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Response to WCAG 2.0

From: Joe Clark <joeclark@joeclark.org>
Date: Tue, 23 May 2006 17:13:42 +0000 (UTC)
To: public-comments-wcag20@w3.org
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.4.60.0605231711000.14640@aristotle.multipattern.com>

<http://joeclark.org/access/webaccess/WCAG/response1_WCAGmain.html>

General

The documents are unreadable

      Every attempt has been made to make WCAG 2.0 and the related
      documents listed above as readable and usable as possible while
      retaining the accuracy and clarity needed in a technical
      specification. Sometimes technical terms are needed for clarity or
      testability.

    In fact, at 72 pages and 20,800 words, the WCAG 2 main document is
    half a book's length and is studded with jargon. Informed people with
    no disability whatsoever will find it hard to understand. The Working
    Group has failed to deliver a standards document that can be
    understood unto itself without reference to two other documents
    (notably the Understanding document, at twice the length of the actual
    WCAG 2).

Natural languages

      The primary natural language or languages of the Web unit can be
      programmatically determined.

      * A document may be bilingual or multilingual with approximately
        equal proportions of content in different languages. At that point
        there is no "primary" natural language. (I tried to explain this
        to the Working Group, to so little avail that I hung up on Gregg
        Vanderheiden during a conference call. Your guess is as good as
        mine why the Working Group cannot accept this simple concept.)
      * Some documents, like type samples, have no natural language. (As
        above.)
      * There are some languages without language codes or whose language
        codes are in dispute or that diverge from specification to
        specification. In particular, [3]SIL is pretty much taking over
        the process of language-coding and has proposed many codes that do
        not match [4]ISO 639-2.
      * Additionally, buried deep in the ISO 639-2 specification is a
        language code for multiple-language documents, lang="mul". Support
        for that code will be rather questionable in real-world devices,
        and its existence came as a surprise even to Richard Ishida of the
        W3C, who wrote a [5]Xerox paper that mentioned it.

Definitions

    The WCAG 2 main document contains a glossary that actually builds on
    other authorities and glossaries. The Working Group appears to have
    given up its arrogant and ignorant assumption that only it may write
    definitions for terminology.

    Nonetheless, there are some anomalies:
     1.

         audio description
                 narration added to the soundtrack to describe important
                 visual details that cannot be understood from the main
                 soundtrack alone. [...] Audio descriptions of video
                 provide information about actions, characters, scene
                 changes, and on-screen text. [...] In standard audio
                 description, narration is added during existing pauses in
                 dialogue.

          1. Audio description provides "information about actions,
             characters, scene changes, and on-screen text" among other
             things. Nobody has produced an exhaustive list, and maybe we
             do or do not need such a thing, but it isn't limited to those
             items.
          2. Audio description is typically "added during existing pauses
             in dialogue." There are quite a few occasions in which it is
             necessary to describe over dialogue.
          3. "Audio description" is generally written as a mass noun, like
             "captioning." Hence "audio description of video provides."
     2.

         captions
                 text presented and synchronized with multimedia to
                 provide not only the speech, but also sound effects and
                 sometimes speaker identification

        The term they're looking for here is "non-speech information,
        including meaningful sound effects and identification of speakers"
        (the latter a slightly different sense than "speaker
        identification," which seems to require explicitly naming the
        speaker).

      Note: In some countries, the term "subtitle" is used to refer to
      dialogue only and "captions" is used as the term for dialogue plus
      sounds and speaker identification. In other countries, subtitle (or
      its translation) is used to refer to both.
        Those other countries are wrong. [6]Captioning is captioning and
        subtitling is subtitling. WCAG 2 should not muddy the waters by
        giving any credibility to errors of nomenclature in other English
        dialects.
     3.

         label
                 text, image, or sound that is presented to a user to
                 identify a component within Web content

        Apparently it's possible to label something solely with a sound.
        Doesn't a sound, like an image, then require a text equivalent?
        Don't you always end up with text?
        And doesn't this ban the use of video or multimedia as a label?
        I'm not proposing such a thing, but it seems no less palatable
        than using an image or a sound as a label.
     4.

         sign-language interpretation
                 translation of spoken words and other audible information
                 into a language that uses a simultaneous combination of
                 handshapes, facial expressions, and orientation and
                 movement of the hands, arms, or body to convey meaning

        One may translate only spoken words? Under WCAG, it becomes
        illegal to translate from one sign language to another. It also
        becomes illegal to do what Canada's Copyright Act [7]permits -
        translate a written work into sign language.
     5.

         text
                 sequence of characters[INS: [.] :INS] Note: Characters
                 are those included in the Unicode/ISO/IEC 106464
                 repertoire.

