W3C home > Mailing lists > Public > public-egov-ig@w3.org > April 2009

Re: Multi-Channel Section . Reinforced the re-use of government information

From: Catherine Roy <croy@communautique.qc.ca>
Date: Wed, 22 Apr 2009 09:49:51 -0400
Message-ID: <49EF207F.3030707@communautique.qc.ca>
To: "Miguel A. Amutio Gómez" <miguel.amutio@map.es>
CC: "Jose M. Alonso" <josema@w3.org>, "Ken Fischer ClickForHelp.com" <ken@clickforhelp.com>, eGovIG <public-egov-ig@w3.org>
Hi Miguel,

Thank you, I will try to look at this later today.

As a general comment, I think the document as a whole could benefit by 
having a glossary (apologies if this suggestion has already been made). 
I would be willing to help out with this task in my fictional spare time.


Catherine

-- 
Catherine Roy
Chargée de projets
Communautique
514.948.6644, poste 222
http://www.communautique.qc.ca



Miguel A. Amutio Gómez wrote:
> Hi,
>
> In this version, the re-use of government information has been 
> reinforced with some references.
>
> Changes are shown in light blue.
>
> Best regards,
> Miguel A.
>
>
>
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> *Multi-Channel Delivery*
>
> The objectives of this issue are as follows:
>
>    *
>
>       /Identify ways to facilitate the deployment, delivery and
>       availability of multi-channel services by governments:/ Identify
>       any gaps to be filled in creating a complete suite of standards
>       to enable services that can be located, accessed and consumed by
>       all potential users, through different networks, terminal
>       devices or platforms and interfaces, satisfying quality and
>       security conditions.
>
>    *
>
>       /Gather information about best practices in multi-channel
>       delivery of public services./
>
> *What is Multi-Channel Delivery?*
>
> Channels are different means used by service providers to interact 
> with and deliver services to their user community. Multi-channel 
> service delivery is the provision of services through different 
> networks, terminal devices or platforms and interfaces, in an 
> integrated and coordinated way, with comparable levels of usability.
>
> Governments, like other sectors, also interact with citizens through 
> different channels, from the traditional ones such as the counter or 
> face-to-face and postal delivery to the electronic channels such as 
> Internet web-sites, e-mail, SMS-messaging, fixed phone, mobile phone, 
> interactive voice response systems, digital television, fax, 
> self-service terminals (ATMs), etc. Governments also have challenges 
> in relation to the elimination of barriers in the access to their 
> services and in relation to the provision of choices about how to 
> access their information and services.
>
> Mobile devices, digital TV and others are opening new ways of 
> interaction between citizens and governments, so that electronic 
> services are no longer limited to the PC. This is possible thanks to 
> the evolution of terminal devices with better features in terms of 
> processing capacity, memory, power autonomy, screen size and quality, 
> on one side and to the improvement of networks, protocols and mark-up 
> languages on the other side.
>
> Industry and citizens are getting used to these new electronic 
> channels taking advantage of their possibilities and of new services 
> and there is an expectation that governments may be able to do the same.
>
> These new electronic channels require the adoption of new 
> architectures and systems able to provide the maximum of their 
> functionalities.
>
> The Web is a main channel to access government services permanently 
> available and it should be possible to offer the citizens such 
> services through any device incorporating Internet access. This would 
> allow a significant increase in the usage of government services by 
> means of any kind of widespread channels such as PDA,s, smartphones, 
> WAP, WebTV, or even Bluetooth and others; in this way the access to 
> government services would really be anyhow, anywhere, anytime through 
> mobile devices.
>
> Governments should take into account distribution, access options and 
> accessibility aspects to avoid creating new barriers which could limit 
> the amount of information or services provided. Consideration to 
> socially disadvantaged users, users without high bandwidth and high 
> cost devices, as well as devices, platforms and websites with smaller 
> audiences should be taken into account.
>
> *What Public Policy Outcomes are Related to Multi-Channel Delivery?*
>
> Multi-channel policies developed by governments generally address the 
> following goals:
>
>    *
>
>       /Facilitating e-Inclusion, avoiding digital divide and reaching
>       the disadvantaged citizens/. For instance, the Lisbon
>       Ministerial Declaration [MD-LISBON]
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/egovernment/docs/lisbon_2007/ministerial_declaration_180907.pdf>
>       refers to multi-channel delivery in relation to inclusive
>       eGovernment. Also, the ICT PSP work programme 2009 [EC-CIP]
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/ict_psp/index_en.htm%20>*
>       *focus the multi-channel service delivery to the socially
>       disadvantaged and opens this entry explaining that one third of
>       the European population is currently considered socially
>       disadvantaged, most of it suffering from multiple difficulties
>       leading to social exclusion (economic, physical, cultural,
>       geographical factors etc.).
