby-annotation" shape="rect">Ruby</a>.</p></li><li><p>ITS 2.0 adds a number of new data categories not found in ITS 1.0.</p></li><li><p>While ITS 1.0 addressed only XML, ITS 2.0 specifies implementations of data
                categories in <em>both</em> XML <em>and</em> HTML.</p></li></ul></div><div class="div3">
<h4><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="new-principles" id="new-principles" shape="rect"/>1.1.2 New Principles</h4><p>ITS 2.0 also adds the following principles and features not found in ITS 1.0:</p><ul><li><p>ITS 2.0 data categories are intended to be format neutral, with support for XML,
                HTML, and NIF: a data category implementation only needs to support a single content
                format mapping in order to support a claim of ITS 2.0 conformance.</p></li><li><p>ITS 2.0 provides algorithms to generate NIF out of HTML or XML with ITS 2.0
                metadata.</p></li><li><p>A global implementation of ITS 2.0 requires at least the XPath version 1.0.
                Other versions of XPath or other query languages (e.g., CSS selectors) can be
                expressed via a dedicated <a href="#queryLanguage" shape="rect">queryLanguage</a>
                attribute.</p></li></ul><p id="its20-new-data-categories">The new data categories included in ITS 2.0
              are:</p><ul><li><p><a href="#domain" shape="rect">Domain</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#Disambiguation" shape="rect">Disambiguation</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#LocaleFilter" shape="rect">Locale Filter</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#provenance" shape="rect">Provenance</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#externalresource" shape="rect">External Resource</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#target-pointer" shape="rect">Target Pointer</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#idvalue" shape="rect">Id Value</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#preservespace" shape="rect">Preserve Space</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#lqissue" shape="rect">Localization Quality Issue</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#lqrating" shape="rect">Localization Quality Rating</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#mtconfidence" shape="rect">MT Confidence</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#allowedchars" shape="rect">Allowed Characters</a></p></li><li><p><a href="#storagesize" shape="rect">Storage Size</a></p></li></ul></div></div><div class="div2">
<h3><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="motivation-its" id="motivation-its" shape="rect"/>1.2 Motivation for ITS</h3><p>Content or software that is authored in one language (the <span class="new-term">source language</span>)
            is often made available in additional languages or adapted with regard to other cultural
            aspects. This is done through a process called <span class="new-term">localization</span>, where the
            original material is translated and adapted to the target audience.</p><p>In addition, document formats expressed by schemas may be used by people in different
            parts of the world, and these people may need special markup to support the local
            language or script. For example, people authoring in languages such as Arabic, Hebrew,
            Persian, or Urdu need special markup to specify directionality in mixed direction
            text.</p><p>From the viewpoints of feasibility, cost, and efficiency, it is important that the
            original material should be suitable for localization. This is achieved by appropriate
            design and development, and the corresponding process is referred to as
            internationalization. For a detailed explanation of the terms “localization” and
            “internationalization”, see <a title="" href="#geo-i18n-l10n" shape="rect">[l10n i18n]</a>.</p><span class="editor-note">[Ed. note: Note: This should refer to the best practice document as well, when
            ready.]</span><p>The increasing usage of XML as a medium for documentation-related content (e.g. DocBook
            and DITA as formats for writing structured documentation, well suited to computer
            hardware and software manuals) and software-related content (e.g. the eXtensible User
            Interface Language <a title="exTensible User Interface Language" href="#xul" shape="rect">[XUL]</a>) creates challenges and
            opportunities in the domain of XML internationalization and localization.</p><div class="div3">
<h4><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="motivation-its-issues" id="motivation-its-issues" shape="rect"/>1.2.1 Typical Problems</h4><p>The following examples sketch one of the issues that currently hinder efficient
              XML-related localization: the lack of a standard, declarative mechanism that
              identifies which parts of an XML document need to be translated. Tools often cannot
              automatically perform this identification.</p><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-motivation-its-1" id="EX-motivation-its-1" shape="rect"/>Example 1: Document with partially translatable content</div><p>In this document it is difficult to distinguish between those <code>string</code>
                elements that are translatable and those that are not. Only the addition of an
                explicit flag could resolve the issue.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;resources&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;section</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"Homepage"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;arguments&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>page<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>childlist<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/arguments&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;variables&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>POLICY<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>Corporate Policy<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/variables&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;keyvalue_pairs&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>Page<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>ABC Corporation - Policy Repository<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>Footer_Last<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>Pages<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>bgColor<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>NavajoWhite<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>title<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;string&gt;</strong>List of Available Policies<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/string&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/keyvalue_pairs&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/section&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/resources&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-1.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-1.xml</a>]</p></div><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-motivation-its-2" id="EX-motivation-its-2" shape="rect"/>Example 2: Document with partially translatable content</div><p>Even when metadata are available to identify non-translatable text, the conditions
                may be quite complex and not directly indicated with a simple flag. Here, for
                instance, only the text in the nodes matching the expression