        One may use only characters in Unicode. Given that several scripts
        are [8]unencoded in Unicode, this may present a problem. Some East
        Asian languages are more robustly published with legacy encodings
        even if that is "improper."
        I repeatedly tried to explain to the Working Group that all that
        matters is a defined and understandable character encoding.
     6.

         text alternative
                 programmatically-determined text that is used in place of
                 non-text content, or text that is used in addition to
                 non-text content and referred to from the
                 programmatically-determined text

        Hence a title attribute absolutely is a text equivalent. An image
        with empty alt plus a title containing what would otherwise be the
        alt text will pass WCAG 2. (There is some overlap here with UAAG,
        which can be interpreted to allow presentation of title text
        instead of regular or alt text.)
     7.

         used in an unusual restricted way
                 words used in such a way that users must know exactly
                 what definition to apply in order to understand the
                 content correctly

        As opposed to when?
        When is it possible to misunderstand the definition yet still
        "understand the content correctly"?
     8.

         variations in presentations of text
                 changes in the visual appearance or sound of the text,
                 such as changing to a different font or a different voice

        Web authors now have to worry about sound of text? How, exactly?
        We don't control people's screen readers. (Does this mean we have
        to find a way to mark up intonation and prosody in our podcasts?
        How, exactly?)

Equation usage

    WCAG 2 violates WCAG 1 by listing an equation (for brightness as used
    in the [9]general flash threshold) as plain text. In so doing it
    pointlessly explains that "the ^ character is the exponentiation
    operator." I thought this kind of thing is what we had MathML for.

Process

    The W3C Process (capital letter sic) is seriously broken - or at least
    WCAG Working Group's application of it is.

Implementations

      We are starting to gather implementation examples during this Last
      Call review process. Implementation examples are examples of pages
      or sites that conform to the proposed WCAG 2.0 at various levels of
      conformance.

    I don't see any evidence that the Working Group is "starting to
    gather" anything. I don't see evidence that they're looking for or
    soliciting "implementation examples," which in any event are virtually
    nonexistent. WCAG 2, after all, wasn't released in anything resembling
    a final version until late April 2006. There hasn't been time for
    authors, even if they wished to comply with WCAG 2, to take measures
    to do so. (Then there is the fact that there is no payoff for authors
    to comply with a specification that, first of all, isn't final yet
    and, second of all, that they may seriously disagree with.)

"Addressing" bugs

      The first public Working Draft of WCAG 2.0 was published 25 January
      2001. Since then, the WCAG WG has published nine Working Drafts,
      addressed more than 1,000 issues, and developed a variety of
      support information for the guidelines.

    Exactly how these 1,000 issues were "addressed" is open to dispute.
    Start with the use of a Mozilla Bugzilla database as a front end for
    bug reports. It's a remarkably inaccessible form, and baffling even to
    a nondisabled expert. It's true that many, possibly hundreds, of bug
    reports were remedied by rewriting the spec, but it's also true that
    many bug reports were simply ignored (with responses that boiled down
    to "We don't agree this is a bug").

    At time of writing, WCAG Bugzilla had [10]27 open bugs.

Exemptions

      If a success criterion relates to a feature, component or type of
      content that is not used in the content (for example, there is no
      multimedia on the site), then that success criterion is met
      automatically.

    What should happen is that the success criterion is not applicable.
    You can't pass a guideline that doesn't apply to anything in your
    document. By that logic, we'd all be awarded gold medals in the
    100-metre dash just for not showing up.

Incorrect concepts

    The WCAG Working Group sometimes does a fine job articulating ideas
    that are incorrect in the first place.

Text equivalents

    After many, many warnings that they were making a series of mistakes
    and were not considering real-world Web sites, which they apparently
    never read, the WCAG Working Group went right ahead and listed the
    following for text equivalents to "non-text content":

      If non-text content presents information or responds to user input,
      text alternatives serve the same purpose and present the same
      information as the non-text content. If text alternatives cannot
      serve the same purpose, then text alternatives at least identify
      the purpose of the non-text content.

    How do I "present the same information" - note, the same information -
    if my non-text content is, say, a thumbnail image of the front page of
    a newspaper? That's a lot to retype into an alt text, don't you think?

Requiring translations

    Again after many unheeded warnings, the Working Group published the
    following guideline for multimedia (at the highest level):

      Sign-language interpretation is provided for multimedia.

    First of all, which sign language? For an English-language source, no
    fewer than five distinct, if not always mutually unintelligible, sign
    languages can be identified (American, British, Irish, Australian, New
    Zealand).

