From: Adam Sobieski <adamsobieski@hotmail.com>

Date: Wed, 22 Feb 2012 02:30:14 +0000

Message-ID: <SNT138-W61E8C9D2D8C7900E752A16C5640@phx.gbl>

To: <dani@wiris.com>

CC: <public-html@w3.org>, <www-math@w3.org>

Date: Wed, 22 Feb 2012 02:30:14 +0000

Message-ID: <SNT138-W61E8C9D2D8C7900E752A16C5640@phx.gbl>

To: <dani@wiris.com>

CC: <public-html@w3.org>, <www-math@w3.org>

Daniel Marques, Thank you. Many scientists and technologists at the W3C forums, on social networking websites, and elsewhere, are interested in researching, developing and otherwise contributing to the enhancement of technologies and techniques for digital textbooks including science, technology, engineering and mathematics digital textbooks. In the United States, in addition to organizations including the Institute of Education Sciences and the National Science Foundation, there is a new organization focusing on education technology topics, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Education. The aforementioned mathematics-related ideas are a handful of possible topics for discussion in the research and development community. I am optimistic about discussion, brainstorming and collaboration. Many scientists and technologists could have interest in participating in web discussions about how research and development can contribute to the advancement of digital textbooks. Kind regards, Adam Sobieski > From: dani@wiris.om > Date: Fri, 17 Feb 2012 14:23:47 +0100 > Subject: RE: MathML and Digital Textbooks > To: adamsobieski@hotmail.com; www-math@w3.org > > Hi Adam, > > You really introduce a lot of topics! > > I work in a company that is a provider of mathematical technology > worldwide with great experience in Span. > > There are pioneers that master the technology but, when we speak about > the general usage, we usually find that new technologies must cope first > with non-mathematical specific areas. For example, publishers of digital > textbooks must cope with infrastructure, content licensing, single sign- > on, targeting mobile devices, etc. > > Despite this, we are beginning to experience the change in giving to > MathML the role it deserves. Since now, the source of a formula, usually > MathML, was discarded in favor of the raster image. Now, MathML is kept > and brings added value, for example, the re-edition of the formulas, drag > and drop, accessibility and many other exciting features. > > In our company, we are working in providing a whole set of solutions for > mathematics for the Web. This includes: formula edition and rendering, > accessibility, computer algebra systems applied to education and using > all this technologies together for assessment. > > Daniel Marques > CTO at Maths for More. > www.wiris.com > > -----Original Message----- > From: Adam Sobieski [mailto:adamsobieski@hotmail.com] > Sent: viernes, 17 de febrero de 2012 4:02 > To: www-math@w3.org > Subject: MathML and Digital Textbooks > > Math Working Group, > > > > Greetings. I would like to introduce some topics for discussion regarding > mathematics, mathematics education, technology, the web and digital > textbooks. > > > > Several nations currently have digital textbook programs underway > including, but not limited to, India, Singapore, South Korea and Ukraine. > Recently, the United States of America announced that it intends to > modernize its school equipment over the course of the next five years. > > > > Digital books and textbooks are applications of hypertext and MathML > technologies. While the current set of features are exciting to educators > and education theorists, a discussion of new features, including numerous > features specifically applicable to mathematics education, is underway. > Technical topics include: clipboarding, drag and drop, handwriting > recognition, multitouch, speech recognition and synthesis, and widgets. > Many contemporary research topics, previously discussed in web-related > and other contexts, can now be considered with the important new usage > scenarios of digital books and textbooks. > > > > Mathematics and Clipboarding, Drag and Drop > > > > Clipboarding and dragging and dropping mathematics, or content including > mathematics, is very useful and can be enhanced by means of the content > layer of MathML. We can envision college students dragging and dropping > content between digital textbooks, mathematics or engineering software, > and document authoring software, possibly even between tablet and desktop > computers in their work areas. > > > > Some new features for clipboarding and drag and drop, in general, include > provenance for interoperability with document authoring software where > conveniences for users are provided pertaining to content motion, > citations and reference sections. > > > > Mathematics and Handwriting Recognition > > > > Handwriting recognition is an interesting input technique for mathematics > on computers. Presently, some web-based projects make use of the <canvas> > element for handwriting recognition. In theory, either <canvas> or > <input> elements can connect to platform handwriting recognition > components. While applications already exist