>
>    *
>
>       /Making available egovernment services and information to large
>       part of the population. /This is specially interesting in
>       countries with low computer penetration as explained in the case
>       of the “Multi-channel Citizen Service Centers in Greece”
>       [EV-PAPA] <http://www.epractice.eu/en/cases/csckep%20>. It has
>       to be taken into account the world wide expansion of mobile
>       networks and the forecast that by the end of 2010 there may be
>       four billion people in the world with access to a mobile phone.
>
>    *
>
>       /Expanding citizen´s choice, extending and providing citizen
>       centric and personalized services/; also referred in [EC-CIP].
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/ict_psp/index_en.htm%20>
>
>    *
>
>       /A closer government to the citizens, providing transparency and
>       openness and expanding citizen participation/ in public policy
>       decision making. The Obama administration's memo on Transparency
>       and Open Government [OB-MEMO
>       <http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/TransparencyandOpenGovernment/>]
>       emphasizes these questions. Also it is an issue in the the
>       Lisbon Ministerial Declaration [MD-LISBON].
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/egovernment/docs/lisbon_2007/ministerial_declaration_180907.pdf>
>
>    *
>
>       /Re-use of governments´ information:/ Governments produce,
>       collect and share vast amounts of information with high
>       commercial potential for re-use as the basis for new added value
>       products and services, such as e.g. car navigation systems,
>       weather forecasts, insurance and credit rating services and
>       legal databases, as explained in [PSI]
>       <%C7http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/index_en.htm>.
>       Following the same source, a survey made in 2006 showed that the
>       overall market size for public sector information only in the EU
>       is estimated at € 27 billion. The EU adopted the PSI Directive
>       in 2003 [PSI-Directive]
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/docs/pdfs/directive/psi_directive_en.pdf>
>       to overcome barriers that limit the re-use of government
>       information; this Directive deals with how public sector bodies
>       should make their information available for re-use, and with key
>       issues like transparency of what is available and under which
>       conditions, fair competition and non-discrimination between all
>       potential re-users. The transposition of this Directive into
>       national legislations in the EU includes the promotion of the
>       re-use through multi-channel platforms as, for example, in the
>       case of the national law of Spain.
>
>    *
>
>       Multi-channel delivery of government services in support to the
>       process of /combined service delivery across different
>       administrations/, also referred in [EC-CIP].
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/ict_psp/index_en.htm%20>
>
>    *
>
>       /Re-using data and applications independently from the channel/,
>       reducing the costs of providing services, included in policies
>       oriented to efficiency, effectiveness and transparency.
>
> *What are the Main Benefits of Multi-Channel Delivery?*
>
> Main benefits of multi-channel delivery may be both for the user 
> community and for the service provider:
>
>    *
>
>       An increase of /flexibility/ in terms of anytime, anywhere,
>       anyhow and access options for the user.
>
>    *
>
>       An increase of the /choice /according to the user´s preferences;
>       access to the same information and services through different
>       channels.
>
>    *
>
>       /Wider usage and impact /of government services; a higher
>       population or user community reached by government services.
>
>    *
>
>       /Cost savings/ along the delivery chain for the service provider.
>
>    *
>
>       /Quicker deployment of services through new or additional
>       channels/ which may provide easy, accurate and personalized
>       content delivery.
>
>    *
>
>       /Integration of government services/ in the front-office.
>
> *How Can Multi-Channel Delivery Be Achieved?*
>
>    *
>
>       /Developing a multi-channel strategy./
>
> As a starting point governments develop strategies so that the access 
> to their Web sites may be available through a range of digital 
> platforms offering more choice to citizens. More global approaches 
> design strategies which combine face to face offices, call centers and 
> web sites, as in the case of the multichannel initiative consisting in 
> a website (www.060.es), a network of offices (more than 1.600 in March 
> 2009), and a telephone number in Spain [Red060] 
> <multichannel%20initiative%20consisting%20in%20a%20website%20%28www.060.es%29,%20a%20network%20of%20offices%20%28more%20than%201.600%20in%20March%202009%29,%20and%20a%20telephone%20number.> 
> and the Multi-channel Citizen Service Centers in Greece [EV-PAPA] 
> <http://www.epractice.eu/en/cases/csckep%20>, with equivalent 
> experiences to this one in other countries. Transport Direct 
> [Transport] 
> <http://www.transportdirect.info/web2/home.aspx?repeatingloop=Y> in 
> the United Kingdom offers travel information beyond the PC platform 
> including PDAs or mobile phones and digital TV which gets to a segment 
> of the population who do not have ready access to the internet through 
> a PC.