    More importantly, WCAG now requires translating a document (a
    multimedia file) into another language as a claimed accessibility
    provision. To restate the same question I have been posing for years,
    what prevents a Ukrainian-speaker from demanding that a Web site be
    translated into Ukrainian? After all, in both cases the issue is the
    incomprehensibility of the language of the original, not the
    disability. (A deaf person is not necessarily unable to read. Deaf
    people can and do understand and communicate in written language. A
    reliance on sign language, or even a preference for it, does not
    logically follow from being deaf.)

Universality is not accessibility

      Following these guidelines will also make your Web content more
      accessible to the vast majority of users, including older users. It
      will also enable people to access Web content using many different
      devices - including a wide variety of assistive technologies.

     1. Older users are within the remit of Web accessibility inasmuch as
        they are people with disabilities and in no other way.
     2. We are not writing accessibility guidelines for devices.

Scoping for accessibility

    The concepts of scoping, baseline, and target audience are so
    misguided as to derail WCAG's entire project. The first two topics
    were addressed in my A List Apart article. The last one deserves
    mention here.

      Information about audience assumptions or target audience. This
      could include language, geographic information, or other pertinent
      information about the intended audience. The target-audience
      information CANNOT specify anything related to disability or to
      physical, sensory or cognitive requirements. [INS: [Overwrought
      emphasis sic] :INS]

    In other words, even if you extensively test your site and can
    demonstrate the following is true, you cannot state that your site is
    accessible to people with disabilities. While the guideline appears to
    be intended to make it impossible to declare, for example, that a site
    is not meant to be used by blind people, it also becomes impossible to
    state that it provably can be used by them.

"Web units"

    Nobody can understand what the hell a "Web unit" is. In the following
    explanation -

      A Web unit conforms to WCAG 2.0 at a given conformance level only
      if all content provided by that Web unit (including any secondary
      resources that are rendered as part of the Web unit) conforms at
      that level.

    - what happens if I have a page full of thumbnail images, each with
    correct alt text as required and each of which links to an image file
    of a larger version of the picture? Since the image by itself has no
    HTML or other markup, it's impossible to write an alt text for it. Is
    this not a "secondary resource"? If it isn't, does it not then
    constitute a "Web unit" unto itself? Since Web units that are simple
    image files cannot be made accessible, doesn't WCAG 2 essentially ban
    freestanding image files?

    (We are later told that linking to nonconforming content "is not
    prohibited" - gee, thanks - but only if "the content itself is [INS:
    [not] :INS] a Web unit within the set of URIs to which the conformance
    claim applies." Hence if my freestanding image is still hosted on my
    site, I have to make it comply with my conformance claim, which at the
    very least requires a text equivalent, in turn meaning I have to wrap
    the image file in HTML. But by the time you the site visitor have
    selected and loaded that expanded image, you will already have had a
    chance to read the alt text on the thumbnail image.)

Web standards

    WCAG 2 is nearly consistent in pretending that Web standards do not
    exist (with one curious exception that I'll get to shortly). Some
    teenagers have greater understanding of valid, semantic markup than
    the Working Group does, as evinced in passages like these:

      Information that is conveyed by variations in presentation of text
      is also conveyed in text, or the variations in presentation of text
      can be programmatically determined.

    Now, what does "presentation" mean? Really?

    Doesn't the requirement to convey the information in text make it
    possible to write instructions for an online form as follows?

      * Fields marked in red are required.
      * Fields marked in green are optional but recommended.

    I have just "conveyed" the colour differences. (It so happens that the
    colours are exactly the rare ones that are confusable to colourblind
    people.)

    If I am using markup to vary presentation of text, as one typically
    will (how else do you do it if you aren't using a picture of text?),
    how is that markup ever not programmatically determinable? The browser
    had to read it to vary the presentation in the first place. All the
    usual elements, like em, strong, b, i, and u, are understandable by a
    machine. So is CSS, even at the simple level used in this document as
    a demonstration (span class="red" or ="green"). More complex CSS
    selectors, like :last-child, are also programmatically determinable.

    In essence, for any author using markup, even lousy presentational
    markup, how is it possible to flunk this criterion?

User-agent issues

    Some parts of Web accessibility are not under the control of the
    author. The user agent, like a browser or screen reader (the latter of
    which is definitely included in WCAG 2's definition of "user agent"),
    has a significant role to play. Nonetheless, WCAG lists these
    requirements:

      More than one way is available to locate content within a set of
      Web units where content is not the result of, or a step in, a
      process or task.

    Why can't people be expected to simpy use the Find command in their
    browsers, or the back button?

    The same issue reappears in that classic bugbear of Web-accessibility
    pedants, hyperlinks:

      Each link is programmatically associated with text from which its
      purpose can be determined. [...] The purpose of each link can be
      programmatically determined from the link.

