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Japanese calendar - FYI

From: Takao Suzuki <takaos@microsoft.com>
Date: Tue, 3 Dec 2002 18:05:53 -0800
Message-ID: <344CC9F00404244D980708EC943D1708D8D0DF@RED-MSG-01.redmond.corp.microsoft.com>
To: <public-i18n-ws@w3.org>

This is reply to the question came up at the f2f meeting 
regarding Japanese calendar. It's a bit longer than I 
anticipated and pretty much just FYI, but please go on 
if you are interested in.

According to GENGOU O ARATAMERU SEIREI (Government ordinance 
to change the name of era) issued on January 7th, 1999, 
SHOWA era ends on January 7th, 1999 (or SHOWA 64), and 
HEISEI era starts on January 8th, 1999.  There is no 
over-wrap on dates between SHOWA and HEISEI.

According to SHOWA KAIGEN NO SHOUSHO (Imperial edict to 
change the name of era SHOWA) issued on December 25th, 
1926, TAISHOU era ends on December 25th, 1926 (or TAISHOU 
15), and SHOWA era starts on December 25th, 1926.  Because 
of the language used in the edict, it's a bit confusing 
whether December 25th is included or excluded in SHOWA.  
The word "IGO" can be interpreted as "after" or "from", 
and it's making unclear whether SHOWA starts after December 
25th or on December 25th.  Although, it's clear December 
25th, TAISHOU 15 does exist.

According to TAISHOU KAIGEN NO SHOUSHO (Imperial edict to 
change the name of era TAISHOU) issued on July 30th, 1912, 
MEIJI era ends on July 30th, 1912 (or MEIJI 45), and 
TAISHOU era starts on July 30th, 1912.  Because of the 
language used in the edict just like the one for SHOWA, 
it's not very clear whether TAISHOU starts after July 
30th or on July 30th.  It's clear July 30th, MEIJI 45 
does exist.

According to MEIJI KAIGEN NO FUKOKU (Declaration of 
changing the name of era MEIJI) issued on September 
8th, 1868, KEIO era ends in 1868 (or KEIO 4).  Up until 
this, these are to specify the name of the year, and 
there is no concept to start one era at a certain date 
of year.  It means the first year of MEIJI era entirely 
over-wraps with the last year of KEIO (or KEIO 4).

The first year of each era is always referred as GANNEN, 
meaning the first year of era.  For instance, the first 
year of HEISEI is called HEISEI GANNEN, instead of HEISEI 
1.  The year number 1 is never used to indicate the first 
year of era.

Here is the summary:

1868: End of KEIO era (KEIO 4)
      Beginning of MEIJI era
1912 Jul 30th: End of MEIJI era (MEIJI 45)
     Jul 30th: Beginning of TAISHOU era
1926 Dec 25th: End of TAIISHOU era (TAISHOU 15)
     Dec 25th: Beginning of SHOWA era
1999 Jan 7th: End of SHOWA era (Showa 64)
     Jan 8th: Beginning of HEISEI era

Thanks
Received on Tuesday, 3 December 2002 21:07:17 UTC

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