>
> The study about “Multi-channel delivery of government services” 
> elaborated by the Program IDA of the European Commission [EC-MCD] 
> <http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/3119> elaborates on how to 
> develop a multi-channel strategy; this study includes a list of 
> possible channels with their main features, proposes a channel 
> selection framework and provides implementation guidelines of the 
> multi-channel strategy. This implementation may require a number of 
> steps such like the following:
>
>    *
>
>       Identify candidate services for multi-channel delivery.
>
>    *
>
>       Investigate whether the service can be divided into distinct
>       steps. Given one service, sometimes one specific channel can
>       satisfy the full transaction; in other cases the full
>       transaction could take several steps which might involve
>       different channels. For instance, in order to renew the
>       citizen´s ID card in Spain an appointment can be made through a
>       web site, the citizen may receive a confirmation with an SMS
>       message through the mobile and then the last step is made face
>       to face in an office of the administration.
>
>    *
>
>       Carry out research and segmentation of the target user community.
>
>    *
>
>       Analyze organizational changes including business processes,
>       back end and front end applications, staffing.
>
>    *
>
>       Analyze technical solutions.
>
>    *
>
>       Determine the channels to be implemented.
>
>    *
>
>       Quantification and evaluation. Statistics of access through the
>       different channels enabled.
>
>    *
>
>
>         /Using standards, principles and best practices./
>
>                +
>
>                   W3C technical specifications: URI, XML technologies,
>                   WML, XHTML, CSS, XPATH, ...
>
>                +
>
>                   Web Accessibility [W3C-WAI].
>                   <http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php>
>                   Using the guidelines developed by the Web
>                   Accessibility Initiative (WAI) for the different
>                   components: Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines
>                   (ATAG), Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG);
>                   User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG).
>
>                +
>
>                   Mobile Web: using Device Description Repository
>                   Simple API, Device Description Repository Core
>                   Vocabulary ; and the the Mobile Web Best Practices
>                   1.0 [W3C-MOBILE].
>                   <%20http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-bp/%20>
>
>                +
>
>                   Device Independence principles [W3C_DEVIN]
>                   <http://www.w3.org/TR/di-princ/> set out some
>                   principles that can be used when evaluating current
>                   solutions or proposing new solutions, and can form
>                   the basis of more detailed requirements and
>                   recommendations.
>
> *What are the Main Issues and Limitations with Multi-Channel Delivery?*
>
> *General requirements of the user and of the provider*
>
>    *
>
>       /General requirements of the user, /as pointed out in [EC-MCD]
>       <http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/3119>: flexibility,
>       access options, accessibility, usability (easy to use), quality,
>       security.
>
> Some of them are specially relevant like security providing trust, and 
> simplicity so that the content may have a similar appearance from any 
> device, providing transparency from the point of view of the user.
>
> Many people uses the mobile phone only for phone calls and are not 
> aware of the rest of possibilities of the device, because its 
> operation may result difficult for them. This inhibiting factor 
> decreases the usage of the offered services. For instance, trying to 
> write an URL in a mobile may be a difficult task because certain 
> characters (“@”, “/”, “?”, “&”, “:”, …) are hard to find and the 
> writing task is generally troublesome. The user usually has to 
> remember a crowd of short numbers, key words, URLs, while using 
> impulsively a mobile device with low help capabilities and requiring a 
> quick answer to solve an specific problem.
>
>    *
>
>       /General requirements of the service provider, /as pointed out
>       in [EC-MCD] <http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/3119>:
>       efficiency, effectiveness, security.
>
> *Limitation of mobile devices and adaptation of information and 
> services provided*
>
>    *
>
>       /Limitations of mobile devices/, as listed in [WIK-MB-LIM]
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_Internet%20>/: /Small
>       screen size, Lack of windows, Navigation, Lack of Javascript and
>       cookies, Types of pages accessible, Speed, Broken pages,
>       Compressed pages, Size of messages, Cost - the access and
>       bandwidth charges, Location of mobile user, Situation in which
>       ad reaches user.
>
>    *
>
>       /Adaptation to the access to the Web through mobile devices/,
>       which may require, between others, the reduction of download
>       traffic and the processing consume, because of the need to keep
>       the battery, reduce the cost by traffic and the time response
>       perceived by the user when used intensively or when downloading
>       contents.