    "Purpose"? Doesn't Slashdot have an enormous mass of code in its
    system to prevent people from linking to notorious vulgar images in
    the guise of a real hyperlink? (There the "purpose" is to deceive.)
    The "purpose" of a link is to provide a link, obviously.

    Did they not mean the "destination" of a link? If so, how is it not
    obvious from the semantics of the link? Isn't it embedded right in the
    a href=""? How is it impossible to "determine" the destination of a
    link? That's the user agent's job, is it not?

    Incidentally, there have been a few experimental all-sign-language
    sites in which many links and their targets are given completely in
    sign language. There is no link text per se. What's between <a> and
    </a> is a video file or image of a person using sign language, and
    where you end up is another such video file or image (or a page full
    of those). Given the semantics of all markup systems in use on today's
    Web, the hyperlink has to contain text characters in order to
    function. A still image has to contain an alt text (though alt="" is
    plausible in some cases).

    Nonetheless, there are a few scenarios in which a page intended to be
    accessible to sign-language speakers uses no text at all. How is such
    usage accommodated in WCAG 2? (And must authors, by implication, use
    an interpreter to voice the sign language for blind visitors, which
    must then of course be captioned or transcribed? Where does it end?)

Semantics

    I argued with the Working Group for months over the concept of
    semantics in markup, that is, the use of the correct element for the
    content. This argument betrayed the Group's arrogance and its thorough
    incomptence at standards-compliant Web authoring. It also proved
    they've been asleep at the wheel for the last eight years, in which
    people like me have been labouring to improve Web standards. This
    nonsense alone is enough to generate suspicion and distrust among
    competent and up-to-date Web developers.

    Nonetheless, now the word "semantics" is included, without elaboration
    or definition, in the Understanding and Techniques documents (whose
    examples I am condensing into one excerpt below). Occasionally, the
    term is recast as "structure."
     1.

      A simple text document is formatted with double blank lines before
      titles, asterisks to indicate list items and other standard
      formatting conventions so that its structure can be
      programmatically determined.
     2.

      HTML Techniques for Marking Text [...] [11]Using semantic markup to
      mark emphasized or special text
     3.

      Making information and relationships conveyed through presentation
      programmatically determinable USING the technology-specific
      techniques below (for a technology in your baseline) [...]
      [12]Using semantic elements to mark up structure [...] The
      semantics of some elements define whether or not their content is a
      meaningful sequence. For instance, in HTML, text is always a
      meaningful sequence. Tables and ordered lists are meaningful
      sequences, but unordered lists are not.
     4.

      CSS Techniques [...] [13]Positioning content based on structural
      markup

    The WCAG main document does a drive-by and just barely avoids
    mentioning semantics by name:

      [INS: [Content] :INS] includes the code and markup that define the
      structure, presentation, and interaction, as well as text, images,
      and sounds that convey information to the end-user.

    This means your markup is also your content, which will come as a
    surprise to those who are interested in separation of content,
    structure, presentation, and behaviour. Here, "markup that define the
    structure, presentation, and interaction" clearly refers to semantics.

Omissions

    Some omissions immediately spring to mind. I have not done an
    exhaustive check for such omissions.
     1. There are no exemptions for examples or teaching materials. It is
        illegal under WCAG to publish known incorrect documents as a
        learning aid. You cannot publish the homework for your
        Web-development students online (e.g., "Fix these pages") and have
        it all pass WCAG.
     2. No accommodation of languageless documents like type samples.

    You are here: [14]joeclark.org -> [15]Captioning and media access ->
    [16]Web accessibility -> [17]WCAG -> Response to WCAG 2.0

    Updated 2006.05.23

References

    1. LYNXIMGMAP:http://joeclark.org/access/webaccess/WCAG/response1_WCAGmain.html#joeclark_angie_02IX_Map
    2. http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/complete.html
    3. http://www.ethnologue.com/14/iso639/default.asp
    4. http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/
    5. http://xml.coverpages.org/IshidaDTD-Paper.html
    6. http://screenfont.ca/learn/#cc-vs-st
    7. http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/sc_mrksv/cipo/cp/cp_circ_14-e.html
    8. http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn4/
    9. http://joeclark.org/access/webaccess/WCAG/WX#general-thresholddef
   10. http://trace.wisc.edu/bugzilla_wcag/buglist.cgi?query_format=specific&order=relevance+desc&bug_status=__open__&product=WCAG+2.0&content=
   11. http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20060427/Overview.html#H49
   12. http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20060427/Overview.html#G115
   13. http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-TECHS-20060427/Overview.html#C6
   14. http://joeclark.org/
   15. http://joeclark.org/access/
   16. http://joeclark.org/access/webaccess/
   17. http://joeclark.org/access/webaccess/WCAG/
Received on Tuesday, 23 May 2006 17:14:08 GMT

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