                  <code>//component[@type!='image']/data[@type='text']</code> is translatable.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;dialogue</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xml:lang</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"en-gb"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;rsrc</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"123"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;component</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"456"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"image"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;data</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"text"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>images/cancel.gif<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/data&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;data</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"coordinates"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>12,20,50,14<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/data&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/component&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;component</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"789"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"caption"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;data</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"text"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>Cancel<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/data&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;data</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"coordinates"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>12,34,50,14<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/data&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/component&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;component</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">id</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"792"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"string"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;data</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"text"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>Number of files: <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/data&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/component&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/rsrc&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/dialogue&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-2.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-motivation-its-2.xml</a>]</p></div></div></div><div class="div2">
<h3><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="users-usage" id="users-usage" shape="rect"/>1.3 Users and Usages of ITS</h3><div class="div3">
<h4><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="potential-users" id="potential-users" shape="rect"/>1.3.1 Potential Users of ITS</h4><p>The ITS specification aims to provide different types of users with information about
              what markup should be supported to enable worldwide use and effective
              internationalization and localization of content. The following paragraphs sketch
              these different types of users, and their usage of ITS. In order to support all of
              these users, the information about what markup should be supported to enable worldwide
              use and effective localization of content is provided in this specification in two
              ways:</p><ul><li><p>abstractly in the data category descriptions: <a class="section-ref" href="#datacategory-description" shape="rect">Section 8: Description of Data Categories</a></p></li><li><p>concretely in the ITS schemas: <a class="section-ref" href="#its-schemas" shape="rect">Appendix D: Schemas for ITS</a></p></li></ul><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="schema-dev-new" id="schema-dev-new" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.1Schema developers starting a schema from the ground up</h5><p>This type of user will find proposals for attribute and element names to be
                included in their new schema (also called "host vocabulary"). Using the attribute
                and element names proposed in the ITS specification may be helpful because it leads
                to easier recognition of the concepts represented by both schema users and
                processors. It is perfectly possible, however, for a schema developer to develop his
                own set of attribute and element names. The specification sets out, first and
                foremost, to ensure that the required markup is available, and that the behavior of
                that markup meets established needs.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="schema-dev-existing" id="schema-dev-existing" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.2Schema developers working with an existing schema</h5><p>This type of user will be working with schemas such as DocBook, DITA, or perhaps a
                proprietary schema. The ITS Working Group has sought input from experts developing
                widely used formats such as the ones mentioned.</p><div class="note"><p class="prefix"><b>Note:</b></p><p>The question "How to use ITS with existing popular markup schemes?" is
                  covered in more details (including examples) in a separate document: <a title="Best&#xA;                Practices for XML Internationalization" href="#xml-i18n-bp" shape="rect">[XML i18n BP]</a>.</p></div><p>Developers working on existing schemas should check whether their schemas support
                the markup proposed in this specification, and, where appropriate, add the markup
                proposed here to their schema.</p><p>In some cases, an existing schema may already contain markup equivalent to that
                recommended in ITS. In this case it is not necessary to add duplicate markup since
                ITS provides mechanisms for associating ITS markup with markup in the host
                vocabulary which serves a similar purpose (see <a class="section-ref" href="#associating-its-with-existing-markup" shape="rect">Section 5.6: Associating ITS Data Categories with Existing Markup</a>). The developer
                should, however, check that the behavior associated with the markup in their own
                schema is fully compatible with the expectations described in this
                specification.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="content-tool-vendor" id="content-tool-vendor" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.3Vendors of content-related tools</h5><p>This type of user includes companies which provide tools for authoring, translation
                or other flavors of content-related software solutions. It is important to ensure
                that such tools enable worldwide use and effective localization of content. For
                example, translation tools should prevent content marked up as not for translation
                from being changed or translated. It is hoped that the ITS specification will make
                the job of vendors easier by standardizing the format and processing expectations of
                certain relevant markup items, and allowing them to more effectively identify how
                content should be handled.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="content-producers" id="content-producers" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.4Content producers</h5><p>This type of user comprises authors, translators and other types of content author.