>
> The ideal scenario is that introduction of new electronic channels 
> would be as non-intrusive as possible; for instance without having to 
> modify content managers used for the production of information for the 
> Web.
>
> This may require the deployment of intermediate elements which adapt 
> or format the content taken out from the web appropriately according 
> to the kind of device involved in the transaction.
>
>    *
>
>       /Management of contents that can not be showed in a mobile
>       device/, have a large size very costly to download and memory
>       consuming (images, PDF documents).
>
> *Coordination and integration of different channels*
>
>    *
>
>       /Coordination and integration of different channels/ is
>       necessary to provide a focus on the user, a consistent approach
>       to data and databases available or shared by all channels and
>       consistent look and feel.
>
>    *
>
>       /Interoperability/, discussed above in this /note/.
>
> *Access to eGovernment services and information*
>
> In relation to the multi-channel access to eGovernment services and 
> information there are several main issues to be considered:
>
>    *
>
>       Web for everyone: so that it may be available to all people,
>       whatever their hardware, software, network infrastructure,
>       native language, culture, geographical location, or physical or
>       mental ability. It has to be considered that services should be
>       satisfactory according to the context where they are used.
>
>    *
>
>       Accessibility: so that people with disabilities and others,
>       including older people <http://www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/soc.html#of>
>       with changing abilities due to aging, can perceive, understand,
>       navigate, and interact with the Web, and that they can
>       contribute to the Web.
>
>    *
>
>       Digital divide: as explained by Wikipedia [WIKI-DD]
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_divide>, it “refers to the
>       gap between people with effective access to digital
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital> and information
>       technology <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology>
>       and those with very limited or no access at all...It is the
>       unequal access by some members of society
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society> to information and
>       communications technology, and the unequal acquisition of
>       related skills.” This gap or unequal access includes the
>       imbalances in physical access to technology
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology> and disability, as
>       well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to
>       effectively participate as a digital citizen
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_citizen>. The digital
>       divide may be classified based on gender
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender>, income
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Income>, disability and race
>       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race> groups, and by locations.
>
> This means that when deployment multi-channel delivery of services a 
> certain knowledge of the environment is needed in terms of the 
> availability of different devices and bandwidth, and of the target 
> population, social preferences and user profiles including access by 
> persons with disabilities.
>
> Interesting information may be about the proportion between mobile 
> phones to PCs or preferences of channel in relation to specific 
> services. Depending on how simple or complex is the service, the user 
> may prefer making a phone call, browsing with the mobile, receiving or 
> exchanging information by e-mail or using a website with a computer.
>
> Governments use different strategies to get this kind of information; 
> for instance, studying user profiles, user groups and heuristics of 
> navigation.
>
> For instance, Directgov [Directgov] 
> <http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm> in the United Kingdom is 
> available through its website, through any Internet enabled phone and 
> through digital TV; they have found that users of the Directgov TV 
> service are more likely to be older (63% over 35, 40% over 45, 17% 
> over 55 respectively), the majority not working (67%) and half (48%) 
> rarely or never use the internet.
>
> Other strategies include facilitating free Internet enabled computers 
> at libraries and kiosks or ATMs, widely available to citizens for free 
> at public locations; targeting the lower cost devices and the lower 
> cost access; providing some information in text form for mobile 
> access; announcing multi-media information and making it searchable 
> through text based services so that users who have limited access to 
> multimedia enabled workstations can find out about resources they need 
> and go to a kiosk or library with access available.
>
> The MC-eGov Study on Multi-channel Delivery Strategies and Sustainable 
> Business Models for Public Services addressing Socially Disadvantaged 
> Groups [MC-GOV] 
> <http://www.mcegov.eu/media/156/mcegov%20project_study%20report_good%20practice%20examples_edited.pdf> 
> includes a good number of good practice examples.
>
> *Conditions about the reuse of government information*
>
>    *
>
>       /Conditions about the reuse of government information by the
>       public/, as explained in [GSA-TRAN]
>       <http://www.usaservices.gov/events_news/documents/Transparency.pdf%20>.
>
>    *
>
>       /Multi-Channel Distribution Standards./
>
> Standards, principles and best practices are needed to facilitate the 
> provision of multi-channel services and to satisfy requirements such 
> as efficiency, effectiveness, integration, quick response to policies, 
> priorities and social needs and the delivery of services that offer a 
> sustainable value to society.
>
>    *
>
>       /Fair distribution./
>
> Fair distribution refers to the issue if government distributed 
> content through selected websites, platforms or devices creates an 
> unfair advantage for a particular device, platform, distribution 
> network, or website. This question has close connection with the 
> re-use of government information discussed above in this document.
