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[ESW Wiki] Update of "its0503ReqBackground" by YvesSavourel

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Date: Wed, 20 Apr 2005 12:25:36 -0000
To: w3t-archive+esw-wiki@w3.org
Message-ID: <20050420122536.18751.12122@swada.w3.org>
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The following page has been changed by YvesSavourel:
http://esw.w3.org/topic/its0503ReqBackground


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  Author: Yves Savourel
  
+ 
  = Background =
  
- During the localization process of any kind of electronic material tools need two type of information:
+ Content or software which is authored in one language (i.e. source language) is often made available in additional languages. This is done through a process called localization, where original material is translated and adapted to the target markets.
  
+ From the viewpoints of feasibility, cost and efficiency, it is important for the original material to be ready for localization. This is achieved by proper design and development, and the corresponding process is referred to as internationalization.
- The first type of information--referred as "localization properties" in this document--is a general description, for a given format,
- of the parts of a document in that format, with regard to localization: what is translatable, what needs resizing, etc. This
- information is valid for all documents in the given format. For example: "In Windows RC files, all quoted text within a STRINGTABLE
- group are translatable".
  
+ The increasing usage of XML as a medium for documentation-related content (e.g. DocBook as a format for related to user manuals) and software-related content (e.g. the eXtensible User Interface Language (XUL)) provides growing challenges and opportunities in the domain of XML internationalization and localization.
- The second type of information--referred as "localization directives" in this document--is the set of special instructions inside
- each document instance in the given format that:
  
-  - provides specific localization information at a level the localization properties cannot (for example: "This run of text, within
- this translatable paragraph, should be protected")
- 
-  - or override the localization properties for a given occurrence (for example: "This specific quoted text in this STRINGTABLE block,
- of this RC file, should not be localized").
- 
- Most of the time, an application is designed to process a specific format. This means the "localization properties" can often be
- hard-coded within the application.
- 
- With XML the situation is different. Because all XML document types share the same syntax and parsing rules, it make sense to have
- only one application to process all XML documents, regardless of their type. That is, the same application should be able to process
- an XHTML, an SVG, and a XSD document, or any other XML document types.
- 
- Because each of these XML document types has a distinct vocabulary, one cannot reasonably hard-code the localization properties
- needed to process the different documents. The localization properties have to be specified for each document type independently of
- the application.
- 
- In the same manner, in XML it makes sense to have the concept of localization directives implemented as a single set of tags that
- can be shared across all XML documents, regardless of their type. This can be achieved using the Namespace mechanism.
- 
- 
- Remark -- It is to be noted that some information about localization could be used for other purpose than localization. For
- instance, such metadata could be used for improving accessibility features. A screen reader application could take its cues on what
- should be converted from text to voice from the information about what part of the document is translatable.
- ''[[ Not sure where this should go, but it seems something interesting to note somewhere. ]]''
- 
- 
- == XML cases ==
- 
- Note -- For demonstration purposes, a imaginary "ITS:" namespace is be used in the following examples. Its elements and attributes
- are used only for illustration and do not intend to be a representation of what the tag set should or should not look like.
- 
- There are different potential areas in a XML system where internationalization and localization-related information can be used:
- 
- 1. In a standalone file that defines the generic localization properties of a document type. For example: "The content of the
- element <para>" is translatable".
- 
- 2. Within a document instance there are two potential usages:
- 
- 2.a) At the top of the document instance, to specify information for the whole document. For example:
- 
- <d:doc xmlns:d="myDoc" xmlns:ITS="theITS">
-  <ITS:docinfo>
-   <ITS:element-default translate="yes"/>
-   <ITS:element-exception select="//d:emph[@role='term']" translate="no"/>
-  </ITS:docinfo>
-  <d:para>Normal text</d:para>
-  <d:para>text with <d:emph role="term">term</d:emph>.</d:para>
- </d:doc>
- 
- 2.b) Inside the document instance, at the element level, to complete or override information already specified at a higher level.
- For example:
- 
- <d:doc xmlns:d="myDoc" xmlns:ITS="theITS">
-  <d:para>Normal text</d:para>
-  <d:para ITS:translate="no">text that should stay</d:para>
-  <d:para>Normal text with <ITS:span translate="no">not translatable parts</ITS:span></d:para>
-  <d:para>This text <ITS:span dir="rtl">is in Arabic</ITS:span>.</d:para>
- </d:doc>
- 
- 3. Within a XML schema document there are two potential usages:
- 
- 3.a) To markup localizable material such as the documentation of the schema. These tag would used for localizing the schema document
- itself, like any other XML document. For example:
- 
- ...<x:enumeration value="idBasedMatch">
-  <x:annotation>
-   <x:documentation>Indicates the <ITS:term>count units</ITS:term> are matches 
- based on ID matches (rather than text matches).</x:documentation>
-   </x:annotation>
- </x:enumeration>...
- 
- 3.b) To place along with the definition of the elements and attributes some information on how they should be localized. For
- example:
- 
- ...<element name='para' ITS:translate="yes">
-  <complexType mixed='true'>
-   <choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
-    <element ref='t:emph'/>
-    <element ref='t:code'/>
-   </choice>
-  </complexType>
- </element>...
- 
Received on Wednesday, 20 April 2005 12:25:41 GMT

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