                The markup proposed in this specification may be used by them to mark up specific
                bits of content. Aside: The burden of inserting markup can be removed from content
                producers by relating the ITS information to relevant bits of content in a global
                manner (see <a href="#selection-global" shape="rect">global, rule-based approach</a>). This
                global work, however, may fall to information architects, rather than the content
                producers themselves.</p><p id="cms-plain-text-fields">Content producers often work with content management
                systems (CMS). In various CMS, some of the CMS fields only allow to store plain
                text. For these fields, the current ITS 2.0 data categories can only be applied
                globally and not with local attributes. This issue should be addressed in another
                way, apart from the ITS 2.0 standard. One way would be to allow HTML in these fields
                if possible, or using an extra field which allows HTML input and save the plain text
                of this extra field in the plain text field.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="users_machine-translation" id="users_machine-translation" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.5Machine Translation Systems</h5><p>This type of service is intended for a broad user community ranging from developers
                and integrators through translation companies and agencies, freelance translators
                and post-editors to ordinary translation consumers and other types of MT employment.
                Data categories are envisaged for supporting and guiding the different automated
                backend processes of this service type, thereby adding substantial value to the
                service results as well as possible subsequent services. These processes include
                basic tasks, like parsing constraints and markup, and compositional tasks, such as
                disambiguation. These tasks consume and generate valuable metadata from and for
                third party users, for example, provenance information and quality scoring, and add
                relevant information for follow-on tasks, processes and services, such as MT
                post-editing, MT training and MT terminological enhancement.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="users_text_analytics" id="users_text_analytics" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.6Text Analytics</h5><p>These types of users fulfil the role of providing services for automatic generation
                of metadata for improving localization, data integration or knowledge management
                workflows. This class of users comprises of developers and integrators of services
                that automate language technology tasks such as domain classification, named entity
                recognition and disambiguation, term extraction, language identification and others.
                Text analytics services generate data that contextualizes the raw content with more
                explicit information. This can be used to improve the output quality in machine
                translation systems, search result relevance in information retrieval systems, as
                well as management and integration of unstructured data in knowledge management
                systems.</p></div><div class="div4">
<h5><a name="users_localization_workflow_managers" id="users_localization_workflow_managers" shape="rect"/>1.3.1.7Localization Workflow Managers</h5><p>This type of users is concerend with localization workflows in which content goes
                through certain steps: preparation for localization, start of the localization
                process by e.g. a conversion into a bitext format like <a title="" href="#xliff" shape="rect">[XLIFF]</a>, the actual localization by human translators or machine
                translation and other adaptations of content, and finally the integration of the
                localized content into the original format. That format is often based on XML or
                HTML; (Web) content management systems are widely used for content creation, and
                their integration with localization workflows is an important task for the workflow
                manager. For the integration of content creation and localization, metadata plays a
                crucial role. E.g. an ITS data category like <a href="#trans-datacat" shape="rect">translate</a> can trigger the extraction of localizable text. "<span class="quote">Metadata
                  roundtripping</span>", that is the availibility of metadata both before and after
                the localization process is crucial for many tasks of the localization workflow
                manager. An example is metadata based quality control, with checks like "<span class="quote">Have
                  all pieces of content set to <code>translate="no"</code> been left
                  unchanged?</span>". Other pieces of metadata are relevant for proper
                internationalization during the localization workflow, e.g. the availibility of <a href="#directionality" shape="rect">Directionality</a> markup for adequate visualization of
                bidirectional text.</p></div></div><div class="div3">
<h4><a href="#contents" shape="rect"><img src="images/topOfPage.gif" align="right" height="26" width="26" title="Go to the table of contents." alt="Go to the table of contents."/></a><a name="ways-to-use-its" id="ways-to-use-its" shape="rect"/>1.3.2 Ways to Use ITS</h4><p>The ITS specification proposes several mechanisms for supporting worldwide use and
              effective internationalization and localization of content. We will sketch them below
              by looking at them from the perspectives of certain user types. For the purpose of
              illustration, we will demonstrate how ITS can indicate that certain parts of content
              should or should not be translated.</p><ul><li><p>A content author uses an attribute on a particular element to say that the text
                  in the element should not be translated.</p></li></ul><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-ways-to-use-its-1" id="EX-ways-to-use-its-1" shape="rect"/>Example 3: Use of ITS by content author</div><p>The <code>its:translate="no"</code> attributes indicate that the <code>path</code>
                and the <code>cmd</code> elements should not be translated.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;help</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;head&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;title&gt;</strong>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/title&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/head&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;body&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;p&gt;</strong>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;path</strong>
        <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:translate</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/path&gt;</strong> directory. Then from there, run
      batch file <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;cmd</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:translate</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>Build.bat<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/cmd&gt;</strong>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/p&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/body&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/help&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-1.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-1.xml</a>]</p></div><ul><li><p>A content author or information architect uses markup at the top of the document
                  to identify a particular type of element or context in which the content should
                  not be translated.</p></li></ul><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-ways-to-use-its-2" id="EX-ways-to-use-its-2" shape="rect"/>Example 4: Use of ITS by information architect</div><p>The <code class="its-elem-markup">translateRule</code> element is used in the header of the document to
                indicate that none of the <code>path</code> or <code>cmd</code> elements should be
                translated.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;help</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;head&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;title&gt;</strong>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/title&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;its:rules</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;its:translateRule</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//path | //cmd"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/its:rules&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/head&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;body&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;p&gt;</strong>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;path&gt;</strong>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/path&gt;</strong> directory. Then from there, run batch file