>
> It may be also interesting for governments and for the users of their 
> services and information to consider, for instance widely used 
> instruments such as Web 2.0 services, as an additional channel for 
> distribution of multimedia information. Also they could consider the 
> use of social networks as a mean to increase interaction and citizen´s 
> participation taking due care of privacy, reliability and 
> accessibility barriers they may present.
>
> In relation to these questions, governments are considering and 
> putting in practice the idea of being present in main Web 2.0 services 
> and similar instruments and thus reaching large communities, instead 
> of just remaining outside and waiting for users to come to their 
> traditional websites. An example is the use made by town council of 
> the city of Zaragoza of some of this kind of services [ZARAGOZA].
>
>    *
>
>       /Multi-media central feed./
>
> Strategies in relation to the distribution of multi-media government 
> content may include approaches to facilitate the access to content 
> provided through social media channels, in a searchable way, in freely 
> accessible, playable and downloadable formats, allowing tagging or 
> preserving hyperlinks.
>
> *References:*
>
> *[Directgov]*
>
> Directgov* *http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm
>
> *[EC-CIP]*
>
> European Commission, COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATION FRAMEWORK 
> PROGRAMME (CIP) ICT POLICY SUPPORT PROGRAMME ICT PSP WORK PROGRAMME 
> 2009, 
> http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/ict_psp/index_en.htm
>
> *[EC-MCD]*
>
> European Commission – Program IDA, Multi-channel delivery of 
> government services, June 2004, 
> http://ec.europa.eu/idabc/en/document/3119
>
> *[EC-MCEGOV]*
>
> European Commission, 'MC-eGov: Study on Multi-channel Delivery 
> Strategies and Sustainable Business Models for Public Services 
> Addressing Socially Disadvantaged Groups', 
> http://www.epractice.eu/community/InclusiveeGovernment
>
> *[EV-PAPA]*
>
> Evangelos Papanikolaou (Ministry of the Interior, Public 
> Administration & Decentralization) Multi-channel Citizen Service 
> Centers in Greece, http://www.epractice.eu/en/cases/csckep
>
> *[GSA-TRAN]*
>
> GSA Office of Citizen Services and Communications, Intergovernmental 
> Solutions Newsletter, Transparency and Open Government, Transparency 
> in 
> Government,http://www.usaservices.gov/events_news/documents/Transparency.pdf 
>
>
> *[MC-GOV]*
>
> MC-eGov Study on Multi-channel Delivery Strategies and Sustainable 
> Business Models for Public Services addressing Socially Disadvantaged 
> Groups 
> http://www.mcegov.eu/media/156/mcegov%20project_study%20report_good%20practice%20examples_edited.pdf 
>
>
> *[MD-LISBON]*
>
> Ministerial Declaration, approved unanimously in Lisbon, Portugal, on 
> 19 September 2007, 
> http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/egovernment/docs/lisbon_2007/ministerial_declaration_180907.pdf 
>
>
> *[OB-MEMO]*
>
> Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies on 
> Transparency and Open Government 
> <http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/TransparencyandOpenGovernment/>, 
> B. Obama, 
> http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/TransparencyandOpenGovernment/. 
>
>
> *[PSI]*
>
> Europe´s Information Society, Public Sector Information – PSI 
> http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/index_en.htm
>
> *[PSI-Directive]*
>
> DIRECTIVE 2003/98/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 
> 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information
>
> http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/docs/pdfs/directive/psi_directive_en.pdf 
>
>
> *[Red060]*
>
> Red 060 (Network 060), http://www.epractice.eu/en/cases/red060
>
> *[Transport]*
>
> Transport Direct 
> http://www.transportdirect.info/web2/home.aspx?repeatingloop=Y
>
> *[W3C-DEVIN]*
>
> Device Independence Principles http://www.w3.org/TR/di-princ/
>
>
>   *[W3C-MOBILE]*
>
>
>   Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0, http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-bp/
>
> *[W3C-WAI]*
>
> Web Accessibility Inituative 
> http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php
>
> *[WIK-MB-LIM]*
>
> Wikipedia, Mobile Web, Limitations, 
> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_Internet
>
> *[WIKI-DD]*
>
> Wikipedia, Digital Divide http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_divide
>
> *[ZARAGOZA]*
>
> http://twitter.com/zaragoza_es , http://www.youtube.com/webzgz
>
Received on Wednesday, 22 April 2009 14:11:11 GMT

This archive was generated by hypermail 2.2.0+W3C-0.50 : Wednesday, 22 April 2009 14:11:11 GMT