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Re: log:conjunction and named graphs

From: Tim Berners-Lee <timbl@w3.org>
Date: Fri, 17 Apr 2009 13:39:56 -0400
Cc: public-cwm-talk@w3.org
Message-Id: <66CD713F-088E-44DE-8DC0-BF030D21D237@w3.org>
To: Henry Story <Henry.Story@Sun.COM>

You are using owl:sameAs.

cwm does not do owl:sameAs processing by default.

It is an RDF processor, so it must be able to handle and input and  
output owl:sameAs graphs without processing

There is some optional owl:sameAs processing with --closure=e  which  
does some smushing -- not much.
This will not, however, smush a names node onto a literal including a  
literal graph.

It doesn't do = inference in backward chaining in the antecedent of a  


$ cwm --help
Command line RDF/N3 tool

  <command> <options> <steps> [--with <more args> ]


--pipe        Don't store, just pipe out *

steps, in order left to right:

--rdf         Input & Output ** in RDF/XML insead of n3 from now on
--n3          Input & Output in N3 from now on. (Default)
--rdf=flags   Input & Output ** in RDF and set given RDF flags
--n3=flags    Input & Output in N3 and set N3 flags
--ntriples    Input & Output in NTriples (equiv --n3=usbpartane - 
bySubject -quiet)
--language=x  Input & Output in "x" (rdf, n3, etc)  --rdf same as: -- 
--languageOptions=y     --n3=sp same as:  --language=n3 -- 
--ugly        Store input and regurgitate, data only, fastest *
--bySubject   Store input and regurgitate in subject order *
--no          No output *
               (default is to store and pretty print with anonymous  
nodes) *
--base=<uri>  Set the base URI. Input or output is done as though  
theis were the document URI.
--closure=flags  Control automatic lookup of identifiers (see below)
<uri>         Load document. URI may be relative to current directory.

--apply=foo   Read rules from foo, apply to store, adding conclusions  
to store
--patch=foo   Read patches from foo, applying insertions and deletions  
to store
--filter=foo  Read rules from foo, apply to store, REPLACING store  
with conclusions
--query=foo   Read a N3QL query from foo, apply it to the store, and  
replace the store with its conclusions
--sparql=foo   Read a SPARQL query from foo, apply it to the store,  
and replace the store with its conclusions
--rules       Apply rules in store to store, adding conclusions to store
--think       as -rules but continue until no more rule matches (or  
--engine=otter use otter (in your $PATH) instead of llyn for linking,  
--why         Replace the store with an explanation of its contents
--why=u       proof tries to be shorter
--mode=flags  Set modus operandi for inference (see below)
--reify       Replace the statements in the store with statements  
describing them.
--dereify     Undo the effects of --reify
--flatten     Reify only nested subexpressions (not top level) so that  
no {} remain.
--unflatten   Undo the effects of --flatten
--think=foo   as -apply=foo but continue until no more rule matches  
(or forever!)
--purge       Remove from store any triple involving anything in class  
--data              Remove all except plain RDF triples (formulae,  
forAll, etc)
--strings     Dump :s to stdout ordered by :k whereever { :k  
log:outputString :s }
--crypto      Enable processing of crypto builtin functions. Requires  
python crypto.
--help        print this message
--revision    print CVS revision numbers of major modules
--chatty=50   Verbose debugging output of questionable use, range 0-99
--sparqlServer instead of outputting, start a SPARQL server on port  
8000 of the store
--sparqlResults        After sparql query, print in sparqlResults  
format instead of rdf


--with        Pass any further arguments to the N3 store as os:argv  

             * mutually exclusive
             ** doesn't work for complex cases :-/
   cwm --rdf foo.rdf --n3 --pipe     Convert from rdf/xml to rdf/n3
   cwm foo.n3 bar.n3 --think         Combine data and find all  
   cwm foo.n3 --flat --n3=spart