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;cmd&gt;</strong>Build.bat<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/cmd&gt;</strong>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/p&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/body&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/help&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-2.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-2.xml</a>]</p></div><ul><li><p>A processor may insert markup at the top of the document which links to ITS
                  information outside of the document.</p></li></ul><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-ways-to-use-its-3" id="EX-ways-to-use-its-3" shape="rect"/>Example 5: Use of ITS by processor</div><p>A <code class="its-elem-markup">rules</code> element is inserted in the header of the document. It has a XLink
                  <code class="its-attr-markup">href</code> attribute used to link to an <a href="#link-external-rules" shape="rect">ITS external rule</a> document.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;help</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">its:version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;head&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;title&gt;</strong>Building the Zebulon Toolkit<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/title&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;its:rules</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span>
      <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:xlink</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xlink:href</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"EX-ways-to-use-its-4.xml"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/head&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;body&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;p&gt;</strong>To re-compile all the modules of the Zebulon toolkit you need to go in the
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;path&gt;</strong>\Zebulon\Current Source\binary<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/path&gt;</strong> directory. Then from there, run batch file
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;cmd&gt;</strong>Build.bat<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/cmd&gt;</strong>.<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/p&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/body&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/help&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-3.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-3.xml</a>]</p></div><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-ways-to-use-its-4" id="EX-ways-to-use-its-4" shape="rect"/>Example 6: ITS rule file shared by different documents</div><p>The <code class="its-elem-markup">rules</code> element contains several ITS rules that are common to different
                documents. One of them is a <code class="its-elem-markup">translateRule</code> element that indicates that no
                  <code>path</code> or <code>cmd</code> element should be translated.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;its:rules</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">version</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"2.0"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;its:translateRule</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">selector</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"//path | //cmd"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">translate</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"no"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
<strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/its:rules&gt;</strong>
</pre></div><p>[Source file: <a href="examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-4.xml" shape="rect">examples/xml/EX-ways-to-use-its-4.xml</a>]</p></div><ul><li><p>A schema developer integrates ITS markup declarations in his schema to allow
                  users to indicate that specific parts of the content should not be translated.</p></li></ul><span class="editor-note">[Ed. note: Following schema example has to updated once we have final XSD schema
              for ITS 2.0]</span><div class="exampleOuter"><div class="exampleHeader"><a name="EX-ways-to-use-its-5" id="EX-ways-to-use-its-5" shape="rect"/>Example 7: An XSD schema with ITS declaration</div><p>The declarations for the <code class="its-attr-markup">translate</code> attribute is added to a
                group of common attributes <code>commonAtts</code>. This allows to use the <code class="its-attr-markup">translate</code> attribute within the documents like in <a href="#EX-ways-to-use-its-1" shape="rect">Example 3</a>.</p><div class="exampleInner"><pre xml:space="preserve"><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:schema</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:xs</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">xmlns:its</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span>
  <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">elementFormDefault</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"qualified"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:import</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">namespace</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">schemaLocation</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"its.xsd"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:attributeGroup</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:attributeGroup</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"its:att.local.with-ns.attribute.translate"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:attribute</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"id"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"xs:ID"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">use</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"optional"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/xs:attributeGroup&gt;</strong>
  <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:element</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"help"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
    <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:complexType&gt;</strong>
      <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:sequence&gt;</strong>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:element</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"head"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
          <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:complexType&gt;</strong>
            <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:sequence&gt;</strong>
              <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:element</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"title"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">type</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"xs:string"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
            <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/xs:sequence&gt;</strong>
            <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:attributeGroup</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">ref</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"commonAtts"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">/&gt;</strong>
          <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;</strong>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;/xs:element&gt;</strong>
        <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:element</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"body"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
          <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:complexType&gt;</strong>
            <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:choice</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">minOccurs</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"1"</span> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">maxOccurs</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"unbounded"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
              <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:element</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">name</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"p"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>
                <strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&lt;xs:complexType</strong> <span class="hl-attribute" style="color: #F5844C">mixed</span>=<span class="hl-value" style="color: #993300">"true"</span><strong class="hl-tag" style="color: #000096">&gt;</strong>

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