that can output MathML from > recognized handwriting, topical are means of doing so for webpages and > for digital books and textbooks. > > > > Providing contextual information to recognition components can enhance > handwriting recognition results. Handwriting recognition, or speech > recognition, in digital mathematics textbooks, can facilitate exercises > or quizzes beyond multiple choice formats. The input of free-form > mathematics on computers can be convenienced by handwriting and speech > recognition technologies. > > > > Mathematics and Multitouch > > > > Multitouch has applicability to mathematics. Beyond writing with a > fingertip or stylus, users can tap upon and zoom onto math equations > using the spread gesture, possibly opening contextual or equation- > specific content. With multitouch gesture recognition, mathematics > equations and objects on webpages and in digital books and textbooks can > have multiple navigational dimensions such as tapping and spreading. > > > > Mathematics and Speech Recognition, Synthesis > > > > Speech recognition and synthesis are other interesting areas of research > and with regard to mathematics. In EPUB3, Pronunciation Lexicon > Specification (PLS), Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL), > and Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) are utilized. Elements of > HTML and MathML can be indicated in SMIL and/or annotated with SSML. For > purposes of visually synchronizing document content with playback of an > audio overlay, EPUB3 provides a publication-specified CSS3 class name, > with a default being -epub-media-overlay-active. > > > > As with handwriting recognition, providing contextual information can > enhance speech recognition results. Such contextual information can be > from the metadata of websites, webpages, article elements, document > elements, or specifically <input> elements. Speech recognition accuracy > can be enhanced by contextual information and upcoming technologies can > be enhanced by speech recognition components which, like handwriting > recognition, include modes for outputting text and MathML. > > > > Mathematics and Document Structure > > > > A role attribute exists for accessibility, device adaptation, server-side > processing, and complex data description. Similarly, in EPUB3, a type > attribute exists. Such attributes can allow secondary structure to be > indicated on XML trees. Beyond complex data description, such attributes > can enhance search and navigation. Examples include mathematics proofs > and arguments, the structures of which can be indicated using such > attributes. > > > > <math role=ĦħlemmaĦħ>...</math> > > > > Mathematics and Proof and Argumentation > > > > While the previous topic indicates that the structures of proofs and > argumentation can be annotational atop hypertext, digital books and > textbooks can also include data files while making use of client-side > computation to render resulting hypertext content. In such files, the > discussion text can be as annotational and client-side computation can > output sections of hypertext and mathematics from the data files. > Advantages include the automatic adaptation of navigation options when > new content files are added, including navigation of multiple discussions > of multiple mathematical proofs. Where ink and paper textbooks ordinarily > provide a sequence of discussion and reasoning, a digital textbook can > provide students multiple parallel routes of discussed proofs and > argumentation. > > > > With regard to argumentation, there exist an Argument Interchange Format > (AIF), Argument Markup Language (AML) and Legal Knowledge Interchange > Format (LKIF). In addition to those are formats that accompany automated > reasoning software, such as HOL, Mizar, PVS, Coq, Otter/Ivy, > Isabelle/Isar, Alfa/Agda, ACL2, PhoX, IMPS, Metamath, Theorema, Lego, > Nuprl, §Ùmega, B method, and Minlog. > > > > In August of 2011, at the 23rd International Conference on Automated > Deduction, the first PxTP workshop discussed ideas about formats and data > exchange for mathematical proofs and argumentation. > > > > Mathematics and 3D Interactive Visualization > > > > Digital textbooks can include 3D interactive graphics for mathematical > concept introduction and visualization. MathML, possibly with > annotational XML, can be an input format for general-purpose > visualization applets or widgets. Such applets or widgets can > additionally make use of cascading stylesheets computed styles for > specific <object> elements in hypertext. > > > > Discussion > > > > Each contemporary research and development topic indicated can enhance > the web as well as digital books and textbooks. Entirely new techniques > for authoring mathematics textbooks may result from upcoming new uses of > technology in classrooms. In addition to the exciting capabilities and > features that already exist, are topics pertaining to upcoming > capabilities and enhancements to features. > > > > > > > > Kind regards, > > > > Adam SobieskiReceived on Wednesday, 22 February 2012 02:30:45 UTC

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