Mode flags affect inference extedning to the web:
  r   Needed to enable any remote stuff.
  a   When reading schema, also load rules pointed to by schema  
(requires r, s)
  E   Errors loading schemas of definitive documents are ignored
  m   Schemas and definitive documents laoded are merged into the meta  
      (otherwise they are consulted independently)
  s   Read the schema for any predicate in a query.
  u   Generate unique ids using a run-specific

Closure flags are set to cause the working formula to be automatically  
exapnded to
the closure under the operation of looking up:

  s   the subject of a statement added
  p   the predicate of a statement added
  o   the object of a statement added
  t   the object of an rdf:type statement added
  i   any owl:imports documents
  r   any doc:rules documents
  E   errors are ignored --- This is independant of --mode=E

  n   Normalize IRIs to URIs
  e   Smush together any nodes which are = (owl:sameAs)

See http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/doc/cwm  for more documentation.

Setting the environment variable CWM_RDFLIB to 1 maked Cwm use rdflib  
to parse
rdf/xml files. Note that this requires rdflib.

Flags for N3 output are as follows:-

a   Anonymous nodes should be output using the _: convention (p flag  
or not).
d   Don't use default namespace (empty prefix)
e   escape literals --- use \u notation
i   Use identifiers from store - don't regen on output
l   List syntax suppression. Don't use (..)
n   No numeric syntax - use strings typed with ^^ syntax
p   Prefix suppression - don't use them, always URIs in <> instead of  
q   Quiet - don't output comments about version and base URI used.
r   Relative URI suppression. Always use absolute URIs.
s   Subject must be explicit for every statement. Don't use ";"  
t   "this" and "()" special syntax should be suppresed.
u   Use \u for unicode escaping in URIs instead of utf-8 %XX
v   Use  "this log:forAll" for @forAll, and "this log:forAll" for  
/   If namespace has no # in it, assume it ends at the last slash if  

Flags for N3 input:

B   Turn any blank node into a existentially qualified explicitly  
named node.

Flags to control RDF/XML output (after --rdf=) areas follows:

b  - Don't use nodeIDs for Bnodes
c  - Don't use elements as class names
d  - Default namespace supressed.
l  - Don't use RDF collection syntax for lists
r  - Relative URI suppression. Always use absolute URIs.
z  - Allow relative URIs for namespaces

     Flags to control RDF/XML INPUT (after --rdf=) follow:
         S  - Strict spec. Unknown parse type treated as Literal  
instead of error.
         T  - take foreign XML as transparent and parse any RDF in it
              (default it is to ignore unless rdf:RDF at top level)
         L  - If non-rdf attributes have no namespace prefix, assume  
in local <#> namespace
         D  - Assume default namespace decalred as local document is  
assume xmlns=""
         R  -  Do not require an outer <rdf:RDF>, treating the file as  
RDF content (opposite of T)

     Note: The parser (sax2rdf) does not support reification, bagIds,  
or parseType=Literal.
           It does support the rest of RDF inc. datatypes, xml:lang,  
and nodeIds.


On 2009-04 -17, at 09:52, Henry Story wrote:

> I don't seem to be able to get the tests for log:conjunction to work  
> when altered to use the names of graphs.
> ------------
> $ cat test2.n3
> @prefix log: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/log#>.
> @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#>.
> @prefix : <#> .
> # This gives the correct conclusions
> #{ ( { :sky :color :blue }  { :grass :color :green } )  
> log:conjunction ?F }
> #  =>  { :rest :is ?F } .
> #but this does not
> :g = { :sky :color :blue } .
> :h = { :grass :color :green } .
> { ( :g :h ) log:conjunction ?F } => { :rest :is ?F } .
> ------------
> If I then run
> cwm test2.n3 --think --apply=/Users/hjs/Programming/w3.org/swap/test/ 
> owl/owl-rules.n3 --think
> I don't get the
> rest is { :sky color :blue . :grass :color :green . }
> result I was expecting.
> Any ideas?
> Henry
Received on Friday, 17 April 2009 17:40:40 UTC

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